Matching Items (6)

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The effect of hormone replacement therapy on cardiac autonomic response to laboratory stressors

Description

The objective of this study was to examine the potential effects of long term hormone replacement therapy on cardiovascular autonomic nervous system responses to laboratory social stressors. The participants were

The objective of this study was to examine the potential effects of long term hormone replacement therapy on cardiovascular autonomic nervous system responses to laboratory social stressors. The participants were 38 postmenopausal women, 18 using estrogen and progesterone hormone replacement therapy for at least 2 years and 20 control participants without hormone replacement therapy. All women completed orthostasis (standing and sitting), then speech and math tasks (speech and math were counterbalanced). Cardiovascular measures of sympathetic nervous system (pre-ejection period, PEP) and parasympathetic nervous system (respiratory sinus arrhythmia, RSA) along with heart rate were collected throughout all periods (baseline, orthostasis, and stressors). For orthostasis, results of mixed analyses of variance (ANOVAs) showed expected period effects for heart rate, RSA and PEP, but no group or group by period interaction was significant. For the psychological stressors, period main effects were significant for all three variables, suggesting that the tasks were effective at inducing stress. Also, there was a significant interaction between group and period for RSA, demonstrated by greater decrease during the psychological stressor period in the group using HRT. The interactions between group and period for heart rate and PEP were non-significant. These findings support the notion that HRT may slow age-related decreases in parasympathetic responsiveness. Furthermore, changes in vagal reactivity in relation to use of HRT appear to occur within mechanisms involving response and coping with psychological stressors, rather than mechanisms that accommodate basic physiological task such as orthostasis.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2013

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The Effects of Chronic Physical Pain on Empathy

Description

Physical pain and social pain are two types of pain humans experience. Physical pain is defined as any pain experienced upon bodily injury, whereas social pain is defined as

Physical pain and social pain are two types of pain humans experience. Physical pain is defined as any pain experienced upon bodily injury, whereas social pain is defined as the pain experienced upon social injury when social relationships are threatened, damaged or lost (Eisenberger & Lieberman, 2004). Both physical and social pain can be experienced as acute or chronic, acute lasting for up to three months, and chronic lasting for more than three to six months. Studies on acute and chronic social pain have shown that social pain leads to less empathy. The Pain Overlap Theory suggests that social pain and physical pain share similar neural networks and underlying processes. If social pain and physical pain overlap in the brain, then it would be expected to see a similar reduction in empathy when experiencing acute and chronic physical pain. Therefore, it was hypothesized that those who suffer from chronic physical pain will be less empathetic overall, and they will be less empathetic to others in physical pain and social pain.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2017

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Attitudes toward menopause

Description

Menopause is a complex biopsychosocial phenomenon that is influenced by women’s attitudes, the attitudes of their partners, families, and friends, and societal norms. Previous research has shown that attitudes can

Menopause is a complex biopsychosocial phenomenon that is influenced by women’s attitudes, the attitudes of their partners, families, and friends, and societal norms. Previous research has shown that attitudes can be influenced by many factors, such as age and menopausal status. This study examined men’s and women’s attitudes toward several facets of menopause, including fertility, attractiveness, personal growth, emotional stability, and sexuality, using an Amazon Mechanical Turk sample of 194 females and 151 males. Results revealed that women and men differed significantly in their attitudes toward fertility, attractiveness, personal growth, and sexuality, with women having more positive attitudes on every dimension except sexuality. For females, age was a significant positive predictor for fertility, personal growth, and emotional stability; knowledge was a significant positive predictor for personal growth; and education was a significant positive predictor for emotional stability. For males, age was a significant positive predictor for fertility, and knowledge was a significant negative predictor for fertility. These results indicate that men typically have more negative attitudes toward menopause than do women, and that more potential predictors of menopause attitudes should be explored in future work to provide insight into the reasons for this difference.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2017

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Evaluating brain boosters: a new cognitive enhancement program for treating post-traumatic stress disorder and depression

Description

ABSTRACT Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), depression, and insomnia are prevalent among United States (US) military veterans. This study investigates whether Brain Boosters, a new cognitive enhancement group therapy, improves symptoms

ABSTRACT Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), depression, and insomnia are prevalent among United States (US) military veterans. This study investigates whether Brain Boosters, a new cognitive enhancement group therapy, improves symptoms of PTSD, depression, and insomnia among veterans completing the groups. The study population includes 64 US military veterans treated in the setting of the Veterans Affairs (VA) Health Care System in Phoenix, AZ. Group members were US military veterans, age 22 to 87 (mean age=53.47), who had served in or after World War II (WWII), who sought mental health care at the Phoenix VA from 2007 through 2011. Participants were treated with Brain Boosters therapy. They completed measures of mental-health related symptoms before and after this therapy. Participants were assessed pre and post group with the PTSD Checklist for military personnel (PCL-M), the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9; a measure of depression symptoms), and the Insomnia Severity Index (ISI). Statistical analyses were done with paired samples t-tests and McNemar's tests, using SPSS. The hypotheses were that symptoms of PTSD, depression, and insomnia would show statistically significant improvement with Brain Boosters therapy. Results supported the hypotheses that symptoms of PTSD and depression would improve significantly. Insomnia did not show significant improvement. The results showed the mean PCL-M score was 54.84 before Brain Boosters therapy and 51.35 after (p= 0.008). The mean PHQ-9 score was 15.21 before Brain Boosters therapy and 13.05 after (p= 0.002). The mean ISI score was 15.98 before Brain Boosters Therapy and 14.46 after (p= 0.056). Although this is a nonrandom, uncontrolled trial, findings nevertheless suggest that Brain Boosters may be an effective therapy to reduce PTSD symptom severity and depression symptom severity. This may be especially important for veterans seeking alternatives to pharmacological intervention or traditional therapeutic interventions.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2012

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In their shoes: impact of emotions on marital satisfaction, communication, and technology in spouses of deployed military

Description

Separation from a loved one is a highly stressful event. The range and intensity of emotions accompanying such a separation arguably are amplified when one's spouse deploys. This thesis examines

Separation from a loved one is a highly stressful event. The range and intensity of emotions accompanying such a separation arguably are amplified when one's spouse deploys. This thesis examines at-home spouses (AHSs) of deployed military and how emotion, marital satisfaction, and communication are impacted throughout the deployment cycle. Additionally, I explore technology as a possible coping mechanism to help AHSs adapt and overcome stressfulness of deployment. One hundred sixty-six married females with a partner currently deployed, anticipating deployment, or recently returned from deployment completed an on-line survey. It was predicted AHSs would experience specific emotions during each phase, categorized as "anticipatory," (e.g., anger, worry) "absence" (e.g., lonely, sad) or "post" (e.g., happiness, relief); marital satisfaction also was predicted to be higher among spouses whose partner recently returned from deployment versus was deployed or anticipating deployment. Data showed AHSs whose partner was anticipating or currently deployed reported more "anticipatory" and "absence" emotions than AHSs with a recently returned partner. The former two groups did not differ in these emotions. AHSs with a recently returned partner reported more "post" emotions than the other two groups. Marital satisfaction did not differ based on deployment status. It was also predicted that among AHSs with a currently deployed partner, less negative emotion upon deployment would be associated with more frequent communication during deployment. Data showed AHSs who reported less negative emotion upon deployment engaged in more frequent communication with their deployed partner. Lastly, I predicted AHSs whose partners are currently deployed and who prefer modes of communication allowing direct contact (e.g., Skype) will experience less negative emotions than AHSs who prefer indirect contact (e.g., e-mail). Data showed reports of negative emotion did not differ based on preference for direct versus indirect communication. Therefore, negative emotions may develop and persist before and during deployment, but when the partner returns home, spouses do experience a rebound of positive emotions. Additionally, emotions at the time of deployment may be useful in predicting spouses' communication frequency during deployment. Findings aim to provide knowledge of family life during separation and explore technology as a possible coping mechanism for AHSs.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2011

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The relationship of attitudes about touch with depressive symptoms among women who report abuse

Description

Touch appears to be an important component for understanding psychological and emotional well-being, as well as the formation and maintenance of interpersonal relationships later in life. While research about touch

Touch appears to be an important component for understanding psychological and emotional well-being, as well as the formation and maintenance of interpersonal relationships later in life. While research about touch in relation to these topics is gaining momentum, there is still little evidence on the specific effects and processes that take place when touch is negative or harmful. The current study examined how women who have experienced physical or sexual abuse perceive touch in the context of interpersonal relations and in turn, how these experiences, perceptions and attitudes are related to depressive symptoms. Taking into consideration the significance of interpersonal touch, I speculated that 1) attitudes towards touch would be more negative among women who reported physical or sexual abuse than among women who did not; 2) among women who reported past abuse, increased abuse severity would predict increased current depressive symptoms; and 3) among women who reported past abuse, current attitudes towards touch would mediate the relationship between abuse severity and depressive symptoms. As predicted, results indicated that women who reported physical or sexual abuse had less positive attitudes towards touch than women who did not report any abuse. Echoing prior research, reports of childhood and adult abuse predicted increased depressive symptoms. Finally, for women who reported childhood abuse, Discomfort with Social Touch was a significant partial mediator of depressive symptoms, whereas for women who reported adult abuse, both Desire for More Partner Touch and Discomfort with Social Touch were significant partial mediators of depressive symptoms. Results suggested that negative attitudes towards general social touch, in particular, may play a strong role in mediating depressive symptoms among women who reported abuse.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2015