Matching Items (44)

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Hemodynamic Profiling of Endovascular Embolization Polymer Treatment of Cerebral Aneurysms

Description

Cerebral aneurysms, also known as intracranial aneurysms, are sac-like lesions in the arteries of the brain that can rupture to cause subarachnoid hemorrhaging, damaging and killing brain cells. Metal coil

Cerebral aneurysms, also known as intracranial aneurysms, are sac-like lesions in the arteries of the brain that can rupture to cause subarachnoid hemorrhaging, damaging and killing brain cells. Metal coil embolization has been traditionally used to occlude and treat cerebral aneurysms to limited success, but polymer embolization has been suggested, because it can provide a greater fraction of occlusion. One such polymer with low cytotoxicity is poly(propylene glycol)diacrylate (PPODA) crosslinked via Michael-type addition with pentaerythritol tetrakis(3-mercaptopropionate) (QT). This study was performed to examine the behavior of PPODA-QT gel in vitro under pulsatile flow emulating physiological conditions. An idealized cerebral aneurysm flow model was designed based on geometries associated with an increase in rupture risk. Pressure was monitored at the apex of the aneurysm dome for varied flow rates and polymer filling fractions of 32.4, 78.2, and 100%. The results indicate that the amount of PPODA-QT deployed into the aneurysm decreases the peak-to-peak oscillation in pressure at the aneurysm wall by an inverse proportion. The 32.4 and 78.2% treatments did not significantly decrease the mean pressure applied to the aneurysm dome, but the 100% treatment greatly reduced it by diverting flow. This study indicates that the maximum filling fraction after swelling of PPODA-QT polymer should be deployed into the aneurysmal sac for treatment.

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Date Created
  • 2014-05

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Revision Hip Arthroplasties: The burdens created due to physical compromise and biofilm formation

Description

Revision hip procedures represent a large financial burden on hospitals and the problem will continue to worsen as the baby boomer generation ages and life expectancy goes up. The future

Revision hip procedures represent a large financial burden on hospitals and the problem will continue to worsen as the baby boomer generation ages and life expectancy goes up. The future problem is a complex issue that bridges scientific and anecdotal evidence and must be solved. A review of the current total hip arthroplasty procedure in regards to the physical properties of the materials used for hip prostheses is given. Revision procedures can be caused by infection or basic wear and tear from the stress that that implant is subjected to daily. Infections on these implants often present themselves as medical biofilms. The mechanisms of biofilm formation include a complex system of enzymes that work to initiate a phenotypic response based on an established quorum sensing within the colony of bacteria. Surgical methods to treat infection include irrigation and debridement as well as loading drug cement spacers with antimicrobial in hopes of delivering the antibiotic locally. Research is being done to better model the transport of drug through the tissue surrounding the implant, and will hopefully one day be available for use in individual patients.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2013-05

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Easily deliverable and elastic thermosensitive physical-chemical gelling hydrogels for embolization

Description

Rupture of intracranial aneurysms causes a subarachnoid hemorrhage, which is often lethal health event. A minimally invasive method of solving this problem may involve a material, which can be administered

Rupture of intracranial aneurysms causes a subarachnoid hemorrhage, which is often lethal health event. A minimally invasive method of solving this problem may involve a material, which can be administered as a liquid and then becomes a strong solid within minutes preventing flow of blood in the aneurysm. Here we report on the development of temperature responsive copolymers, which are deliverable through a microcatheter at body temperature and then rapidly cure to form a highly elastic hydrogel. To our knowledge, this is the first physical-and chemical-crosslinked hydrogel capable of rapid crosslinking at temperatures above the gel transition temperature. The polymer system, poly(N-isopropylacrylamide-co-cysteamine-co-Jeffamine® M-1000 acrylamide) and poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate, was evaluated in wide-neck aneurysm flow models to evaluate the stability of the hydrogels. Investigation of this polymer system indicates that the Jeffamine® M-1000 causes the gels to retain water, resulting in gels that are initially weak and viscous, but become stronger and more elastic after chemical crosslinking.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2013-05

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The Characterization and Development of Methylcellulose in Hydrogels

Description

This report provides information concerning qualities of methylcellulose and how those properties affect further experimentation within the biomedical world. Utilizing the compound’s biocompatibility many issues, ranging from surgical to

This report provides information concerning qualities of methylcellulose and how those properties affect further experimentation within the biomedical world. Utilizing the compound’s biocompatibility many issues, ranging from surgical to cosmetic, can be solved. As of recent, studies indicate, methylcellulose has been used as a physically cross-linked gel, which cannot sustain a solid form within the body. Therefore, this report will ultimately explore the means of creating a non-degradable, injectable, chemically cross-linking methylcellulose- based hydrogel. Methylcellulose will be evaluated and altered in experiments conducted within this report and a chemical cross-linker, developed from Jeffamine ED 2003 (O,O′-Bis(2-aminopropyl) polypropylene glycol-block-polyethylene glycol-block-polypropylene glycol), will be created. Experimentation with these elements is outlined here, and will ultimately prompt future revisions and analysis.

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Date Created
  • 2013-05

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Drug Release from in \u2014 situ gelling material

Description

The main goal of this project was to study and understand the release of gentamicin from in – situ, self – reactive drug delivery gelling matrix. The motivation behind this

The main goal of this project was to study and understand the release of gentamicin from in – situ, self – reactive drug delivery gelling matrix. The motivation behind this was to create a drug delivery mechanism for gentamicin and eliminate the need for re–injecting the drug multiple times into the patient. Gentamicin is used to treat various different bacterial infections of the central nervous system, blood, kidneys, gall bladder, bile duct, heart cavity linings, and heart valves. Pentaerythritol–tetrakis
(3 – mercaptoproprionate; QT) was crosslinked with poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate (PEGDA) having an average molecular weight of 575 with the help of Phosphate Buffer Saline (PBS), with a buffer ionic strength of 0.143M and a pH of 8.9 and 11, for the drug concentrations of 5 mg/mL and 50 mg/mL, respectively. The Michael – type reaction formed the crosslinked self – administering gelling matrix. With the gelling matrix starting to coagulate into a hydrophobic solid in about 5 minutes, the material was injected into Tygon tubing. After complete solidification, the drug – loaded gels were extracted from the tubing and divided into 1 cm cylinders. The cylinders with 5mg/mL and 50mg/mL drug concentration exhibited a sustained and controlled release curve for about 288 hours. This project as well as this drug delivery system can in the future be expanded for use in the delivery of more hydrophobic long – term drugs to the patient.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2016-05

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Self-Stirring Syringe Pump Project

Description

A self-stirring syringe pump was created in order to fill a void in the market for a medical device that could perform a lengthy drug infusion. This was accomplished by

A self-stirring syringe pump was created in order to fill a void in the market for a medical device that could perform a lengthy drug infusion. This was accomplished by using a magnetic field mechanism that enclosed the body of a syringe. A stator was created in order to facilitate the induction of magnetic fields around the syringe body. A flexible magnetic stir bar was created to rotate within the syringe body while also being able to conform to the syringe plunder as an infusion occurred. In order for the stator with the syringe to fit onto a conventional syringe pump, a mount had to be made. This mount was removable to ensure easy access to the syringe once an infusion had occurred. A study was performed to determine whether or not the self-stirring syringe pump could keep a suspension homogenous over a lengthy infusion. It was found that the self-stirring syringe pump was able to accomplish this task.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2016-12

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Formulation Development and Evaluation of In-Situ Polymeric Drug Delivery Implants Formed by Tattooing

Description

This study demonstrates that a polymer and drug conjugate can be tattooed onto tissue and deliver drug in a sustained manner. A number of polymers and drugs were investigated in

This study demonstrates that a polymer and drug conjugate can be tattooed onto tissue and deliver drug in a sustained manner. A number of polymers and drugs were investigated in this study in the aims of developing a formulation that could achieve sustained drug delivery for 1-2 weeks. The polymers selected for testing were PDLG 5004, PDLLA-Glycerol, and PEG-PLA, and the drugs used in conjunction with these polymers were rifampicin, moxifloxacin, and dexamethasone. Varying formulas containing these polymer and drug combinations were tattooed onto three different tissue types: bovine pericardial tissue, porcine corneal tissue, and porcine sclera tissue. The drug release rates from these tattoos were determined and characterized after studying the release for up to 20 days. The release rate of dexamethasone from both PDLG 5004 and PDLLA-Glycerol when tattooed onto bovine pericardial tissue demonstrated the best release rate of the formulations tested, with up to 14 days of sustained release. This preliminary research into tattoo-based, polymeric drug delivery is promising, and has the possibility to be developed into a beneficial form of ophthalmic drug delivery that could be expanded to other areas of treatment as well.

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Date Created
  • 2016-05

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The Effects of Material and Surface Properties on the Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Staphylococcal Biofilms

Description

Biofilm derived orthopedic infections are increasingly common after contamination of an open bone fracture or the surgical site pre- and post-orthopedic prosthetic insertion or removal. These infections are usually difficult

Biofilm derived orthopedic infections are increasingly common after contamination of an open bone fracture or the surgical site pre- and post-orthopedic prosthetic insertion or removal. These infections are usually difficult to eradicate due to the resistant nature of biofilms to antimicrobial therapy. Difficulty of treatment of biofilm derived infections is also partly due to the presence of persister cells in the biofilm matrix. Persister cells are tolerant to antimicrobial therapy delivered via the systemic route. It is thus possible for these cells to repopulate their environment once systemic antimicrobial delivery is discontinued. The antimicrobial concentration required to eradicate bacterial biofilms, minimum biofilm eradication concentration (MBEC), can be determined in vitro by exposing biofilms to different regimens of antimicrobial solutions. Previous studies have demonstrated that values of the MBEC vary depending on the material and surface the biofilm grows on. This study investigated the relationship between antimicrobial susceptibility and antimicrobial exposure time, and the effects of surface material type on the antimicrobial susceptibility of staphylococcal biofilms. It was concluded that antimicrobial susceptibility increases with increased antimicrobial exposure time, and that the investigated surface and material properties did not have an effect on the susceptibility of staphylococcal biofilms to antimicrobial therapy. Further investigation is however necessary to confirm these results due to some inconsistent data obtained over the course of the trials.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2016-05

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Norepinephrine and Adenosine Infused Microparticles for Brown Adipose Tissue Stimulation

Description

With microspheres growing in popularity as viable systems for targeted drug therapeutics, there exist a host of diseases and pathology induced side effects which could be treated with poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid)

With microspheres growing in popularity as viable systems for targeted drug therapeutics, there exist a host of diseases and pathology induced side effects which could be treated with poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) [PLGA] microparticle systems [6,10,12]. While PLGA systems are already applied in a wide variety the clinical setting [11], microparticles still have some way to go before they are viable systems for drug delivery. One of the main reasons for this is a lack of fabrication processes and systems which produce monodisperse particles while also being feasible for industrialization [10]. This honors thesis investigates various microparticle fabrication techniques \u2014 two using mechanical agitation and one using fluid dynamics \u2014 with the long term goal of incorporating norepinephrine and adenosine into the particles for metabolic stimulatory purposes. It was found that mechanical agitation processes lead to large values for dispersity and the polydispersity index while fluid dynamics methods have the potential to create more uniform and predictable outcomes. The research concludes by needing further investigation into methods and prototype systems involving fluid dynamics methods; however, these systems yield promising results for fabricating monodisperse particles which have the potential to encapsulate a wide variety of therapeutic drugs.

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Date Created
  • 2018-12

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Elution Profile of Caspofungin from Anti-fungal Loaded Bone Cement

Description

Advancements in healthcare and the emergence of an aging population has led to an increase in the number of prosthetic joint procedures in the United States. According to Healthcare Cost

Advancements in healthcare and the emergence of an aging population has led to an increase in the number of prosthetic joint procedures in the United States. According to Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project, 660,876 and 348,970 total hip and knee arthroplasties were performed in 2014[1].The percentage of total hip or knee procedures that are revised due to an infection is 1.23% and 1.21% respectively[3], [4]. Although the percent of infections may be small, an infection can have a tremendous burden on the patient and healthcare system. It is expected that prosthetic joint infections (PJIs) will cost the healthcare system an estimated $1.62 billion by 2020[5]. PJIs are often difficult to treat due to the formation of biofilm at the site of the infection. A large majority of PJIs are the result of a bacterial biofilm, but around 1% of PJIs are due to fungal infections[3]. The current method of treatment is to surgically remove all infected tissue at the site of infection through a process called debridement and then insert a medicated bone cement spacer[7], [10]–[12]. One such medication that is loaded into the bone cement is caspofungin, a member of the echinocandin class of compounds that inhibit the synthesis of 1,3-β-D-glucan which is a crucial element of the cell wall of the target fungi[13]–[15]. For the studies reported herein, the caspofungin-loaded bone cement samples were made at 5 dosage strengths according to standard operating room practices. The elution of the drug was analyzed using ultraviolet spectrophotometry. The elution profiles were analyzed for 19 days consecutively, during which the 70 mg, 1 g, and 5 g dosage groups showed a prolonged, sustained release of the caspofungin. The 70 mg and 1 g dosage cumulative mass release profiles were not statistically significant, but it is unlikely that the difference would not have a clinical significance especially in the treatment of a fungal biofilm infection. The determination of the elution profile for caspofungin from loaded-bone cement can provide clinicians with a basis for how the drug will release into the infected joint.

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Date Created
  • 2019-05