Matching Items (17)

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Does Scent Influence Women's Ratings of Men's Attractiveness?

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This study investigated the potential influence of scent on women's mood and perceptions of men's attractiveness. Participants were 58 heterosexual female college students between the ages of 18-35 who were

This study investigated the potential influence of scent on women's mood and perceptions of men's attractiveness. Participants were 58 heterosexual female college students between the ages of 18-35 who were in decent health, did not smoke, and were not pregnant or nursing. They were asked to rate the physical attractiveness, datability, likability, sexual desirability, and perceived age of men in photographs. Photographs were taken from two online databases. During the ratings, the participants were exposed to either a pleasant scent with the putative human pheromone androstadienone or to the same pleasant scent without the pheromone (between subjects design). Analysis of covariance was used to compare effects of pheromone on ratings and pheromone on mood. Although there was a pheromone effect, it was not in the predicted direction. Participants gave higher ratings on datability when smelling the fragrance without the pheromone, suggesting the pheromone actually seemed to cause lower ratings of this quality. On the other hand, the scent with the pheromone may have reduced an increase in negative moods from pre- to post-task. Scent pleasantness was discovered to be an important predictor of both photo ratings and changes in mood during the photo rating session. Although the current study did not provide further evidence that androstadienone is associated with higher attractiveness ratings, it did support the idea that the pheromone may influence mood.

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Date Created
  • 2014-05

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Do Mood and Romantic Relationship Status Influence Attraction?

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Females' attractiveness ratings of male faces have often been attributed to the male faces' physical characteristics. Multiple studies have determined that male faces are perceived as more attractive when they

Females' attractiveness ratings of male faces have often been attributed to the male faces' physical characteristics. Multiple studies have determined that male faces are perceived as more attractive when they show the following characteristics: masculine and feminine features, facial age, neotenous signs, symmetry, and averageness. However, certain traits of the rater, such as mood and romantic relationship status, also influence the perceived attractiveness of those faces. This study was designed to address whether female raters' mood and romantic relationship status were associated with their ratings of men in photographs. We recorded the romantic relationship status and current mood of 115 heterosexual females, who then rated ten male photographs on their: likeability, datability, physical attractiveness, sexual desirability, and perceived age of the face. Four separate one-way analyses of variance (ANOVAs) were carried out to test the differences in ratings (i.e., physical attractiveness, datability, likability, and sexual desirability) between single and partnered women. Also, among partnered participants, correlations were calculated between relationship happiness and photo ratings. Finally, correlations between attractiveness ratings and mood-related variables were calculated. Results suggested that the participants' mood was associated with the photo ratings. These findings are consistent with previous literature suggesting that mood can influence people's perception of others. We can then infer that physical traits are not the only defining factor of attractiveness.

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Date Created
  • 2014-05

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Reports of Mood and Sexual Activity through the Menstrual Cycle in a Lesbian Sample

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Menstruation has been characterized as powerful, magical, and mysterious. Historically, it was believed menstrual blood could cure leprosy, warts, birthmarks, gout, goiter, hemorrhoids, epilepsy, worms, and headaches. Menstrual blood was

Menstruation has been characterized as powerful, magical, and mysterious. Historically, it was believed menstrual blood could cure leprosy, warts, birthmarks, gout, goiter, hemorrhoids, epilepsy, worms, and headaches. Menstrual blood was used as a love charm and as a means to ward off river demons or evil spirits, and could be used to honor a god (DeLaney, Lupton, & Toth, 1988, pp.8-9). Contemporary studies reveal that women around the world continue to celebrate their power to create. The World Health Organization studied attitudes of women of all socioeconomic classes in 10 countries (Egypt, India, Indonesia, Jamaica, Pakistan, Philippines, United Kingdom, United States, Yugoslavia, Mexico, Korea) and found that most women saw menstruation as a positive event (DeLaney et al., 1988, p. 14). In a similar study, Mexican-American women perceived menstruation positively, as a process that "cleans" the body (DeLaney et al., 1988, p. 14).

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Date Created
  • 2012-12

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Effects of Social Technology Multitasking and Task-switching on Student Learning: A Literature Review

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With social technology on the rise, it is no surprise that young students are at the forefront of its use and impact, particularly in the realm of education. Due to

With social technology on the rise, it is no surprise that young students are at the forefront of its use and impact, particularly in the realm of education. Due to greater accessibility to technology, media multitasking and task-switching are becoming increasingly prominent in learning environments. While technology can have numerous benefits, current literature, though somewhat limited in this scope, overwhelmingly shows it can also be detrimental for academic performance and learning when used improperly. While much of the existing literature regarding the impact of technology on multitasking and task-switching in learning environments is limited to self-report data, it presents important findings and potential applications for modernizing educational institutions in the wake of technological dependence. This literature review summarizes and analyzes the studies in this area to date in an effort to provide a better understanding of the impact of social technology on student learning. Future areas of research and potential strategies to adapt to rising technological dependency are also discussed, such as using a brief "technology break" between periods of study. As of yet, the majority of findings in this research area suggest the following: multitasking while studying lengthens the time required for completion; multitasking during lectures can affect memory encoding and comprehension; excessive multitasking and academic performance are negatively correlated; metacognitive strategies for studying have potential for reducing the harmful effects of multitasking; and the most likely reason students engage in media-multitasking at the cost of learning is the immediate emotional gratification. Further research is still needed to fill in gaps in literature, as well as develop other potential perspectives relevant to multitasking in academic environments.

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Date Created
  • 2016-12

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A Correlational Study of the Relationship between Stress, Empathy, and Emotion Regulation in Young Adults

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Stress, empathy, and emotion regulation are factors that can greatly shape an individual's behavior, thoughts, and physiology. The degree to which an individual experiences stress, demonstrates empathy, or is able

Stress, empathy, and emotion regulation are factors that can greatly shape an individual's behavior, thoughts, and physiology. The degree to which an individual experiences stress, demonstrates empathy, or is able to regulate emotions can influence his or her ability to establish strong social bonds. The current study investigated the relationships among stress, empathy, and emotion regulation and considered gender differences in these relationships. I hypothesized that higher levels of current stress would be associated with lower levels of empathy and greater difficulties with emotion regulation, and that empathy and emotion regulation would be positively related. Supporting these hypotheses, the following relationships were found: (a) negative correlation between stress and empathy, (b) positive correlation between stress and emotion regulation difficulties, and (c) negative correlation between empathy and emotion regulation difficulties. Results also revealed that greater perceived stress was associated with less empathy in women, but it was unrelated to empathy in men. On the other hand, stress was associated with greater emotion regulation difficulties in both men and women, indicating that either gender may experience a greater disturbance in their emotional response within a social situation when under the influence of stress. Empathy and emotion regulation are positively correlated in both genders, which might suggest that high emotion regulation may allow for appropriate empathy responses within a given social context.

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Date Created
  • 2016-12

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Processes linking cultural ingroup bonds and mental health: the roles of social connection and emotion regulation

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Cultural and ethnic identities influence the relationships individuals seek out and how they feel and behave in these relationships, which can strongly affect mental and physical health through their impacts

Cultural and ethnic identities influence the relationships individuals seek out and how they feel and behave in these relationships, which can strongly affect mental and physical health through their impacts on emotions, physiology, and behavior. We proposed and tested a model in which ethnocultural identifications and ingroup affiliations were hypothesized explicitly to enhance social connectedness, which would in turn promote expectancy for effective regulation of negative emotions and reduce self-reported symptoms of depression and anxiety. Our sample comprised women aged 18–30 currently attending college in the Southwestern US, who self-identified as Hispanic of Mexican descent (MAs; n = 82) or as non-Hispanic White/European American (EAs; n = 234) and who completed an online survey. In the full sample and in each subgroup, stronger ethnocultural group identity and greater comfort with mainstream American culture were associated with higher social connectedness, which in turn was associated with expectancy for more effective regulation of negative emotions, fewer depressive symptoms, and less anxiety. Unexpectedly, preference for ingroup affiliation predicted lower social connectedness in both groups. In addition to indirect effects through social connection, direct paths from mainstream comfort and preference for ingroup affiliation to emotion regulation expectancy were found for EAs. Models of our data underscore that social connection is a central mechanism through which ethnocultural identities—including with one's own group and the mainstream cultural group—relate to mental health, and that emotion regulation may be a key aspect of this linkage. We use the term ethnocultural social connection to make explicit a process that, we believe, has been implied in the ethnic identity literature for many years, and that may have consequential implications for mental health and conceptualizations of processes underlying mental disorders.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2013-02-28

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The Emotional Responses of Psychogenic Nonepileptic Seizure Patients During Four Relived Emotion Tasks

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Abstract Individuals with psychogenic nonepileptic seizures (PNES) experience seizure-like behaviors, but without the physiological aspect of a typical epileptic seizure. PNES patients are hypothesized to have seizures to cope with

Abstract Individuals with psychogenic nonepileptic seizures (PNES) experience seizure-like behaviors, but without the physiological aspect of a typical epileptic seizure. PNES patients are hypothesized to have seizures to cope with past trauma or current adverse life events. Also, avoidance of emotion may be implicated in the development and maintenance of this disorder, specifically with regard to emotional suppression. The current study examined different facets of PNES patients' emotional responses (self-report, physiological reactivity, and facial expressivity) using a relived emotion task. During this task, participants recalled specific memories related to four target emotions: neutral, angry, shame, and happy in a counterbalanced order for each participant. There was a total of 61 participants involved in the study: 11 PNES patients and two trauma-exposed comparison groups with either high (25) or low (25) levels of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. Patients were hypothesized to have greater physiological reactivity and self-reported intensity, but less overall emotional expressivity, than comparison groups. We explored these hypotheses based on descriptive analyses, or an examination of group means. Contrary to our first hypothesis, PNES patients showed smaller decreases in physiological reactivity, compared to controls during all conditions. Furthermore, PNES patients showed less expressiveness than comparison groups during the happiness condition, but greater expressiveness during the neutral and negative emotion conditions. Lastly, our third hypothesis was supported, as PNES patients reported greater emotional intensity than comparison groups to the neutral, shame, and happiness conditions. However, because of the small sample size of PNES patients, the results should be interpreted with caution. This research may have implications for therapeutic settings because clinicians will better understand the emotional experiences and behaviors of PNES patients during treatment.

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Date Created
  • 2018-05

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Mental health stigma and military spouses: : the influence of marital conflict and career consequences on help-seeking encouragement

Description

Approximately one-third of Iraq and Afghanistan veterans develop mental health problems, yet only 35-40% of those with mental disorders are seeking mental healthcare (Hoge, et al., 2004; Vogt, 2011). Military

Approximately one-third of Iraq and Afghanistan veterans develop mental health problems, yet only 35-40% of those with mental disorders are seeking mental healthcare (Hoge, et al., 2004; Vogt, 2011). Military spouses may be an important resource for facilitating treatment seeking (Warner, et al., 2008), especially if service member mental health issues are impacting the marriage. Military spouses might be hesitant to encourage service member help-seeking, however, due to perceived threat of adverse military career consequences. For this study, 62 military wives completed an online survey. As part of the survey, participants were randomly assigned to one of four vignettes containing a description of a hypothetical military husband with mental health symptoms. Each vignette presented different combinations of marital conflict (high versus low) and service member concerns about adverse career consequences (high versus low). Wives rated on a five-point scale how likely they were to encourage the hypothetical military husband to seek help. It was hypothesized that spouses would be more willing to encourage help-seeking when concerns about adverse military career consequences were low and marital distress was high. No main effects or interaction effect were found for marriage and career. Perceived stigma about seeking mental health treatment in the military, psychological identification as a military spouse, and experience and familiarity with military mental healthcare policies failed to moderate the relationship between marital conflict, career concerns, and encouragement of help-seeking. Correlational analyses revealed that (1) greater experience with military mental healthcare (first- or secondhand), and (2) greater perceptions of stigma regarding seeking mental healthcare in the military each were associated with decreased perceptions of military supportiveness of mental healthcare. Therefore, although the experimental manipulation in this study did not lead to differences in military spouses' encouragement of a hypothetical military service member to seek mental health services, other findings based on participants' actual experiences suggest that experiences with military mental healthcare may generate or reinforce negative perceptions of military mental healthcare. Altering actual experiences with military mental healthcare, in addition to perceptions of stigma, may be a useful area of intervention for military service members and spouses.

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Date Created
  • 2013

What helps self-control?: Social relationship characteristics and self-control

Description

Researchers have found inconsistent effects (negative or positive) of social relationships on self-control capacity. The variation of findings may depend on the aspects of social relationships. In this study, rather

Researchers have found inconsistent effects (negative or positive) of social relationships on self-control capacity. The variation of findings may depend on the aspects of social relationships. In this study, rather than examining overall social relationships and self-control, characteristics in social relationships were clearly defined, including social support, social connection and social conflict, to determine their specific effects on self-control. An online survey study was conducted, and 292 college students filled out the survey. For data analysis, path analysis was utilized to examined the direct effect and indirect effect from social relationships to self-control. Results showed social connection and social conflict may indirectly associate with self-control through stress, but social support does not. It may suggest, in traditional stress buffering model, it is the social connection in social support that really reduce the stress. Concerning the direct effects, social support and social connection were significantly associated with self-control directly, but social conflict does not. This result may support the Social Baseline Theory that positive social relationships have direct regulating effects. Results are good for guidance of experimental manipulation of social relationships in study of social influences of self-control.

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Date Created
  • 2012

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Does marriage matter?: marital status as a moderator of the relationship between emotion regulation and impact of seizures

Description

Seizure disorders are a widespread health concern (England, Liverman, Schultz, & Strawbridge, 2012). Past research shows that a good quality marital relationship can have numerous health benefits (Homish &

Seizure disorders are a widespread health concern (England, Liverman, Schultz, & Strawbridge, 2012). Past research shows that a good quality marital relationship can have numerous health benefits (Homish & Leonard, 2008); however, there is little evidence to show that individuals suffering from seizures are receiving any of these marital benefits. Instead, most research suggests that individuals with a seizure disorder are significantly less likely to marry, have more marital conflict, and report the seizures as a main reason for divorce (Chen, et al., 2013). The current study included 67 individuals who self-reported that they suffered from a seizure disorder. These individuals took part in an online survey that included questions about their experience with seizures, their strategies for managing emotions, and their relationship (marital) status. It was hypothesized that individuals who were married would report fewer emotion regulation difficulties and be less impacted by their seizures than those who were unmarried. The results of this study showed that: 1) married and unmarried individuals did not differ in reported emotion regulation difficulties; 2) contrary to predictions, married individuals were more impacted by their seizures than unmarried individuals; 3) greater emotion regulation difficulties (specifically difficulty accepting emotions and difficulty carrying out goal-directed behavior when upset) were associated with a greater perceived impact of seizures on one’s life; and 4) marriage moderated the relationship between emotion regulation difficulties and impact of seizures, such that difficulty accepting emotions predicted a greater impact of seizures on one’s life for married but not unmarried individuals. This was not the case for another facet of emotion regulation measured, namely difficulties engaging in goal-directed behavior when upset. An important conclusion from this study is that a failure to accept emotions may be more likely to contribute to seizure impact among married than unmarried individuals. Promoting acceptance of emotions, perhaps in the context of one’s marital relationship as well as in general, may be beneficial for individuals suffering from a seizure disorder.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2015