Matching Items (8)

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Linguistics of a Wandering Mind in Colette's La Vagabonde: A New Translation

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Sidonie-Gabrielle Colette’s novel La Vagabonde about struggling 33-year-old divorcée Renée Néré has only had a handful of translations into English since its original publication in 1910. It was picked u

Sidonie-Gabrielle Colette’s novel La Vagabonde about struggling 33-year-old divorcée Renée Néré has only had a handful of translations into English since its original publication in 1910. It was picked up for its first translation in the late 1950s as a result of its sensitive nature concerning female sexuality and patriarchal oppression of the physical and mental female sphere. Due to the bowdlerized and outdated language of previous English interpretations of the novel, I set forth to create a new translation that would convey the complex simplicity of Colette’s words and the ever-relevant themes of the novel that may have been overlooked in the past. Although Colette’s diction is simple, her poetic use of grammar, focused rhetoric, and poignant insights into the female experience are deceptively intricate.

In this introduction, I discuss the methodology used while translating the novel and a few of the linguistic, semantic, and cultural problems I encountered while working on this new annotated translation. I also explain the cultural and literary context of popular novels during the fin-de-siècle that helped create motifs and themes that Colette later inverses in the novel. Colette reverses the narrative of the male spectator sitting in the dark theatre, eyes fixed on the desirable form of the female performer. Instead, Renée observes those in her life reversing the male gaze in onto itself.

Despite the meticulousness of the translator, each translation remains only an interpretation of the original text. From hunting motifs to the socio-economic role of diction in class structure during La Belle Époque, I discuss the specific diction Colette uses to show Renée’s dissociation of self and internalized misogyny in her stream-of-consciousness narration.

Following the introduction is seventy-nine pages of the new translation with annotations on certain cultural and linguistic peculiarities unique to French culture and language.

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Date Created
  • 2017-12

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George Sand’s Indiana, As Seen by Her Illustrators: Tony Johannot’s 1852 Hetzel Edition

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George Sand (née Amantine Lucile Aurore Dupin, 1804 – 1876) was one of the most celebrated French authors of her time and remains to this day a central figure in

George Sand (née Amantine Lucile Aurore Dupin, 1804 – 1876) was one of the most celebrated French authors of her time and remains to this day a central figure in French literary history. She produced throughout her lifetime an extraordinarily broad body of literary works, including short stories, novels, periodicals, newspaper articles, political commentaries, and even plays. One of her most well-known works, and her first novel published under her male pseudonym, was Indiana, which recounts the rise and fall of a young bourgeoise trapped in a loveless marriage, while also touching on the political climate of the age. Indiana was remarkably successful and popular when it was published and catapulted Sand to fame as she became a full-time writer who supported her family and lifestyle purely from sales of her works. The success of Indiana and many other of her works prompted a re-release of her body of works in nine volumes, titled Les Œuvres illustrées de George Sand. The volume studied in this thesis contains seventy-seven engraved illustrations of various scenes from each text. The engravings were produced by the very famous French artist and illustrator Tony Johannot with the help of Sand’s own son, Maurice Sand. Johannot was very well-known during his career and produced engravings for the biggest names in European literature such as Molière, Lord Byron, Cervantes, Goethe, Balzac, and others, including Sand.
In these books, illustrations were distributed throughout the text so the reader could visualize many of the storyline’s scenes. The authors themselves, however, did not oversee or produce these images, so it was at the discretion of the illustrator as to how each character, setting, facial expression, motif, etc. would be drawn. Sand was well-known for being avant-garde, progressive, independent, and, notably, female. Her opinions understandably clashed with many of the stereotypical views of the 19th century on many topics, particularly when it came to the treatment of women. By contrast, Johannot was a very well-respected and successful male artist with solid connections with influential publishers, who catered to a specific audience of well-off and well-educated buyers. The buyers of his works, particularly of his illustrated texts, were often parents of the upper middle class who wanted books to be used as gifts providing not only entertainment but also instruction and moral life lessons to their children. Johannot’s interpretations of Sand’s Indiana, which was considered scandalous and controversial upon its release, could therefore shift some of the most controversial aspects of the novel from what Sand originally intended. There are many reasons as to why Johannot might make certain interpretations of the text. He likely wanted to maintain his status as a successful author and please his audience, typically middle and upper middle-class, wealthy, and bourgeois literate patrons who educated themselves and their children by exposing themselves to books and works of art, as was traditional at the time. Additionally, his fundamental personal opinions as a successful business man might differ from Sand’s opinions as a female author, as traditional gendered roles and stereotypes often prevented the financial and societal independence of women.
This thesis will compare Johannot’s images created for Indiana with Sand’s original French text. In doing so, the reader can gain an understanding of how social status and personal interpretations can affect the way an artist represents a scene. Many of Johannot’s images agree with Sand, while others do not; some of the main similarities and differences will be analyzed to understand how and why such artistic differences occur.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2019-05

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Intersecting transnational English modernisms in interwar France

Description

This dissertation is a study of place and the ways that place plays a role in the stories we tell about ourselves and the ways we interact with the world.

This dissertation is a study of place and the ways that place plays a role in the stories we tell about ourselves and the ways we interact with the world. It is also the study of a moment in time and how a moment can impact what came before and all that follows. By taking on the subject of 1920s anglophone modernism in France I explore the way this particular time and place drew upon the past and impacted the future of literary culture. Post World War I France serves as a fluid social, political, and cultural space and the moment is one of plural modernisms. I argue that the interwar period was a transnational moment that laid the groundwork for the kind of global interactions that are both positively and negatively impacting the world today. I maintain that the critical work connected to the influence of 1920s France on Modernism deserves a more interstitial analysis than we have seen, one that expressly challenges the national frameworks that lead to a monolithic focus on the specific identity politics attached to race, gender, class and sexuality. I promote instead a consideration of the articulations between all of these factors by expanding, connecting and providing contingencies for the difference within the unity and the similarities that exist beyond it. I consider the way that the idea, history, social culture and geography of France work as sources of literary innovation and as spaces of literary fantasy for three diverse anglophone modernist writers: Jean Rhys, Claude McKay and William Faulkner. Their interaction with the place and the people make for a complex web of articulated difference that is the very core of transnational modernism. By considering their use of place in modernist fiction, I question the centrality of Paris as a modernist topos that too often replaces any broader understanding of France as a diverse cultural and topographical space, and I question the nation-centric logic of modernist criticism that fails to recognize the complex ways that language in general and the English language in particular function in this particular expatriate modernist moment.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2016

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La surjouissance: the Marquis de Sade's method to overcome reduced space

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Reduced space is an important theme in the works of the Marquis de Sade including his epic novel The New Justine and his pornographic performance piece Philosophy in the Bedroom

Reduced space is an important theme in the works of the Marquis de Sade including his epic novel The New Justine and his pornographic performance piece Philosophy in the Bedroom including the political/social treatise "Frenchmen, yet another effort is needed if you want to be a Republic". Through out his life Sade attempted to overcome reduction of space with writing. Tragically, his writing often prolonged the reduction of his space by sending him to or keeping him in prison. It is my theory that his violent, pornographic writing style is "une écriture de surjouissance" or "a writing of over-coming". Surjouissance is my theory for Sade's method, based on textual analysis of Sade's main works, that he combines through his syntactic structure, narrative voice, and semantic themes the orgasm of the mind represented by philosophical discourse with the orgasm of the body represented textually by orgiastic scenes and the language of orgasm to reach an ultimate state of complete freedom. In the political pamphlet "Frenchmen yet another effort..."Sade attempts to set this theory of sur-jouissance, or this transcendent state reached through the combination of physical and philosophical orgasm, as the political foundation for a new republic. Does he succeed in creating a viable political formula for a sustainable republic? My argument states absolutely not. His aristocratic elitism narrows his voice. But he does propose the combination of sexual, literary, and intellectual freedoms as a possible polemic against any form of reduced space.

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Date Created
  • 2011

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Le dédoublement, les contradictions et la diversité dans le théâtre de Musset à travers Les caprices de Marianne et On ne badine pas avec l'Amour

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Alfred de Musset (1810-1857) is one of the greatest playwrights of the Romantic era. The most attractive fact of his work is the diversity of topics, genres, tones, opinions and

Alfred de Musset (1810-1857) is one of the greatest playwrights of the Romantic era. The most attractive fact of his work is the diversity of topics, genres, tones, opinions and styles. Musset's theater was created in the romantic drama period, which was influenced by abroad. He sought freedom of creation and sometimes showed independence from writers taking his own initiatives to change and mix different writing styles. Throughout the different parts of this thesis, I analyzed in detail the dramatic work of Musset, especially through his two plays, Les Caprices de Marianne (1833) and On ne Badine pas avec l'Amour (1834), to study the artistic originality of such an exceptionally talented artist. He lived in the Romantic period but never forgot his predecessors to whom he paid tribute. He was influenced by them while preserving his work's originality. This thesis consists of two chapters, the first is devoted to the Romanticism and its influence on Musset's dramatic work, and the second is about the different literary doctrines that have left their mark on Musset's theater. By studying them, I show how Musset used his talent to mix and match these several types of doctrines to create a unique artwork that is still alive and interesting today.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2011

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The joual effect: a reflection of Quebec's urban working-class in Michel Tremblay's Les belles-soeurs and Hosanna

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Michel Tremblay, one of the most renowned and beloved Quebecois writers, began his literary career in the 1960s. He is well known for writing many of his works exclusively in

Michel Tremblay, one of the most renowned and beloved Quebecois writers, began his literary career in the 1960s. He is well known for writing many of his works exclusively in the Quebec dialect of joual. The history of Quebec, from its beginnings as a permanent settlement of New France, to its subsequent takeover by the British after the signing of the Treaty of Paris in 1763, all were events that set the stage for the Quiet Revolution. The Quiet Revolution was a cultural, social and linguistic uprising set in motion by the French-speakers of Quebec who were tired of being dominated. Up until the 1960s, the majority of literary works produced in Quebec followed the classical French tradition. The desire in the 1960s to break free from the domination of the English language and culture as well as to be differentiated from the French from France brought with it a newfound nationalistic pride. From this point forward there was a push to create a distinct Quebecois literature. One way to differentiate the works of Quebec from those from France was to include characters and settings from within the Quebec society as well as to have those characters speak in their native dialect. Joual, a dialect version of the pronunciation of the French word cheval, meaning horse, was originally a rural dialect that eventually found its way to the inner city. For this reason, joual was most closely identified with the urban working-class of Montreal. This dialect was also perceived as the language of an uneducated, socially and economically inferior segment of the French-speaking Quebec society. By using joual in his literature, Tremblay was able to depict the social, cultural and economic effect that joual had on this element of Quebec's population. This thesis focuses on the impact of joual on this society through the study of two of Tremblay's plays: Les Belles-soeurs (1965), to show a women's perspective about a socially and economically inferior group, and Hosanna (1973), to show the perspective of homosexuals and transvestites, a socially prejudiced group.

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Date Created
  • 2012

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The body bound and the body unbound: rebirth, sensuality, and identity in Kate Chopin's The awakening and Andre Gide's L'immoraliste

Description

Self-awareness and liberation often start with an analysis of the relationship between individual and society, a relationship based on the delicate balance of personal desire and responsibility to others. While

Self-awareness and liberation often start with an analysis of the relationship between individual and society, a relationship based on the delicate balance of personal desire and responsibility to others. While societal structures, such as family, tradition, religion, and community, may be repressive to individuals, they also provide direction, identity and meaning to an individual's life. In Kate Chopin's The Awakening and André Gide's L'Immoraliste the protagonists are faced with such a dilemma. Often informed by gender roles and socio-economic class, the container or filter that society offers to shape and mediate human experience is portrayed in both novels as a fictitious self donned for society's benefit --can seem repressive or inadequate. Yet far from being one-dimensional stories of individuals who eschew the bonds of a restrictive society, both novels show that liberation can lead to entrapment. Once society's limits are transgressed, the characters face the infinitude and insatiety of their liberated desires and the danger of self-absorption. Chopin and Gide explore these issues of desire, body, and social authority in order to portray Edna's and Michel's search for an authentic self. The characters' search for authenticity allows for the loosening of restriction and embrace of desire and the body, phenomena that appear to liberate them from the dominant bourgeois society. Yet, for both Edna and Michel, an embrace of the body and individual desire threatens to unsettle the balance between individual and society. As Edna and Michel break away from society's prescribed path, both struggle to find themselves. Edna and Michel become aware of themselves in a variety of different ways: speaking and interacting with others, observing the social mores of those around them and engaging in creative activity, such as, for Edna, painting and planning a dinner party, or for Michel, teaching and writing. Chopin's 1899 novel The Awakening and André Gide's 1902 novel L'Immoraliste explore the consequences of individual liberation from the constricting bonds of religion, society, and the family. In depicting these conflicts, the authors examine the relationship between individual and society, freedom and restraint, and what an individual's relationship to his or her community should be.

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Date Created
  • 2011

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Le naturalisme, le déterminisme et l'étude du milieu dans Germinal d'Émile Zola et Sub terra de Baldomero Lillo

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ABSTRACT Emile Zola is considered one of the fathers of 19th century French Naturalist literature. He is famous for his eloquence, sarcasm and is well known for being a provocateur.

ABSTRACT Emile Zola is considered one of the fathers of 19th century French Naturalist literature. He is famous for his eloquence, sarcasm and is well known for being a provocateur. He wants to follow the principles of science: observation of his characters in their living environment (or milieu). He holds that individuals inherit physical and personality traits from their ancestors, such as atavism, which can be passed from grandfather to father and father to son. This assumption leads to Social Darwinism and impacted Zola like many other European intellectuals who believed in the new social sciences. Religion was going extinct on the old continent and the trend was to apply these theories to literature and humanities. The author also captures the political and social unrest of a struggling working class in his novel Germinal, where starving miners rebel against the bourgeois class that exploits them. Baldomero Lillo is a Chilean naturalist follower of Emile Zola who found inspiration in Germinal to write Sub Terra-short stories depicting the grim life of the coal miners. The author knows them well since he shared his existence with the miners in Lota, in the southern region of Santiago. Unlike Zola, Lillo, who was less educated and less inclined to trust science, opts for a compassionate Naturalism which relates more to his culture and personal inclinations. Le milieu or el medio ambiente in the Sub Terra stories is dreadful and the author seeks to expose the master/slave relationship in a society that still resembles the European Middle Ages. Le milieu, that is to say the external forces that surround the miners (their geographical, social and political environment), eventually engulfs and condemns them to a life of servitude and misery. Determinism on both continents decides the fate of each member of the society.  

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Date Created
  • 2012