Matching Items (14)

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The Influence of the ""War on Cancer"" Metaphor on Illness Perception and Treatment Decision

Description

The purpose of this thesis study was to examine whether the "war on cancer" metaphor influences cancer perception and treatment decision. A total of 249 undergraduates (152 females) from a

The purpose of this thesis study was to examine whether the "war on cancer" metaphor influences cancer perception and treatment decision. A total of 249 undergraduates (152 females) from a large southwestern university participated in an online survey experiment and were either randomly assigned to the control condition (N=123) or to the war prime condition (N=126). Participants in the control condition did not receive the metaphor manipulation while participants in the war prime condition received the subtle "war on cancer" metaphor prime. After the prime was given, participants read a scenario, answered questions related to the situation, and responded to demographic questions. The results suggested that, compared to participants in the no-prime condition, participants exposed to the war metaphor were more likely to (a) view melanoma as an acute disease, (b) choose chemotherapy over molecular tests, and (c) prefer more aggressive treatment. These findings illustrated the unintended consequences of the "war on cancer" slogan. The results were encouraging and in the predicted direction, but the effect size was small. The discussion section described possible future directions for research.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2015-05

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Development and Validation of Make-up and Sexualized Clothing Questionnaires

Description

Today's society increasingly sexualizes women (Kilbourne, 2003). Women are constantly confronted with an image of beauty through various forms of media. Body acceptance programs on college campuses have found that

Today's society increasingly sexualizes women (Kilbourne, 2003). Women are constantly confronted with an image of beauty through various forms of media. Body acceptance programs on college campuses have found that women often report feeling pressure to dress in a sexualized manner, cover up their so-called flaws with make-up, and continually strive to be thin. Currently, no measure exists to assess the daily behaviors of women to wear make-up or dress in certain ways due to body image concerns. Thus, the goal of the current studies was to develop a brief self-report questionnaire on make-up and sexualized clothing for college women. In Study 1, items were developed from qualitative data collected by the Body Project Prevention Program to assess pressure to wear make-up, discomfort when not wearing make-up, pressure to wear sexualized clothing, and body image concerns with regards to sexualized clothing. Exploratory factor analyses revealed a Confidence and a Comfort subscale for the Make-up Questionnaire (MUQ) and a Body Dissatisfaction and Pressure subscale for the Sexualized Clothing Questionnaire (SCQ). Confirmatory factor analyses in Study 2 confirmed the factor structure for the MUQ and SCQ. Study 3 compared scores on the MUQ and SCQ among intervention and control groups across time points. A gain score analysis revealed that women in the intervention did not become significantly healthier over time in comparison to the control group on the MUQ and SCQ subscales. However, the treatment condition did become significantly healthier over time in regard to other measures of eating pathology. These studies provide insight into the pressures women feel to wear make-up and sexualized clothing.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2016-12

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An Analysis of Rules and a Token Economy in an Inclusive Preschool Classroom

Description

Token economies are a type of behavioral reinforcement that are particularly useful in classroom settings for increasing student compliance, for both typically developing children and children with autism spectrum disorder.

Token economies are a type of behavioral reinforcement that are particularly useful in classroom settings for increasing student compliance, for both typically developing children and children with autism spectrum disorder. During this study, we implemented a token economy in an inclusive preschool classroom with tokens contingent on compliance to classroom rules. Three participants, two with a diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder and one considered typically developing, were included in the study. Results indicated that levels of compliance increased for both the typically developing participant and participants with autism, and did not drop below baseline levels during the withdrawal phase, suggesting there was no lack of intrinsic motivation. Further, the typically developing participant and one of the participants with autism spectrum disorder had very similar levels of compliance, while the other participant had much higher levels of compliance throughout every phase, suggesting that the compliance levels for peers with more advanced repertoires with autism may differ from both typically developing peers and peers who have less developed repertoires. The implications of these results are discussed as they relate to compliance from an ABA perspective.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2018-12

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An Investigation into the Influence of Dimensions of Containment on Externalizing Behaviors in Affluent Youth

Description

Recent evidence suggests that youth from affluent and upper-middle-class, white collar families are at high risk for maladaptive behaviors, such as aggression, rule breaking, and substance use. A major hypothesized

Recent evidence suggests that youth from affluent and upper-middle-class, white collar families are at high risk for maladaptive behaviors, such as aggression, rule breaking, and substance use. A major hypothesized underlying factor is lax parental discipline that involves low repercussions for errant behaviors such as substance use—also known as perceived parents’ “containment” of such behaviors. In this study, the focus is on multiple dimensions of perceived containment among parents and school authorities, in relation to both externalizing problems and drug use behaviors. These associations are examined in four different schools: two boarding schools and two day schools. Results show much stronger links with maladjustment for perceived containment by parents as opposed to perceived containment by school. The largest significant effects within the containment indices were found to be between parent containment of drug use and the levels of substance use behaviors reported by students. These effects were found across gender and all schools, indicating robust links. Overall, the most robust index studied was the perceived parental monitoring variables; monitoring effects were stronger than effects from any containment variables. Students who perceived the highest levels of parental monitoring exhibited the least amount of externalizing behaviors across all schools and genders. A possible explanation includes students perceiving that their parents monitor their behavior due to caring on the behalf of the parent, which then leads to fewer externalizing outcomes. These results suggest that the most effective means of decreasing substance use levels seem to lie within the parents of the students and not the schools.

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Date Created
  • 2018-12

The Romanticization of Mental Illness and Substance Abuse in Young Adult Media

Description

The following creative project defends that, whether intentionally or not, mental illness and substance abuse are inevitably romanticized in young adult media and discusses the dangers of this romanticization. This

The following creative project defends that, whether intentionally or not, mental illness and substance abuse are inevitably romanticized in young adult media and discusses the dangers of this romanticization. This project is divided into three parts. The first part consists of psychological evaluations of the main characters of two popular, contemporary forms of young adult media, Catcher in the Rye by J.D Salinger and Euphoria by Sam Levinson. These evaluations use textual evidence and the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) to determine what symptoms of psychopathology the characters appear to display. The second part consists of a self-written short story that is meant to accurately depict the life of a young adult struggling with mental illness and substance abuse. This story contains various aesthetic techniques borrowed from the two young adult media forms. The final part consists of an aesthetic statement which discusses in depth the aesthetic techniques employed within the short story, Quicksand by Anisha Mehra.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2021-05

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Eating Disorders And Sexual Orientation

Description

In this study, potential differences in the manifestation and rates of eating disorders and symptoms (body dissatisfaction, weight and shape concerns, food restriction, and compensatory behaviors) in college women across

In this study, potential differences in the manifestation and rates of eating disorders and symptoms (body dissatisfaction, weight and shape concerns, food restriction, and compensatory behaviors) in college women across sexual orientations were examined. The sociocultural model of eating disorders was also examined for these women across sexual orientations. The participants were organized into three different sexual orientation groups for analysis: heterosexual (group 1), bisexual, pansexual, and polysexual (group 2), and lesbian, gay, queer, transsexual, asexual, and other (group 3). Using cross-sectional data, it was revealed that there were significant group differences when comparing the three sexual orientation groups on loss of control over eating, but no significant group differences on body dissatisfaction, thin ideal internalization, and weight-related eating pathology, and total eating disorder symptoms scores. The sociocultural model was not predictive of eating disorder symptoms among non-heterosexual groups. Longitudinal analyses revealed that the sociocultural model of eating disorders prospectively predicts eating disorder symptoms among heterosexual women, but not non-heterosexual women. Both cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses indicate that non-heterosexual women may be protected from societal pressure to subscribe to the thin ideal and its subsequent internalization. However, the comparison group of heterosexual women in our study may not have been completely representative of undergraduate women in terms of total eating disorder symptoms or eating pathology. Additionally, regardless of sexual orientation, our sample reported more total eating disorder symptoms and emotional eating than previous studies. These findings have both clinical and research implications. Future research is needed to determine what risk factors and treatment target variables are relevant for non-heterosexual women.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2016-05

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Building Resilience Through Creative Writing

Description

Resilience is defined as an individual's ability to cope or "bounce back" after experiencing stressful life events (Rew et al., 2001). Survivors of trauma who express high levels of resilience

Resilience is defined as an individual's ability to cope or "bounce back" after experiencing stressful life events (Rew et al., 2001). Survivors of trauma who express high levels of resilience are more likely to experience positive future life outcomes than equally troubled peers with lower resilience scores. It is possible to increase resilience by targeting several core factors: (1) personal competence, (2) sense of belonging, (3) sense of optimism (Lee et al., 2009). I developed an eight-week creative writing curriculum to boost these three core factors in the hopes of both increasing resilience in homeless youth while also introducing creating writing as an effective coping strategy. Each one-hour session included free-form writing exercises, mindfulness practices, writing workshops, and group presentations. Prompts and activities were carefully developed to encourage resilience-building in a group of homeless children and adolescents of ages seven to fourteen at Homeward Bound in Phoenix. With sample writing works and facilitator feedback, this curriculum was designed to be exceptionally easy and cost effective for future implementation. I hope that other organizations in the future will consider implementing this program to help build resilience in youth who have experienced childhood trauma.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2017-05

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Erasing the Stigma Around Seeking Mental Help- Creating a Digital Campaign

Description

This honors thesis project provides analysis on the barriers to treatment seeking regarding mental health. Research on treatment seeking barriers was done, and then used to create a digital campaign

This honors thesis project provides analysis on the barriers to treatment seeking regarding mental health. Research on treatment seeking barriers was done, and then used to create a digital campaign that was run via organic sharing and a boosted Facebook post using custom audiences. The research begins to examine the relationships between stigma and help-seeking regarding mental health. The leading barriers for seeking mental health treatment include both social and self stigma. Social stigma involves fearing judgment from others regarding mental health, and self stigma involves people's negative judgments about having mental health issues themselves. There is a negative cycle between self and social stigma as people's self perceptions often reflect into society, and society's general opinions often influence people's perceptions of themselves. In order to decrease mental health stigma efforts must be made to erase both self and social stigma. Research on consumer psychology showed the effectiveness of targeting people's need for belonging. In order to target people's need for belonging the campaign was designed to show mental health issues as a commonality between people that can be solved, rather than as a negative discrepancy. Research into digital marketing trends showed Facebook as one of the most powerful platforms for reach and audience targeting, so it was chosen as the ideal platform for this campaign. The analysis of barriers to treatment seeking, consumer psychology, and digital marketing culminated in the digital campaign, "Just because you can't see it...doesn't mean it's not there," promoting mental health awareness, which ran for 5 days reaching 9,874 people and getting 5,117 views.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2017-05

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The Importance of University Level Psychology Education for the Incarcerated

Description

Education is a fundamental human right. However, when groups of people are subjugated to systematic violence and institutionalization, the importance of education often is often forgotten. A team of students

Education is a fundamental human right. However, when groups of people are subjugated to systematic violence and institutionalization, the importance of education often is often forgotten. A team of students and faculty at Arizona State University (ASU) currently teach an Introduction to Psychology course within a minimum-security unit in conjunction with both the Arizona Department of Corrections and the Prison Education Program at ASU. This course aims to enhance the current educational programs offered by the prison by fostering an environment where inmates can practice literacy skills and are introduced to standard classroom procedures for the typical university class. In addition, the course introduces students to an academic field previously unknown to them, specifically, psychology. However, the most important aspect of this educational endeavor is to provide an environment where people who have been deemed inhuman and outside of the human experience can come together and learn. By doing so, the curriculum sought to instill confidence in the students by demonstrating that they are in fact capable of learning and comprehending university level material. As of 2016, numerous studies have been conducted from across the nation that have reaffirmed the validity and efficacy of prison education on reducing recidivism levels of the previously incarcerated (ADC 2005, Kim & Clark 2013, Nuttal et al. 2003). Additionally, studies have determined that the benefits that students receive from education while incarcerated are, over time, shared with the family members (Erisman & Contardo, 2005). These benefits, while not strictly educational, are incredibly important within the realm of reduction in crime as they pertain to "reduction of costs, reduction of strain of offenders on their families, and an economic boost for society" (Erisman & Contardo, 2005). Teaching within any prison unit, regardless of the security level, provides a variety of unique challenges. Some of these include the lack of technological resources within most classrooms, prohibition of outside material unless vetted and approved by prison education staff, and rigid restrictions on student-teacher interactions. Also, because of the nature of psychology and the students within the class, certain sensitive topics must be either handled with extreme care or will not be covered at all. However, particular achievements were made in regards to increasing in class participation and encouraging the students to continue to pursue academics. Most importantly, it provides an environment where the humanity of the prisoner is restored, if but for only a few hours a week. It allows them to be seen as more than numbers, allows them to think and voice their opinions in a space that respects them for their beliefs. And the restoration of humanity to an inherently inhumane system is far more important than any other educational goal.

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Date Created
  • 2016-12

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Determining the Effects of Serving as a Peer Educator in an Eating Disorders Prevention Program

Description

This study assessed the effects of running an eating prevention program on body image satisfaction/behavior and the leadership skills of collegiate women. The sample included a group of 43 undergraduate

This study assessed the effects of running an eating prevention program on body image satisfaction/behavior and the leadership skills of collegiate women. The sample included a group of 43 undergraduate women who voluntarily chose to become peer-educators in the eating prevention program called the Body Project. Self-report questionnaires evaluating both the preoccupation with personal body image and general leadership skills were distributed and collected electronically. The results were analyzed to determine that being a peer leader in the Body project did not increase eating disorder symptoms but actually decreased the symptoms. It was also determined that being a peer educator had no effect on leadership skills. Therefore, being a peer leader is beneficial for reducing eating disorder symptoms, but not for advancing leadership skills.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2015-05