Matching Items (37)

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Sickle Cell Disease Education and Screening in Kenya

Description

Sickle Cell Disease (SCD) is a prevalent genetic disease in Africa, and specifically in Kenya. The lack of available relevant disease education and screening mean that most don't understand the

Sickle Cell Disease (SCD) is a prevalent genetic disease in Africa, and specifically in Kenya. The lack of available relevant disease education and screening mean that most don't understand the importance of getting testing and many children die before they can get prophylactic care. This project was designed to address the lack of knowledge with supplemental educational materials to be partnered with an engineering capstone project that provides a low cost diagnostic test.

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  • 2014-05

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Electrochemical Detection of Environmental Contaminants Using Portable Low-Cost Sensor

Description

Growing concern over health risks associated with environmental contaminants has prompted an increase in the search for effective detection methods. The available options provide acceptable sensitivity and specificity, but with

Growing concern over health risks associated with environmental contaminants has prompted an increase in the search for effective detection methods. The available options provide acceptable sensitivity and specificity, but with high purchase and maintenance costs. Herein, a low-cost, portable environmental contaminant sensor was developed using electrochemical techniques and an efficient hydrogel capture mechanism. The sensor operates with high sensitivity and maintains specificity without the added requirement of extensive electrode modification. Rather, specificity is obtained by choosing specific potential regions in which individual contaminants show reduction or oxidation activity. A calibration curve was generated showing the utility of the sensor in detecting gas compounds reliably in reference to a current state of the art sensor. Reusability of the sensor was also demonstrated with a cyclic exposure test in which response reversibility was observed. As such, the investigated sensor shows great promise as a replacement technology in the current environmental contaminant detector industry.

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Date Created
  • 2014-05

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Systemic Model of Morphine by Compartmentalization

Description

Morphine is a commonly used analgesic in pain management. Opioid administration to a patient after surgery, such as spinal decompression surgery, can lead to adverse side effects. To

Morphine is a commonly used analgesic in pain management. Opioid administration to a patient after surgery, such as spinal decompression surgery, can lead to adverse side effects. To demonstrate these adverse side effects could be decreased we created a model of how morphine and its metabolites are transported and excreted from the body. Using the of morphine and a standard compartment approach this thesis aimed at projecting pharmacokinetics trends of morphine overtime. A Matlab compartment model predicting the transport of morphine through the body can contribute to a better understanding of the concentrations at the systemic level, specifically with respect to a CSF, and what happens when you compare an intravenous injection to a local delivery. Other studies and models commonly utilized patient data over small periods of time2,3,5. An extended period of time will provide information into morphine’s time course after surgery. This model focuses on a compartmentalization of the major organs and the use of a simple Mechalis-Menten enzyme kinetics for the metabolites in the liver. Our results show a CSF concentration of about 1.086×〖10〗^(-12) nmol/L in 6 weeks and 1.0097×〖10〗^(-12) nmol/L in 12 weeks. The concentration profiles in this model are similar to what was expected. The implications of this suggest that patients who reported effects of morphine paste, a locally administered opioid, weeks after the surgery were due to other reasons. In creating a model we can determine important variables and dosage information. This information allows for a greater understanding of what is happening in the body and how to improve surgical outcomes. We propose this study has implications in general research in the pharmacokinetics and dynamics of pharmacology through the body.

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  • 2014-05

Improving Medical Aerosols: An exploration of nebulous discharge

Description

Improving medical aerosols is the multifaceted objective that is the overarching theme of this work. This thesis is the culmination of many hours of academic research. It details the current

Improving medical aerosols is the multifaceted objective that is the overarching theme of this work. This thesis is the culmination of many hours of academic research. It details the current mechanical and physiological obstacles of state of the art drug inhalation technology, as well as provides a detailed guide of the experimental set up, procedure, analysis and background for the charge neutralization experiments performed by the author. The findings of this research are that inhalation devices need to become personalized; meaning adjustable flow rates, particle sizes, and charge levels. To improve the efficiency of lung deposition they could use MRI to take advantage of 3D modeling software to make transport models of an individual patient's lungs. This model would allow an engineer to calculate the air velocity in each passage of the respiratory system and would account for any pulmonary obstructions that would completely alter the deposition pattern from the average healthy patient. With the velocity profile of the lung a doctor could formulate an aerosol with the perfect attributed for the most targeted delivery. For the experiments performed in this work the following results were obtained. The ionization of air by polonium 210 alpha particles is dependent on the distance from the alpha emitting source and the strength of the electric field. Furthermore discharge of aerosol droplets is possible through volume conduction however the mass of the polonium 210 isotope must be proportional to the ionization current demand.

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  • 2014-05

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Revision Hip Arthroplasties: The burdens created due to physical compromise and biofilm formation

Description

Revision hip procedures represent a large financial burden on hospitals and the problem will continue to worsen as the baby boomer generation ages and life expectancy goes up. The future

Revision hip procedures represent a large financial burden on hospitals and the problem will continue to worsen as the baby boomer generation ages and life expectancy goes up. The future problem is a complex issue that bridges scientific and anecdotal evidence and must be solved. A review of the current total hip arthroplasty procedure in regards to the physical properties of the materials used for hip prostheses is given. Revision procedures can be caused by infection or basic wear and tear from the stress that that implant is subjected to daily. Infections on these implants often present themselves as medical biofilms. The mechanisms of biofilm formation include a complex system of enzymes that work to initiate a phenotypic response based on an established quorum sensing within the colony of bacteria. Surgical methods to treat infection include irrigation and debridement as well as loading drug cement spacers with antimicrobial in hopes of delivering the antibiotic locally. Research is being done to better model the transport of drug through the tissue surrounding the implant, and will hopefully one day be available for use in individual patients.

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Date Created
  • 2013-05

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Pyridoxine Wound Healing Trial

Description

The purpose of this study, which was done in conjunction with the Arizona Heart Foundation, was to evaluate whether pyridoxine accelerates ulcer wound healing in diabetic patients with ulcers in

The purpose of this study, which was done in conjunction with the Arizona Heart Foundation, was to evaluate whether pyridoxine accelerates ulcer wound healing in diabetic patients with ulcers in the lower extremities. In this study, 100 mg of pyridoxine per day was given to patients in the experimental group (while they receive normal wound treatment) while patients in the control group received normal treatment of wounds without the pyridoxine. Over time, wound healing was evaluated by photographing and then measuring the size of patients' ulcer wounds on the photographs. Results from the experimental group were compared with those of the control group to evaluate the efficacy of the pyridoxine treatment. In addition, comparisons of the healing rates were made with respect to whether the patients smoked, had hypertension or hypotension, and the patients' body mass indexes. It has been found that there was no statistically significant difference in the mean healing rates between the control groups and experimental groups. In addition, it has been found that smoking, BMI and blood pressure did not have a statistically appreciable effect on the difference in mean healing rates between the control and experimental groups. This is evidence that pyridoxine did not have a statistically significant effect on wound healing rates.

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Date Created
  • 2013-05

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Smart Phone Camera Used to Determine Ion Concentration in Saliva Based on Fluorescence Level

Description

The use of saliva sampling as a noninvasive way for drug analysis as well as the monitoring systems within the body has become increasingly important in recent research. Because of

The use of saliva sampling as a noninvasive way for drug analysis as well as the monitoring systems within the body has become increasingly important in recent research. Because of the growing interest in saliva, this project proposes a way to analyze sodium ion concentration in a saliva solution based on its fluorescence level when in the presence of a sodium indicator dye and recorded with a smartphone camera. The dyed sample was placed in a specially designed housing to exclude all ambient light from the images. A source light of known wavelength was used to excite the fluorescent dye and the smartphone camera images recorded the emission light wavelengths. After analysis of the images using ImageJ, it was possible to create a model to determine the level of fluorescence based on sodium ion concentration. The smartphone camera image model was compared to readings from a standard fluorescence plate recorder to test the accuracy of the model. The study found that the model was accurate within 5 % as compared to the fluorescence plate recorder. Based on the results, it was concluded that the method and resulting model proposed in this study is a valid was to analyze saliva or other solutions for their sodium ion concentration via images recorded by a smartphone camera.

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  • 2014-05

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Fluid Dynamic Comparison of Treated and Untreated Aneurysms of Variable Dome Size

Description

Intracranial aneurysms are blood \u2014filled sacs along the blood vessels in the brain. These aneurysms can be particularly dangerous due to difficulty in detection and potential lifethreatening outcome. When these

Intracranial aneurysms are blood \u2014filled sacs along the blood vessels in the brain. These aneurysms can be particularly dangerous due to difficulty in detection and potential lifethreatening outcome. When these aneurysms are detected, there are few treatment options to prevent rupture, one of which is endovascular stents. By placing a stent across the parent vessel, blood flow can be diverted from the aneurysm. Reduced flow reduces the chance of rupture and promotes clotting within the aneurysm. In this study, hemodynamics in idealized basilar tip aneurysm models were investigated at three flow rates using particle imaging velocimetry (PIV). Two models were created with increasing dome size (4mm vs 6mm), and constant dome-to-neck ratio (3:2) and parent vessel contact angle to represent growing aneurysm. With the pulsatile flow, data is acquired at three separate points in the cardiac cycle. Both of the models were studied untreated, treated with Enterprise stent and treated with Pipeline stent. Enterprise stent was developed mainly for structural support while the Pipeline stent was developed as a flow diverter. Due to target functions of the stents, Enterprise stent is more porous than the Pipeline stent. Hemodynamics were studied using a stereo particle image velocimetry technique. The flow in models was characterized by neck and aneurysmal RMS velocity, neck and aneurysm kinetic energy, cross neck flow. It was found that both of the stents are capable diverting flow. Enterprise reduced aneurysmal RMS velocity in model 1 by 38.7% and in model 2 by 76.2%. Pipeline stent reduced aneurysmal RMS velocity in model 1 by 71.4% and in model 2 by 88.1%. Both reductions are data for 3ml/s at peak systole pulsatile flow. Data shows that the Pipeline stent is better than Enterprise stent at reducing flow to the aneurysm.

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Date Created
  • 2014-05

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Hyperinsulinemia

Description

Concurrent with the epidemic of childhood obesity (17% of adolescents), an unprecedented world-wide increase in the prevalence of several adiposity-related complications (including fatty liver disease (hepatic steatosis), type 2 diabetes

Concurrent with the epidemic of childhood obesity (17% of adolescents), an unprecedented world-wide increase in the prevalence of several adiposity-related complications (including fatty liver disease (hepatic steatosis), type 2 diabetes and early cardiovascular disorders) in this age group, has emerged. Two principle environmental variables play an essential role in the development and maintenance of obesity and in disturbing glucose homeostasis: a lack of physical exercise and overnutrition, i.e., high carbohydrate and high fat diets (HFD). It was our laboratory's intention to develop a rodent model to examine whether the metabolic instability observed in human pubertal children is also present in maturing rats and whether a HFD during this maturational period enhances adipose-related complications with or without an increase in body weight. We hypothesized that maturing Sprague-Dawley rats would reveal a profile of metabolic disturbances and that a disruption of the hyperbolic arrangement between insulin sensitivity and insulin release would be evident (statistically significant changes in fasting hyperinsulinemia, insulin resistance, and insulin release) indicating a high risk environment for future cardiometabolic diseases. It was observed that pubertal rats are metabolically impaired and that a HFD substantially enhances metabolic deficits with marked disturbance in insulin sensitivity (hyperinsulinemia). Additionally, substantial lipogenesis was observed in visceral and liver tissue, potentially as a result of hyperinsulinemia. Both phenotypes of maturing rats exposed to a HFD (obesity prone and obesity resistant) demonstrated "metabolic obesity" regardless of physical phenotype. These outcomes have relevance in the context of public health, particularly if lipocentricity is viewed as an essential element in the challenge of preventing and/or treating perturbations to the metabolic health of pubertal children.

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  • 2014-05

Long Term Susceptibility of Biofilms Treated with Antimicrobials

Description

The concentration necessary to kill bacterial biofilms with antimicrobials is the minimum biofilm eradication concentration (MBEC). This is usually determined using an in vitro approach and will vary within different

The concentration necessary to kill bacterial biofilms with antimicrobials is the minimum biofilm eradication concentration (MBEC). This is usually determined using an in vitro approach and will vary within different strains of bacteria. Biomedical implants produce biofilm-related infections presenting a unique challenge due to the combination of subpopulations of the bacterial community and the polysaccharide matrix presented by biofilms. The purpose of this investigation is to determine how exposure times in the order of weeks to months affect the MBEC. Using an in vitro approach, Staphylococcus aureus (UAMS-1) and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) biofilms were produced with a 24 hour growth time and exposed to two antimicrobials, tobramycin and vancomycin, and one combination treatment that consisted of 1:1 tobramycin: vancomycin by weight. Crystal violet screening was used in order to ensure the integrity of the biofilm matrix throughout the full time of exposure. It was determined that UAMS-1 MBECs were lowered after 56 days of exposure than after 5 days for all three treatment groups. MRSA MBECs after 5 days of exposure decreased only with in vancomycin treatment group.

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  • 2016-05