Matching Items (34)

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2D VAR single Doppler lidar vector retrieval and its application in offshore wind energy

Description

Remote sensors like Doppler lidars can map the winds with high accuracy and spatial resolution. One shortcoming of lidars is that the radial velocity measured by the lidar does not

Remote sensors like Doppler lidars can map the winds with high accuracy and spatial resolution. One shortcoming of lidars is that the radial velocity measured by the lidar does not give a complete picture of the windfield necessitating additional data processing to reconstruct the windfield. Most of the popular vector retrieval algorithms rely on the homogenous wind field assumption which plays a vital role in reducing the indeterminacy of the inverse problem of obtaining Cartesian velocity from radial velocity measurements. Consequently, these methods fail in situations where the flow is heterogeneous e.g., Turbine wakes. Alternate methods are based either on statistical models (e.g., optimal interpolation [1]) or computationally intensive four dimensional variational methods [2]. This study deals with a 2D variational vector retrieval for Doppler lidar that uses the radial velocity advection equation as an additional constraint along with a tangential velocity constraint derived from a new formulation with gradients of radial velocity. The retrieval was applied on lidar data from a wind farm and preliminary analysis revealed that the algorithm was able to retrieve the mean wind field while preserving the small scale flow structure.

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Date Created
  • 2017-10

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An Evaluation of Wind Energy in the Urban Environment

Description

The global energy demand is expected to grow significantly in the next several decades and support for energy generation with high carbon emissions is continuing to decline. Alternative methods have

The global energy demand is expected to grow significantly in the next several decades and support for energy generation with high carbon emissions is continuing to decline. Alternative methods have gained interest, and wind energy has established itself as a viable source. Standard wind farms have limited room for growth and improvement, so wind energy has started to explore different directions. The urban environment is a potential direction for wind energy due to its proximity to the bulk of energy demand. CFD analysis has demonstrated that the presence of buildings can accelerate wind speeds between buildings and on rooftops. However, buildings generate areas of increased turbulence at their surface. The turbulence thickness and intensity vary with roof shape, building height, and building orientation. The analysis has concluded that good wind resource is possible in the urban environment in specific locations. With that, turbine selection becomes very important. A comparison has concluded that vertical axis wind turbines are more useful in the urban environment than horizontal axis wind turbines. Furthermore, building-augmented wind turbines are recommended because they are architecturally integrated into a building for the specific purpose of generating more energy. The research has concluded that large-scale generation in the urban environment is unlikely to be successful, but small-scale generation is quite viable. Continued research and investigation on urban wind energy is recommended.

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Date Created
  • 2014-05

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Pavement surfaces impact on local temperature and building cooling energy consumption

Description

Pavement surface temperature is calculated using a fundamental energy balance model developed previously. It can be studied using a one-dimensional mathematical model. The input to the model is changed, to

Pavement surface temperature is calculated using a fundamental energy balance model developed previously. It can be studied using a one-dimensional mathematical model. The input to the model is changed, to study the effect of different properties of pavement on its diurnal surface temperatures. It is observed that the pavement surface temperature has a microclimatic effect on the air temperature above it. A major increase in local air temperature is caused by heating of solid surfaces in that locality. A case study was done and correlations have been established to calculate the air temperature above a paved surface. Validation with in-situ pavement surface and air temperatures were made. Experimental measurement for the city of Phoenix shows the difference between the ambient air temperature of the city and the microclimatic air temperature above the pavement is approximately 10 degrees Fahrenheit. One mitigation strategy that has been explored is increasing the albedo of the paved surface. Although it will reduce the pavement surface temperature, leading to a reduction in air temperature close to the surface, the increased pavement albedo will also result in greater reflected solar radiation directed towards the building, thus increasing the building solar load. The first effect will imply a reduction in the building energy consumption, while the second effect will imply an increase in the building energy consumption. Simulation is done using the EnergyPlus tool, to find the microclimatic effect of pavement on the building energy performance. The results indicate the cooling energy savings of an office building for different types of pavements can be variable as much as 30%.

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Date Created
  • 2015

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Investigating the Thermodynamic Cycle and Efficiency of the Thermal Hydraulic Engine

Description

About 20-50% of industrial processes energy is lost as waste heat in their operations. The thermal hydraulic engine relies on the thermodynamic properties of supercritical carbon dioxide (CO2) to efficiently

About 20-50% of industrial processes energy is lost as waste heat in their operations. The thermal hydraulic engine relies on the thermodynamic properties of supercritical carbon dioxide (CO2) to efficiently perform work. Carbon dioxide possesses great properties that makes it a safe working fluid for the engine’s applications. This research aims to preliminarily investigate the actual efficiency which can be obtained through experimental data and compare that to the Carnot or theoretical maximum efficiency. The actual efficiency is investigated through three approaches. However, only the efficiency results from the second method are validated since the other approaches are based on a complete actual cycle which was not achieved for the engine. The efficiency of the thermal hydraulic engine is found to be in the range of 0.5% to 2.2% based on the second method which relies on the boundary work by the piston. The heating and cooling phases of the engine’s operation are viewed on both the T-s (temperature-entropy) and p-v (pressure-volume) diagrams. The Carnot efficiency is also found to be 13.7% from a temperature difference of 46.20C based on the measured experimental data. It is recommended that the thermodynamic cycle and efficiency investigation be repeated using an improved heat exchanger design to reduce energy losses and gains during both the heating and cooling phases. The temperature of CO2 can be measured through direct contact with the thermocouple and pressure measurements can be improved using a digital pressure transducer for the thermodynamic cycle investigation.

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Date Created
  • 2020

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Thermal Drainage Flow of a Viscous Gas From a Semi-Sealed Narrow Channel

Description

Drainage flow of a viscous compressible gas from a semi-sealed narrow conduit is a pore-scale model for studying the fundamental flow physics of fluid recovery from a porous reservoir without

Drainage flow of a viscous compressible gas from a semi-sealed narrow conduit is a pore-scale model for studying the fundamental flow physics of fluid recovery from a porous reservoir without using fluid injection. Thermal effect has been routinely neglected for these flows in the traditional petroleum engineering literature. Since the motion is entirely driven by volumetric expansion, temperature change always accompanies the density change. This thesis examines such thermal effects on the drainage flow.

Thermal drainage flow is first studied by simultaneously solving the linearized continuity, momentum and energy equations for adiabatic walls. It is shown that even in the absence of an imposed temperature drop, gas expansion induces a transient temperature decrease inside the channel, which slows down the drainage process compared to the isothermal model and Lighthill’s model. For a given density drop, gas drains out faster as the initial-to-final temperature ratio increases; and the transient density can undershoot the final equilibrium value. A parametric study is then carried out to explore the influence of various thermal boundary conditions on drainage flow. It is found that as the wall transitions from adiabatic to isothermal condition, the excess density changes from a plane wave solution to a non-plane wave solution and the drainage rate increases. It is shown that when the exit is also cooled and the wall is non-adiabatic, the total recovered fluid mass exceeds the amount based on the isothermal theory which is determined by the initial and final density difference alone. Finally, a full numerical simulation is conducted to mimic the channel-reservoir system using the finite volume method. The Ghost-Cell Navier-Stokes Characteristic Boundary Condition technique is applied at the far end of the truncated reservoir, which is an open boundary. The results confirm the conclusions of the linear theory.

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Date Created
  • 2020

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Aerodynamic Characterization of a Tethered Rotor

Description

An airborne, tethered, multi-rotor wind turbine, effectively a rotorcraft kite, provides one platform for accessing the energy in high altitude winds. The craft is maintained at altitude by its rotors

An airborne, tethered, multi-rotor wind turbine, effectively a rotorcraft kite, provides one platform for accessing the energy in high altitude winds. The craft is maintained at altitude by its rotors operating in autorotation, and its equilibrium attitude and dynamic performance are affected by the aerodynamic rotor forces, which in turn are affected by the orientation and motion of the craft. The aerodynamic performance of such rotors can vary significantly depending on orientation, influencing the efficiency of the system. This thesis analyzes the aerodynamic performance of an autorotating rotor through a range of angles of attack covering those experienced by a typical autogyro through that of a horizontal-axis wind turbine. To study the behavior of such rotors, an analytical model using the blade element theory coupled with momentum theory was developed. The model uses a rigid-rotor assumption and is nominally limited to cases of small induced inflow angle and constant induced velocity. The model allows for linear twist. In order to validate the model, several rotors -- off-the-shelf model-aircraft propellers -- were tested in a low speed wind tunnel. Custom built mounts allowed rotor angles of attack from 0 to 90 degrees in the test section, providing data for lift, drag, thrust, horizontal force, and angular velocity. Experimental results showed increasing thrust and angular velocity with rising pitch angles, whereas the in-plane horizontal force peaked and dropped after a certain value. The analytical results revealed a disagreement with the experimental trends, especially at high pitch angles. The discrepancy was attributed to the rotor operating in turbulent wake and vortex ring states at high pitch angles, where momentum theory has proven to be invalid. Also, aerodynamic design constants, which are not precisely known for the test propellers, have an underlying effect on the analytical model. The developments of the thesis suggest that a different analytical model may be needed for high rotor angles of attack. However, adding a term for resisting torque to the model gives analytical results that are similar to the experimental values.

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Date Created
  • 2019

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Numerical methods and simulations of complex multiphase flows

Description

Multiphase flows are an important part of many natural and technological phe- nomena such as ocean-air coupling (which is important for climate modeling) and the atomization of liquid fuel jets

Multiphase flows are an important part of many natural and technological phe- nomena such as ocean-air coupling (which is important for climate modeling) and the atomization of liquid fuel jets in combustion engines. The unique challenges of multiphase flow often make analytical solutions to the governing equations impos- sible and experimental investigations very difficult. Thus, high-fidelity numerical simulations can play a pivotal role in understanding these systems. This disserta- tion describes numerical methods developed for complex multiphase flows and the simulations performed using these methods. First, the issue of multiphase code verification is addressed. Code verification answers the question "Is this code solving the equations correctly?" The method of manufactured solutions (MMS) is a procedure for generating exact benchmark solutions which can test the most general capabilities of a code. The chief obstacle to applying MMS to multiphase flow lies in the discontinuous nature of the material properties at the interface. An extension of the MMS procedure to multiphase flow is presented, using an adaptive marching tetrahedron style algorithm to compute the source terms near the interface. Guidelines for the use of the MMS to help locate coding mistakes are also detailed. Three multiphase systems are then investigated: (1) the thermocapillary motion of three-dimensional and axisymmetric drops in a confined apparatus, (2) the flow of two immiscible fluids completely filling an enclosed cylinder and driven by the rotation of the bottom endwall, and (3) the atomization of a single drop subjected to a high shear turbulent flow. The systems are simulated numerically by solving the full multiphase Navier- Stokes equations coupled to the various equations of state and a level set interface tracking scheme based on the refined level set grid method. The codes have been parallelized using MPI in order to take advantage of today's very large parallel computational architectures. In the first system, the code's ability to handle surface tension and large tem- perature gradients is established. In the second system, the code's ability to sim- ulate simple interface geometries with strong shear is demonstrated. In the third system, the ability to handle extremely complex geometries and topology changes with strong shear is shown.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2011

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Optimized vortex tube bundle for large flow rate applications

Description

ABSTRACT A vortex tube is a device of a simple structure with no moving parts that can be used to separate a compressed gas into a hot stream and a

ABSTRACT A vortex tube is a device of a simple structure with no moving parts that can be used to separate a compressed gas into a hot stream and a cold stream. Many studies have been carried out to find the mechanisms of the energy separation in the vortex tube. Recent rapid development in computational fluid dynamics is providing a powerful tool to investigate the complex flow in the vortex tube. However various issues in these numerical simulations remain, such as choosing the most suitable turbulent model, as well as the lack of systematic comparative analysis. LES model for the vortex tube simulation is hardly used in the present literatures, and the influence of parameters on the performance of the vortex tube has scarcely been studied. This study is aimed to find the influence of various parameters on the performance of the vortex tube, the best geometric value of vortex tube and the realizable method to reach the required cold out flow rate 40 kg/s . First of all, setting up an original 3-D simulation vortex tube model. By comparing experiment results reported in the literature and our simulation results, a most suitable model for the simulation of the vortex tube is obtained. Secondly, we perform simulations to optimize parameters that can deliver a set of desired output, such as cold stream pressure, temperature and flow-rate. We also discuss the use of the cold air flow for petroleum engineering applications.

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Date Created
  • 2013

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Viscous Compressible Flow Through a Micro-Conduit: Slip-Like Flow Rate with No-Slip Boundary Condition

Description

This dissertation studies two outstanding microscale fluid mechanics problems: 1) mechanisms of gas production from the nanopores of shale; 2) enhanced mass flow rate in steady compressible gas flow through

This dissertation studies two outstanding microscale fluid mechanics problems: 1) mechanisms of gas production from the nanopores of shale; 2) enhanced mass flow rate in steady compressible gas flow through a micro-conduit.

The dissertation starts with a study of a volumetric expansion driven drainage flow of a viscous compressible fluid from a small capillary and channel in the low Mach number limit. An analysis based on the linearized compressible Navier-Stokes equations with no-slip condition shows that fluid drainage is controlled by the slow decay of the acoustic wave inside the capillary and the no-slip flow exhibits a slip-like mass flow rate. Numerical simulations are also carried out for drainage from a small capillary to a reservoir or a contraction of finite size. By allowing the density wave to escape the capillary, two wave leakage mechanisms are identified, which are dependent on the capillary length to radius ratio, reservoir size and acoustic Reynolds number. Empirical functions are generated for an effective diffusive coefficient which allows simple calculations of the drainage rate using a diffusion model without the presence of the reservoir or contraction.

In the second part of the dissertation, steady viscous compressible flow through a micro-conduit is studied using compressible Navier-Stokes equations with no-slip condition. The mathematical theory of Klainerman and Majda for low Mach number flow is employed to derive asymptotic equations in the limit of small Mach number. The overall flow, a combination of the Hagen-Poiseuille flow and a diffusive velocity shows a slip-like mass flow rate even through the overall velocity satisfies the no-slip condition. The result indicates that the classical formulation includes self-diffusion effect and it embeds the Extended Navier-Stokes equation theory (ENSE) without the need of introducing additional constitutive hypothesis or assuming slip on the boundary. Contrary to most ENSE publications, the predicted mass flow rate is still significantly below the measured data based on an extensive comparison with thirty-five experiments.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2019

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Optimization of the implementation of renewable resources in a municipal electric utility in Arizona

Description

A municipal electric utility in Mesa, Arizona with a peak load of approximately 85 megawatts (MW) was analyzed to determine how the implementation of renewable resources (both wind and solar)

A municipal electric utility in Mesa, Arizona with a peak load of approximately 85 megawatts (MW) was analyzed to determine how the implementation of renewable resources (both wind and solar) would affect the overall cost of energy purchased by the utility. The utility currently purchases all of its energy through long term energy supply contracts and does not own any generation assets and so optimization was achieved by minimizing the overall cost of energy while adhering to specific constraints on how much energy the utility could purchase from the short term energy market. Scenarios were analyzed for a five percent and a ten percent penetration of renewable energy in the years 2015 and 2025. Demand Side Management measures (through thermal storage in the City's district cooling system, electric vehicles, and customers' air conditioning improvements) were evaluated to determine if they would mitigate some of the cost increases that resulted from the addition of renewable resources.

In the 2015 simulation, wind energy was less expensive than solar to integrate to the supply mix. When five percent of the utility's energy requirements in 2015 are met by wind, this caused a 3.59% increase in the overall cost of energy. When that five percent is met by solar in 2015, it is estimated to cause a 3.62% increase in the overall cost of energy. A mix of wind and solar in 2015 caused a lower increase in the overall cost of energy of 3.57%. At the ten percent implementation level in 2015, solar, wind, and a mix of solar and wind caused increases of 7.28%, 7.51% and 7.27% respectively in the overall cost of energy.

In 2025, at the five percent implementation level, wind and solar caused increases in the overall cost of energy of 3.07% and 2.22% respectively. In 2025, at the ten percent implementation level, wind and solar caused increases in the overall cost of energy of 6.23% and 4.67% respectively.

Demand Side Management reduced the overall cost of energy by approximately 0.6%, mitigating some of the cost increase from adding renewable resources.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2014