Matching Items (23)

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Parental Stress in Raising a Child with ADHD

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This paper investigates how stress in parents is affected by their child's Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). The purpose of this paper is to identify common stressors for parents of children with

This paper investigates how stress in parents is affected by their child's Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). The purpose of this paper is to identify common stressors for parents of children with ADHD, as well as to determine what parents need from healthcare providers to mediate this stress. A survey was developed to identify sources of stress, consequences of parental stress, parental coping methods, resources provided by their healthcare provider that have been helpful, along with what they feel that they need from their healthcare providers in order to better support themselves and their family. Participants were composed of members of Facebook support groups for parents of children with ADHD. Major findings of this study include: parents experience the most stress when dealing with their child's oppositional and aggressive behaviors; parents frequently experience disruption in their marital relationship; and parents perceive that they receive little health care resources that are helpful for themselves, their child, and their family overall.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2018-05

The Effect of Assisted Cycle Therapy on Fine Motor Skills in Adults with Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

Description

Previous research has found improvements in motor control following Assisted Cycle Therapy (ACT) in persons with Parkinson's disease, Down syndrome (DS) and autism. Our study examined the effect of ACT

Previous research has found improvements in motor control following Assisted Cycle Therapy (ACT) in persons with Parkinson's disease, Down syndrome (DS) and autism. Our study examined the effect of ACT on manual dexterity in adults with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Nine adults with ADHD completed six weeks of light intensity cycling on a stationary bicycle, three times per week for 30 minutes. Four adults with ADHD were in the voluntary cycling (VC) group in which they pedaled at their self-selected rate. Five adults with ADHD were in the ACT group in which a motor moved their legs at a rate approximately 13% faster than their voluntary rate. Our results showed that the dominant hand moved more pegs following ACT than VC. Our results were interpreted with respect to upregulation of neurotrophic factors in the motor cortex following ACT.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2016-05

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Assessment of Anxiety Symptoms in School Children: A Cross-Sex and Ethnic Examination

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We evaluated the cross-sex and -ethnic (Hispanic/Latino, non-Hispanic White) measurement invariance of anxiety symptoms based on the Spence Children’s Anxiety Scale (SCAS) as well as SCAS anxiety symptoms’ correspondence with

We evaluated the cross-sex and -ethnic (Hispanic/Latino, non-Hispanic White) measurement invariance of anxiety symptoms based on the Spence Children’s Anxiety Scale (SCAS) as well as SCAS anxiety symptoms’ correspondence with scores on the 5-item Screen for Child Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders (SCARED) and teacher ratings of child anxiety. Based on data corresponding to 702 children (M age = 9.65, SD = 0.70; 51.9 % girls; 55 % Hispanic/Latino), findings showed some sex and ethnic variations in SCAS measured anxiety at the item and scale levels. Moreover, SCAS correspondence to the 5-item SCARED was found across ethnicity and sex. SCAS correspondence to teacher ratings was found for non-Hispanic White boys and non-Hispanic White girls, marginally in Hispanic/Latino boys, and poorly in Hispanic/Latino girls.

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  • 2015-02-01

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Mathematical development: the role of broad cognitive processes

Description

This study investigated the role of broad cognitive processes in the development of mathematics skills among children and adolescents. The participants for this study were a subsample of a nationally

This study investigated the role of broad cognitive processes in the development of mathematics skills among children and adolescents. The participants for this study were a subsample of a nationally representative sample used in the standardization of the Woodcock-Johnson III Tests of Cognitive Abilities and the Woodcock-Johnson III Tests of Achievement, Normative Update (Woodcock, McGrew, & Mather, 2007). Participants were between 5 years old and 18 years old (N = 4721; mean of 10.98 years, median of 10.00 years, standard deviation of 3.48 years), and were 50.7% male and 49.3% female. Structural equation models supported the theoretical suggestion that broad cognitive processes play significant and specific roles in the development of mathematical skills among children and adolescents. Implications for school psychology researchers and practitioners are discussed.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2012

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The factor structure of curriculum-based writing indices at Grades 3, 7, and 10

Description

National assessment data indicate that the large majority of students in America perform below expected proficiency levels in the area of writing. Given the importance of writing skills, this is

National assessment data indicate that the large majority of students in America perform below expected proficiency levels in the area of writing. Given the importance of writing skills, this is a significant problem. Curriculum-based measurement, when used for progress monitoring and intervention planning, has been shown to lead to improved academic achievement. However, researchers have not yet been able to establish the validity of curriculum-based measures of writing (CBM-W). This study examined the structural validity of CBM-W using exploratory factor analysis. The participants for this study were 253 third, 154 seventh, and 154 tenth grade students. Each participant completed a 3-minute writing sample in response to a narrative prompt. The writing samples were scored for fifteen different CBM-W indices. Separate analyses were conducted for each grade level to examine differences in the CBM-W construct across grade levels. Due to extreme multicollinearity, principal components analysis rather than common factor analysis was used to examine the structure of writing as measured by CBM-W indices. The overall structure of CBM-W indices was found to remain stable across grade levels. In all cases a three-component solution was supported, with the components being labeled production, accuracy, and sentence complexity. Limitations of the study and implications for progress monitoring with CBM-W are discussed, including the recommendation for a combination of variables that may provide more reliable and valid measurement of the writing construct.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2012

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Screening in school-wide positive behavior supports: methodogical comparisons

Description

Many schools have adopted programming designed to promote students' behavioral aptitude. A specific type of programming with this focus is School Wide Positive Behavior Supports (SWPBS), which combines positive behavior

Many schools have adopted programming designed to promote students' behavioral aptitude. A specific type of programming with this focus is School Wide Positive Behavior Supports (SWPBS), which combines positive behavior techniques with a system wide problem solving model. Aspects of this model are still being developed in the research community, including assessment techniques which aid the decision making process. Tools for screening entire student populations are examples of such assessment interests. Although screening tools which have been described as "empirically validated" and "cost effective" have been around since at least 1991, they have yet to become standard practice (Lane, Gresham, & O'Shaughnessy 2002). The lack of widespread implementation to date raises questions regarding their ecological validity and actual cost-effectiveness, leaving the development of useful tools for screening an ongoing project for many researchers. It may be beneficial for educators to expand the range of measurement to include tools which measure the symptoms at the root of the problematic behaviors. Lane, Grasham, and O'Shaughnessy (2002) note the possibility that factors from within a student, including those that are cognitive in nature, may influence not only his or her academic performance, but also aspects of behavior. A line of logic follows wherein measurement of those factors may aid the early identification of students at risk for developing disorders with related symptoms. The validity and practicality of various tools available for screening in SWPBS were investigated, including brief behavior rating scales completed by parents and teachers, as well as performance tasks borrowed from the field of neuropsychology. All instruments showed an ability to predict children's behavior, although not to equal extents. A discussion of practicality and predictive utility of each instrument follows.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2012

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Intersectionality: an arts-based approach to student awareness

Description

This study was designed to introduce specific activities/lessons to students in an online university gender and communication course. It was also designed to determine how participants made meaning of and

This study was designed to introduce specific activities/lessons to students in an online university gender and communication course. It was also designed to determine how participants made meaning of and felt about learning about intersectionality of gender and cultural identities, using arts-based data collection. Previous research on the symbolic nature of language, ground-breaking work on intersectionality, and work on arts-based research were instrumental frameworks in guiding this study. Participants were asked to create poems in response to their readings of class materials and vignettes about cultural identity issues that were provided to them. The researcher was able to determine how individuals from disparate cultural backgrounds made meaning of what they read and then how they articulated their feelings relative to learning about intersectionality, their experiences with arts-based data collection, and their perceptions of their futures application of the lessons learned. The poetic expression about those experiences provides a valuable initial base for future research with regard to more narrowly focused studies of gender intersected with identities associated with socioeconomic status, age, ableism, religious affiliation, and other cultural identities.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2017

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Response to intervention universal math fluency screenings: their predictive value for student performance on national and state standardized achievement tests in Arizona

Description

The most recent reauthorizations of No Child Left Behind and the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act served to usher in an age of results and accountability within American education. States

The most recent reauthorizations of No Child Left Behind and the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act served to usher in an age of results and accountability within American education. States were charged with developing more rigorous systems to specifically address areas such as critical academic skill proficiency, empirically validated instruction and intervention, and overall student performance as measured on annual statewide achievement tests. Educational practice has shown that foundational math ability can be easily assessed through student performance on Curriculum-Based Measurements of Math Computational Fluency (CBM-M). Research on the application of CBM-M's predictive validity across specific academic math abilities as measured by state standardized tests is currently limited. In addition, little research is available on the differential effects of ethnic subgroups and gender in this area. This study investigated the effectiveness of using CBM-M measures to predict achievement on high stakes tests, as well as whether or not there are significant differential effects of ethnic subgroups and gender. Study participants included 358 students across six elementary schools in a large suburban school district in Arizona that utilizes the Response to Intervention (RTI) model. Participants' CBM-M scores from the first through third grade years and their third grade standardized achievement test scores were collected. Pearson product-moment and Spearman correlations were used to determine how well CBM-M scores and specific math skills are related. The predictive validity of CBM-M scores from the third-grade school year was also assessed to determine whether the fall, winter, or spring screening was most related to third-grade high-stakes test scores.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2014

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The structure of cyber and traditional aggression: an integrated conceptualization

Description

ABSTRACT The phenomenon of cyberbullying has captured the attention of educators and researchers alike as it has been associated with multiple aversive outcomes including suicide. Young people today have easy

ABSTRACT The phenomenon of cyberbullying has captured the attention of educators and researchers alike as it has been associated with multiple aversive outcomes including suicide. Young people today have easy access to computer mediated communication (CMC) and frequently use it to harass one another -- a practice that many researchers have equated to cyberbullying. However, there is great disagreement among researchers whether intentional harmful actions carried out by way of CMC constitute cyberbullying, and some authors have argued that "cyber-aggression" is a more accurate term to describe this phenomenon. Disagreement in terms of cyberbullying's definition and methodological inconsistencies including choice of questionnaire items has resulted in highly variable results across cyberbullying studies. Researchers are in agreement however, that cyber and traditional forms of aggression are closely related phenomena, and have suggested that they may be extensions of one another. This research developed a comprehensive set of items to span cyber-aggression's content domain in order to 1) fully address all types of cyber-aggression, and 2) assess the interrelated nature of cyber and traditional aggression. These items were administered to 553 middle school students located in a central Illinois school district. Results from confirmatory factor analyses suggested that cyber-aggression is best conceptualized as integrated with traditional aggression, and that cyber and traditional aggression share two dimensions: direct-verbal and relational aggression. Additionally, results indicated that all forms of aggression are a function of general aggressive tendencies. This research identified two synthesized models combining cyber and traditional aggression into a shared framework that demonstrated excellent fit to the item data.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2013

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Life satisfaction in adulthood among those who experienced trauma in early childhood [electronic resource]: a qualitative study

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ABSTRACT The present study examined the relationship between the experience of trauma during childhood (ages birth -12 years) and life satisfaction in adulthood (ages of 30-45) in a sample of

ABSTRACT The present study examined the relationship between the experience of trauma during childhood (ages birth -12 years) and life satisfaction in adulthood (ages of 30-45) in a sample of convenience consisting of eight (8) adults, six (6) women and two (2) men, who volunteered to participate in this qualitative study, and self-identified as having experienced trauma between birth and age 12 years. Participants were asked to describe the trauma(s) they experienced in childhood and to discuss their thoughts and feelings about present circumstances in their lives, and how their lives have been impacted by the trauma they experienced. Data were collected via in-person interviews that were audio-taped and transcribed. The data were analyzed using a process of thematic coding. Nine (9) emotional themes were identified: aggression, anger, fear, frustration, helplessness, insecurity, irritability, loneliness and sadness. Participants reported a variety of traumas experienced, and their responses to difficult experiences were varied. Participants reported being impacted differently in eight domains of life that were examined in the study: mood related problems, self-care, social support, primary partner relationship, career, decision to have children, parenting and adult life satisfaction. All participants stated they had been impacted by early life trauma, and all stated that early-experienced trauma(s) had an impact on their life satisfaction in adulthood. Inter-coder reliability for emotional thematic codes and domains of life impacted by early trauma was .82.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2013