Matching Items (7)

152303-Thumbnail Image.png

The differences in correlates of physical activity between a sample of non-Hispanic blacks and non-Hispanic whites with arthritis

Description

Purpose: To examine: (1) whether Non-Hispanic Blacks (NHB) and Non-Hispanic Whites (NHW) with diagnosed arthritis differed in self-reported physical activity (PA) levels, (2) if NHB and NHW with arthritis differed

Purpose: To examine: (1) whether Non-Hispanic Blacks (NHB) and Non-Hispanic Whites (NHW) with diagnosed arthritis differed in self-reported physical activity (PA) levels, (2) if NHB and NHW with arthritis differed on potential correlates of PA based on the Social Ecological Model (Mcleroy et al., 1988), and (3) if PA participation varied by race/ethnicity after controlling for age, gender, education, and BMI. Methods: This study was a secondary data analysis of data collected from 2006-2008 in Chicago, IL as part of the Midwest Roybal Center for Health Promotion. Bivariate analyses were used to assess potential differences between race in meeting either ACR or ACSM PA guidelines. Comparisons by race between potential socio-demographic correlates and meeting physical activity guidelines were assessed using Chi-squares. Potential differences by race in psychosocial, arthritis, and health-related and environmental correlates were assessed using T-tests. Finally, logistic regression analyses were used to examine if race was still associated with PA after controlling for socio-demographic characteristics. Results: A greater proportion of NHW (68.1% and 35.3%) than NHB (46.5% and 20.9%) met both the arthritis-specific and the American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) recommendations for physical activity, respectively. NHB had significantly lower self-efficacy for exercise and reported greater impairments in physical function compared to NHW. Likewise, NHB reported more crime and less aesthetics within their neighborhood. NHW were 2.56 times more likely to meet arthritis-specific PA guidelines than NHB after controlling for age, gender, education, marital status, and BMI. In contrast, after controlling for sociodemographic characteristics, age and gender were the only significant predictors of meeting ACSM PA guidelines. Discussion: There were significant differences between NHB and NHW individuals with arthritis in meeting PA guidelines. After controlling for age, gender, education, and BMI non-Hispanic White individuals were still significantly more likely to meet PA guidelines. Interventions aimed at promoting higher levels of physical activity among individuals with arthritis need to consider neighborhood aesthetics and crime when designing programs. More arthritis-specific programs are needed in close proximity to neighborhoods in an effort to promote physical activity.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2013

151896-Thumbnail Image.png

Body composition and physical activity maintenance one year after a 12-week exercise intervention in women

Description

Purpose: Exercise interventions often result in less than predicted weight loss or even weight gain in some individuals, with over half of the weight that is lost often being regained

Purpose: Exercise interventions often result in less than predicted weight loss or even weight gain in some individuals, with over half of the weight that is lost often being regained within one year. The current study hypothesized that one year following a 12-week supervised exercise intervention, women who continued to exercise regularly but initially gained weight would lose the weight gained, reverting back to baseline with no restoration of set-point, or continue to lose weight if weight was initially lost. Conversely, those who discontinued purposeful exercise at the conclusion of the study were expected to continue to gain or regain weight. Methods: 24 women who completed the initial 12-week exercise intervention (90min/week of supervised treadmill walking at 70%VO2peak) participated in a follow-up study one year after the conclusion of the exercise intervention. Subjects underwent Dual-energy X-Ray Absorptiometry at baseline, 12-weeks, and 15 months, and filled out physical activity questionnaires at 15 months. Results: A considerable amount of heterogeneity was observed in body weight and fat mass changes among subjects, but there was no significant overall change in weight or fat mass from baseline to follow-up. 15 women were categorized as compensators and as a group gained weight (+ 0.94±3.26kg) and fat mass (+0.22±3.25kg) compared to the 9 non-compensators who lost body weight (-0.26±3.59kg) and had essentially no change in fat mass (+0.01±2.61kg) from 12-weeks to follow-up. There was a significant between group difference (p=.003) in change in fat mass from 12-weeks to follow-up between subjects who continued to regularly vigorously exercise (-2.205±3.070kg), and those who did not (+1.320±2.156kg). Additionally, energy compensation from baseline to 12-weeks and early body weight and composition changes during the intervention were moderate predictors of body weight and composition changes from baseline to follow-up. Conclusion: The main finding of this study is that following a 12-week supervised exercise intervention, women displayed a net loss of fat mass during the follow-up period if regular vigorous exercise was continued, regardless of whether they were classified as compensators or non-compensators during the initial intervention.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2013

150915-Thumbnail Image.png

The effect of an energy drink on acute muscle strength and fatigue in young males

Description

The popularization of energy drink use as a supplement to exercise is steadily increasing, especially among young adult males. However, the effects of energy drinks on muscular performance in young

The popularization of energy drink use as a supplement to exercise is steadily increasing, especially among young adult males. However, the effects of energy drinks on muscular performance in young adults have yet to be clearly elucidated. Eight male subjects (mean age: 23.3 ± 4.3 yrs, height: 181.0 ± 5.3 cm, fat percent 17.8 ± 5.2%, and weight 85.3 ± 12.6 kg) completed this randomized double-blinded cross over study. The purpose of this study was to determine differences in acute muscular strength and endurance and Profile of Mood States (POMS) scores between three treatments (RockStar, sugar-free RockStar, and sugar-free caffeine-free Placebo). It was hypothesized that there would be no significant differences in acute peak torque and endurance of the knee extensors and flexors or on fatigue and vigor subscores from the POMS questionnaire. Each man was tested randomly at least 1 week apart. Diet and time of day were held constant across trials. Peak torque of knee extensors and flexors at 60, 180, 240 degress/second and fatigue index and total work were calculated by performing 50 repetitions at 240 degrees/second. There were no significant differences in peak torque, fatigue index, or total work measures or in subjective measures of fatigue or vigor from the POMS between the treatments. This study indicates that RockStar energy drinks have no acute ergogenic effects in young men performing isokinetic strength or endurance testing.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2012

152077-Thumbnail Image.png

Incidence of injury in relation to limb dominance in Arizona State University men's and women's gymnastics teams

Description

Previous research on gymnastics injuries has examined several differences in the types of injuries and event/location where injury is most likely to occur. This research shows that male gymnasts are

Previous research on gymnastics injuries has examined several differences in the types of injuries and event/location where injury is most likely to occur. This research shows that male gymnasts are more likely to have more upper body injuries compared to lower body injuries whereas female gymnasts are more likely to have lower body injuries. The majority of all gymnastics injuries are sprains that are most likely to occur during the landing phase on the floor exercise during routine performance or competition. Gymnastics injuries are also more prevalent in older gymnasts, like those at the collegiate level. However, there is limited research on the effects of limb dominance on injury occurrence in both male and female gymnasts at the collegiate level. This study was designed to examine the effect of both upper and lower body limb dominance on injury occurrence in Division I male and female gymnasts at Arizona State University during competition season. Thirty-seven subjects were recruited from the Arizona State University Men's and Women's Gymnastics teams. Athletic trainers/coaches from each team were asked to record injury incidence during the 2013 competition season from January through April. Injury type, body location, event of occurrence, and location of injury (practice or competition) were recorded along with the gymnast's upper and lower body limb dominance (right or left). Statistical analysis shows that there is a significant difference between male and female gymnasts in that female gymnasts are more likely to be injured than their male counterparts (P = 0.023). However, there were no significant findings between limb dominance and injury incidence. Limb dominance did not show any relationship with side of injury, but a trend in the data shows that right-sided dominant athletes, both upper and lower body, were more likely to be injured overall than left-sided dominant athletes. A trend in the data also shows that injury is more likely to occur on the floor exercise than any other gymnastics event for both men and women.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2013

149787-Thumbnail Image.png

The effect of high intensity interval training on VO2 peak and performance in trained high school rowers

Description

High Intensity Interval Training (HIIT) is a phrase quickly becoming popularized through current research due to the physical and physiological success this method of training has proven to yield in

High Intensity Interval Training (HIIT) is a phrase quickly becoming popularized through current research due to the physical and physiological success this method of training has proven to yield in both untrained and trained individuals. There is no set definition used to describe HIIT, but it typically refers to repeated bouts of fairly brief intermittent exercise. A great deal of research outlines the benefits associated with utilizing HIIT in untrained and recreationally trained individuals. However, research on the effect HIIT has or could possibly have on the well-trained endurance athlete is limited, specifically in the sport of rowing. The purpose of this study was to analyze the effect of HIIT on VO2 peak and performance in trained rowers when compared to traditional, endurance training. It was hypothesized that HIIT would be just as effective at improving VO2 peak and performance as the endurance training protocol in well-trained rowers. A total of 20 high school female rowers participated in the study (mean ± SD; age = 16 ± 1). Baseline testing was comprised of a 2000m time-trial test on the Concept IIc Rowing Ergometer and a maximal exercise test, which was also completed on the Concept IIc Ergometer, in order to determine VO2 peak. Subjects were randomly assigned to a HIIT or endurance group for four weeks of intervention. Three days/week the HIIT group completed a 6 by 30second repeated Wingate protocol on the Concept II Ergometer at or above 100% VO2 peak, in which each 30s maximal effort was immediately followed by an active recovery of four-minutes. The endurance group completed 30 minutes of sub-maximal rowing at 65% of VO2 peak three days/week. After four weeks of intervention, post-testing took place, which was identical to baseline testing. Results from this study suggest HIIT was just as effective as endurance training at improving 2k time (mean ± SD; HIIT: 498.7 ± 23.1; Endurance: 497.5 ± 17.6). There were no significant within or between group differences in VO2 peak post-intervention (mean ± SD; HIIT: 44.8 ± 4.0; Endurance: 45.8 ± 5.6). The current study suggests four-weeks of HIIT training can yield similar adaptations in performance when compared to endurance training.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2011

149850-Thumbnail Image.png

Energy expenditure of resistance training activities in young men

Description

ABSTRACT The purpose of this study was to determine the energy cost of four modes of resistance training (push-ups, pull-ups, curl-ups, lunges). Twelve well trained men aged 23.6

ABSTRACT The purpose of this study was to determine the energy cost of four modes of resistance training (push-ups, pull-ups, curl-ups, lunges). Twelve well trained men aged 23.6 (SD=2.84) years were recruited to participate in the study. Each of the 12 men completed three trials of each of the four exercises on one visit to the laboratory lasting slightly over one hour (M=72 min, SD=5.9 min). The oxygen consumption of the men was monitored constantly throughout the trial and data was recorded every five seconds. Mean VO2 values were calculated for each exercise. The values for push-ups (M=11.57 ml/kg/min, SD=1.99), curl-ups (M=10.99 ml/kg/min, SD=1.48), pull-ups (M=10.87 ml/kg/min, SD=2.51), and lunges (M=14.18 ml/kg/min, SD=1.78) were converted to METs (Metabolic Equivalents). The MET values (3.31, 3.14, 3.11, and 4.05 respectively) all fall within the range of moderate intensity activity. The findings of this study show that a single set of any of the above exercises will qualify as a moderate intensity activity and can be used to meet recommendations on daily physical activity.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2011

149990-Thumbnail Image.png

Physical fitness in Army National Guard soldiers and its relationship on utilization of medical resources during combat

Description

The effects of a long-term combat deployment on a soldier's physical fitness are not well understood. In active duty soldiers, combat deployment reduced physical fitness compared to pre-deployment status, but

The effects of a long-term combat deployment on a soldier's physical fitness are not well understood. In active duty soldiers, combat deployment reduced physical fitness compared to pre-deployment status, but no similar research has been performed on Army National Guard soldiers. This study is the first to identify physical fitness changes in Arizona National Guard (AZNG) soldiers following deployment to a combat zone and to assess the relationships between physical fitness and non-combat injuries and illness (NCII). Sixty soldiers from the Arizona National Guard (AZNG) completed a battery of physical fitness tests prior to deployment and within 1-7 days of returning from a 12-month deployment to Iraq. Pre and post-deployment measures assessed body composition (Bod Pod), muscular strength (1RM bench press, back-squat), muscular endurance (push-up, sit-up), power (Wingate cycle test), cardiorespiratory fitness (treadmill run to VO2 peak), and flexibility (sit-and-reach, trunk extension, shoulder elevation). Post deployment, medical records were reviewed by a blinded researcher and inventoried for NCII that occurred during deployment. Data were analyzed for changes between pre and post-deployment physical fitness. Relationships between fitness and utilization of medical resources for NCII were then determined. Significant declines were noted in mean cardiorespiratory fitness (-10.8%) and trunk flexibility (-6.7%). Significant improvements were seen in mean level of fat mass (-11.1%), relative strength (bench press, 10.2%, back-squat 14.2%) and muscular endurance (push-up 16.4%, sit-up 11.0%). Significant (p < 0.05) negative correlations were detected between percentage change in fat mass and gastrointestinal visits (r = -0.37); sit-and-reach and lower extremity visits (r= -0.33); shoulder elevation and upper extremity visits (r= -0.36); and cardiorespiratory fitness and back visits (r= -0.31); as well as behavioral health visits (r= -0.28). Cardiorespiratory fitness changes were grouped into tertiles. Those who lost the greatest fitness had significantly greater number of NCII visits (8.0 v 3.1 v 2.6, p = .03). These data indicate a relationship between the decline in cardiorespiratory fitness and an overall increase in utilization of medical resources. The results may provide incentive to military leaders to ensure that soldiers maintain their cardiorespiratory fitness throughout the extent of their deployment.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2011