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Examination of the Relationship between Per Pupil Expenditures and Crime Rates

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Over the last fifty years, education funding has been litigated and debated in the United States. In an effort to uncover more into the effects of state dollars on education, I used the guiding research question: did differences in state-level

Over the last fifty years, education funding has been litigated and debated in the United States. In an effort to uncover more into the effects of state dollars on education, I used the guiding research question: did differences in state-level education funding trends in the 1990s affect crime rates? With the help of literature on changing education-funding trends, I selected the timeframe of 1990-1995 because some states and jurisdictions increased their funding while others decreased it. For my research, I outlined the independent variable of per pupil expenditures in order to focus directly on the dollars that impact the individual student, and the dependent variables of burglary, robbery, and motor vehicle theft crime rates because juveniles typically commit these crimes. Unemployment rates and household income served as confounding variables, as these economic factors have been proven to affect crime rates. Using the difference-in-difference method, I was able to test the effect of the implementation of a treatment, increased education funding, on my control and treatment group over the 1990-1995-time period. After running a regression on each of my selected juvenile-specific crime rates, I found my results to be inconclusive; however, by factoring in more confounding variables, I believe this quasi-experimental approach can be repeated to find more solid results.

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Date Created
2018-05

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Communication Strategies for Effective Social Media Use in Local Governments

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An information influx and numerous modes of content delivery has resulted in local governments competing for the public's attention. A recent poll from the Public Technology Institute discovered that although 85% of Local Governments use social media to disseminate information

An information influx and numerous modes of content delivery has resulted in local governments competing for the public's attention. A recent poll from the Public Technology Institute discovered that although 85% of Local Governments use social media to disseminate information to their constituents, only 37% have an enterprise-wide social media strategy (PTI, 2017). Without a clear approach towards social media, Local Governments are failing to maximize their voices and often ineffective when reaching out to their constituents. Research has suggested, charisma is a successful tool for capturing an audience's attention and conveying a memorable message. Charisma can also be taught and executed not only through spoken rhetoric but in online social media platforms. Within this study, 18 local government employees participated in an educational workshop on the use of nine non-verbal "Charismatic Leadership Tactics". Participants completed a pre-workshop assignment which was later compared to a post-workshop assignment. Results showed, participants on average, increased their use of Charismatic Leadership Tactics by a mean of 61%. Researchers collected social media analytics one month prior and one month following the workshop from the City's social media accounts in which participants managed. Collectively, of the thirteen social media accounts, the overall total engagement was greater the month after the educational workshop compared to the month before the workshop. These results suggest charisma can be taught, charisma can be conveyed through micro-blogosphere platforms such as Twitter, and the use of Charismatic Leadership Tactics could be responsible for increasing follower engagement with social media content.

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Date Created
2018-05

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U.S. - East Asia Relations: Before and After the Trump Campaign

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This piece highlights the Trump administration's history of diplomatic relations with states in East Asia (specifically North Korea (DPRK), South Korea (ROK), Japan, and China). The research in this essay primarily focuses on Trump's public attitudes towards these states during

This piece highlights the Trump administration's history of diplomatic relations with states in East Asia (specifically North Korea (DPRK), South Korea (ROK), Japan, and China). The research in this essay primarily focuses on Trump's public attitudes towards these states during his presidential campaign, and seeks to establish if any negative statements towards East Asian states have affected social and diplomatic relations after Trump's inauguration. Overall, residents of Japan and South Korea had an overwhelmingly negative view of Trump during his campaign, primarily due to cultural differences and dissatisfaction with Trump's blunt, unpredictable demeanor which clashes with Japanese and Korean social norms. While public opinion of Trump was still low in mainland China, Trump's attitude is reminiscent of Mao Zedong's Cultural Revolution which serves as the societal and governmental framework of the modern People's Republic of China. Therefore, individuals living in China were more likely to be attracted to Trump's personality \u2014 this evident through the popularity of Trump "fan clubs" which gained popularity on Chinese social media websites during the American presidential campaign period. In terms of the bilateral relations between the U.S. and each East Asian state, Donald Trump's negative statements towards China, Japan, and South Korea during his campaign did not significantly impact diplomatic relations during his presidency. While Trump is vocally opposed to certain initiatives that are supported by these heads of state, he has demonstrated a willingness to discuss issues with these leaders. While this openness is not completely evident in U.S. \u2014 Southeast Asian relations, the leaders of Northeast Asia have set aside Trump's controversial campaign statements and have reciprocated his willingness to discuss important issues.

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2018-05

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Documenting enhanced nitrogen removal in an aridland Constructed Treatment Wetland

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The rise in urban populations is encouraging cities to pursue sustainable water treatment services implementing constructed treatment wetlands (CTW). This is especially important in arid climates where water resources are scarce; however, research regarding aridland CTWs is limited.

The rise in urban populations is encouraging cities to pursue sustainable water treatment services implementing constructed treatment wetlands (CTW). This is especially important in arid climates where water resources are scarce; however, research regarding aridland CTWs is limited. The Tres Rios CTW in Phoenix, Arizona, USA, presents the tradeoff between greater water loss and enhanced nitrogen (N) removal. Previous research has suggested that water loss due to transpiration is replaced by a phenomenon termed the Biological Tide. This trend has been documented since 2011 by combining transpiration values with a nitrogen budget. Calculations were made at both the marsh and whole-system scale. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate how the Biological Tide enhances N uptake throughout the CTW. Results indicate that about half of the nitrogen taken up by the vegetated marsh is associated with new water entering the marsh via the Biological Tide with even higher values during warmer months. Furthermore, it is this phenomenon that enhances N uptake throughout the year, on average, by 25.9% for nitrite, 9.54% for nitrate, and 4.84% for ammonium at the whole-system scale and 95.5%, 147%, and 118% within the marsh. This paper demonstrates the Biological Tide’s significant impact on enhanced N removal in an aridland CTW.

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2019-05

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Building a Culture of Care: Mental Health Awareness for Elementary School Teachers

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This study examines the intersectionality of mental health and education, with an emphasis on resources and awareness for elementary school teachers. It starts with a review of mental health awareness in society, particularly in regard to social stigma and its

This study examines the intersectionality of mental health and education, with an emphasis on resources and awareness for elementary school teachers. It starts with a review of mental health awareness in society, particularly in regard to social stigma and its associated effects. I then discuss the existing resources, teaching methods, and third party interventions which address mental health awareness and care within elementary schools. Within this context, the research supports the strong influence of teachers’ behaviors and perceivable attitudes on students. However, despite the identification of teachers playing a significant role in the availability of mental health resources for students, existing studies rarely addresses the necessity of mental health awareness and care to optimize teacher capacity and counteract occupational stress. The study examines the current approach and challenges of an elementary school that has expressed interest in creating a culture of care, characterized by mental health awareness and resources that support teachers within the school environment. After identifying the key mental health concerns of the school’s stakeholders, I propose a custom program of self-care and mental health awareness to support the current work culture. The study concludes with examination of implementation strategies for the school, as well as implications for future mental health awareness in similar settings.

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Date Created
2019-05

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Police and Persons with Mental Illness

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Mental illness creates a unique challenge for police. Changes in medical infrastructure have left many mentally ill without adequate access to resources or treatment. They often face additional challenges of substance abuse and homelessness. This has led to increasingly frequent

Mental illness creates a unique challenge for police. Changes in medical infrastructure have left many mentally ill without adequate access to resources or treatment. They often face additional challenges of substance abuse and homelessness. This has led to increasingly frequent contact with police and a shift from mental illness being treated as a health problem to being treated as a police problem. Police are unable to provide treatment, and are frustrated by the amount of their time consumed by persons with mental illness (PMI) and by the amount of time and effort it takes to connect them with treatment. Due to the unpredictable behavior often caused by mental illness and the way police are trained to deal with uncooperative behavior, persons suffering from mental illness are subject to the use of force by police at a disproportionate rate. Police are trying to combat these problems with the implementation of advanced training and the development of Crisis Intervention Teams and Mobile Response Units, as well as increasing connections with local medical facilities to promote treatment over arrest. Other strategies have been experimented with, both in the United States and across the globe, but there is currently a limited amount of research on how effective these programs are. Anecdotally, the most successful programs seem to be those that take a comprehensive approach to mental illness, creating solutions that include police, medical facilities, courts, dispatchers, first responders, and the community. Due to the limits of programs confined to one institution, it is recommended that treatment be expanded and police receive advanced training in dealing with mentally ill people, as well as involving others in the criminal justice and medical communities so that they provide a coordinated response to PMI.

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Date Created
2019-05

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An Exploration on Community Organizing: Operations, Issue Determination, and Impact Scope

Description

Community organizing can be defined as “the coordination of cooperative efforts and campaigning carried out by local residents to promote the interests of their community” (Oxford Dictionary). Yet this term can be interpreted differently based on the interests and issues

Community organizing can be defined as “the coordination of cooperative efforts and campaigning carried out by local residents to promote the interests of their community” (Oxford Dictionary). Yet this term can be interpreted differently based on the interests and issues of a community and those who seek to serve it. Since community organizations are commonly structured to address community needs, their efforts are very different depending on the demographics, regions, and capabilities of the organization itself and its constituencies. The details of community organizing are best understood by learning from current organizations working to reflect the identities and issues of the communities they work for. The current research sought to understand how community organizations operate - from the decision-making process, to coalition-building, to hiring, and beyond - as well as how their impact works in relation to national advocacy efforts. The analyses found within this research can inform audiences on how community organizations measure impact, how they choose to engage in building people power, and how to become involved with these types of organizations.

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Date Created
2019-05

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The Evolution of the Public Perception of Feminism

Description

Over the last 30 years, the public has become somewhat less willing to accept the “feminist” label. However, most Americans indicate support for general feminist ideals. In fact, many of these ideals have become so prevalent in American culture that

Over the last 30 years, the public has become somewhat less willing to accept the “feminist” label. However, most Americans indicate support for general feminist ideals. In fact, many of these ideals have become so prevalent in American culture that they are not considered feminist anymore. This thesis will examine the reason behind this disparity and analyze where public opinion began to shift. The disparity between the definition of feminism and the definition perceived by the public will be explored along with the idea that the American people still want and need a “feminist movement,” but that its current state is not resonating with the majority of the public.

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Date Created
2019-05

Devils on Taylor: Creating Lasting Traditions in the Digital Age

Description

Devils on Taylor is a creative project that explores the role social media plays in
establishing traditions in the current digital landscape. Contemporary marketing
practices adhere to formulaic social media campaigns that we wanted to experiment
within establishing the tailgate

Devils on Taylor is a creative project that explores the role social media plays in
establishing traditions in the current digital landscape. Contemporary marketing
practices adhere to formulaic social media campaigns that we wanted to experiment
within establishing the tailgate event, Devils on Taylor, as a tradition on the Arizona
State University Downtown Phoenix campus. Drawing inspiration from established
traditions on the main, Tempe campus at Arizona State University, we focused on how
social media could grow our event to a comparable caliber of long-standing events such
as Devils on Mill & Devils on College. There were three major components in creating
this project: 1) creating an event with significance and meaning to the surrounding
community; 2) making the given community aware and excited about participating in the
event on a recurring basis; and 3) cultivating new leadership to continue executing this
tradition and successfully passing it down each semester/year. Effective marketing
campaigns cater to the tendencies of the targeted demographic and are imperative to
modify based on the audience. Understanding the target demographic of 18-24-year
olds fundamentally altered our marketing strategy for Devils on Taylor and resulted in
our heavy concentration on social media. This project compares the effectiveness of
marketing strategies such as Facebook, Instagram, flyers and word of mouth and
develops conclusions based on the turnout to Devils on Taylor events, membership
in Inferno Insiders, which is the organization that hosts these events, and the potential
for these two entities to sustain themselves in the following years. Interestingly, the
symbiotic relationship between Inferno Insiders and Devils on Taylor presented unique
challenges. We note the consequences of creating an organization to create a tradition
and project our confidence in the longevity of Devils on Taylor.

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Date Created
2019-05

Concentrating on Law School: Creating Pre-Law School Curriculum at ASU

Description

"Concentrating on Law School: Creating Pre-Law Curriculum at ASU" partners with the Watts College of Public Service and Community Solutions to create a fifteen-credit certificate program at Arizona State University to help students prepare for law school. The certificate, Legal

"Concentrating on Law School: Creating Pre-Law Curriculum at ASU" partners with the Watts College of Public Service and Community Solutions to create a fifteen-credit certificate program at Arizona State University to help students prepare for law school. The certificate, Legal and Policy Studies, incorporates sixty-two courses from twenty-two different disciplines at the university. The program aims to supplement a student's primary major and field of interest while simultaneously providing a foundation of public policy to better understand the subject of law and students' surrounding community. The law school preparation program is designed based on a philosophy of accessibility to rigorous preparation by students of all socioeconomic backgrounds and high student discretion. The Legal and Policy Studies certificate, if implemented at the university, will be the most interdisciplinary pre-law preparation program in the nation. The project is comprised of multiple parts: research conducted to identify law school preparation resources already offered at ASU, comparative research of academic programs at other universities, input from both law school-hopeful undergraduates and current ASU Law 1Ls into the program's formation, and creation of the certificate program. The certificate also includes a mock law class specifically for undergraduates (PAF 499), which would be introduced to the university in AY 2019-2020. The thesis recommends that the class be similarly structured to a 1L law class regarding rigor, cold-calling culture, and introduction to basic skills imperative to law school success (i.e. how to brief cases, Bluebook/Westlaw basics). The thesis also encourages the Watts College to hire an faculty member to teach the mock law class with a background teaching 1L courses and a general familiarity with the structure and culture of a first year law course.

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2018-12