Matching Items (3)

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Influence of Colchicine-Induced Polyploidy on Capsaicin Concentration in Peppers

Description

Colchicine is a chemical known for inhibiting mitosis during eukaryotic cellular reproduction by halting the tubulin formation necessary for the division of the chromosomes. The meristem is the primary source

Colchicine is a chemical known for inhibiting mitosis during eukaryotic cellular reproduction by halting the tubulin formation necessary for the division of the chromosomes. The meristem is the primary source of mitosis in developing flowering plants, and it was the focus of our research to determine if the hindrance of mitosis would interfere with the production of capsaicinoids within pungent pepper plants. Moruga Scorpion peppers have one of the world's highest concentration of capsaicinoids with Scoville Heat Units (SHU) averaging 1.2 million SHU (Bannister, 2012). The highest concentration of these capsaicinoids are within the placental and endocarp regions of the fruit, which are the primary location for capsaicinoid biosynthesis (Aza-Gonzalez & Nunez-Palenius, 2010). Hindering mitosis from the earliest stage of development could lead to phenotypic abnormalities within those placental and endocarp regions, quite possibly through the mechanism of the induced polyploidy. In many cases, this polymerization interference is beneficial in cultivating plants with characterized polyploidy due to its desired increased size of fruits and leaves. Due to the lethal nature of colchicine, there is threshold of effectiveness where it may induce polyploidy or it may result in fatality. This first stage of this research sought to determine which lethal dose was required to elicit a polyploid response or lead to seed unviability. The second stage was analyzing capsaicin concentration within the fruit of the mature dosed plants to determine whether there was an effect on the capsaicinoids, and whether polyploidy played a role in those effects. The final inspection of this research was in germinating the seeds from the hottest F1 pepper that had developed the fruit the slowest of all the doses, and determining whether there were any effects on the germination or seedling development.

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Date Created
  • 2016-12

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Investigation of Parameters that Affect Capsaicin Stability During Culinary Techniques

Description

Capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin account for 90% of capsaicinoids when it comes to the pungency of peppers. Capsaicin stability was investigated through a cooking and storage parameter where three different tests

Capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin account for 90% of capsaicinoids when it comes to the pungency of peppers. Capsaicin stability was investigated through a cooking and storage parameter where three different tests were done; cooking duration, cooking temperature, and storage stability. The concentration of capsaicinoids was quantified through gas chromatography-mass spectrometry where those values were then used to determine the total Scoville heat units (SHU). Furthermore, half-life was determined by finding the decay rate during cooking and storage. Results showed that there was an increase in degradation of capsaicinoids concentration when peppers were cooked for a long period of time. Degradation rate increases with increasing temperatures as would be expected by the Arrhenius equation. Hence, if a maximum pungency is wanted, it is best to cook the least time as possible or add the peppers towards the end of the culinary technique. This would help by cooking the peppers for a short period of time while not being exposed to the high temperature long enough before significant degradation occurs. Lastly, the storage stability results interpreted that a maximum potency of the peppers can be retained in a freezer or refrigerator opposed to an open room temperature environment or exposure from the sun. Furthermore, the stability of peppers has a long shelf life with even that the worse storage condition's half-life value was 113.5 months (9.5 years). Thus, peppers do not need to be bought frequently because its potency will last for several years.

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Date Created
  • 2017-12

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The Beauty of BlueStar®

Description

Chemiluminescent reagents, such as BlueStar® forensic reagent, are used during crime scene investigations to detect latent bloodstains as they react with the iron in blood to produce bright chemiluminescence. There

Chemiluminescent reagents, such as BlueStar® forensic reagent, are used during crime scene investigations to detect latent bloodstains as they react with the iron in blood to produce bright chemiluminescence. There are several substances that cause false positives with BlueStar® reagent, including plant peroxidases and certain metal compounds. These false positive substances are commonly seen in cosmetic products. The widespread availability and popularity of cosmetics makes it possible that false positive substances may be encountered at crime scenes and could potentially interfere with investigations. The cosmetic products chosen for this study included two of the following types of products at different price points: foundation, primer, moisturizer, cleanser, and setting powder. The ten cosmetic products were tested with BlueStar® forensic reagent in two rounds of testing on multiple surface types to mimic different ways investigators may encounter the products at crime scenes. The results of the tests were overall negative as the products did not produce any chemiluminescence, indicating that the products do not cause false positives with the BlueStar® forensic reagent and are not concern for investigators. As a majority of the products contain ingredients known to cause false positives with BlueStar®, the completely negative results raised several questions. More exploration of the interaction between cosmetic products and BlueStar® reagents needs to occur in order to clarify and confirm if cosmetics pose a risk to crime scene investigators.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2020-05