Matching Items (11)

The Power of Yoga: Investigating the Feasibility and Preliminary Efficacy of a Prenatal Yoga Intervention to Prevent Excessive Gestational Weight Gain

Description

Excessive gestational weight gain (EGWG) affects 50% of US pregnant women and may be an important contributor to obesity in both the mother and child. Novel strategies to prevent EGWG

Excessive gestational weight gain (EGWG) affects 50% of US pregnant women and may be an important contributor to obesity in both the mother and child. Novel strategies to prevent EGWG are needed to reduce the risk of adverse health outcomes for the mother and child. This dissertation presents three manuscripts that 1) propose a novel model to explain how prenatal yoga may prevent EGWG through behavioral, psychological/emotional, and physical factors, 2) test the feasibility and preliminary efficacy of a prenatal yoga intervention to prevent EGWG compared to a pregnancy education comparison group, and 3) qualitatively investigate pregnant women’s experiences participating in a prenatal yoga intervention to prevent EGWG. In manuscript two, 49 women were recruited and randomized to a 12-week prenatal yoga intervention (n=23) or a time-matched pregnancy education comparison group (n=26). A satisfaction survey was administered at post-intervention to assess feasibility outcomes (e.g., acceptability, demand). Mindfulness, emotion regulation, self-awareness, sleep quality, depression, anxiety, and perceived stress were assessed at baseline and post-intervention (12-weeks) and GWG was assessed weekly. Linear mixed models were used to analyze pre-post changes in primary (i.e., GWG during pregnancy) and secondary (i.e., mindfulness, emotion regulation, self-awareness, sleep quality, depression, anxiety, and stress) outcomes. In manuscript three, interviews were conducted with pregnant women who participated in the prenatal yoga intervention (n=13). Interview responses were summarized using an inductive approach to thematic analysis. Findings in manuscript two suggest that prenatal yoga was a feasible method to prevent EGWG with high enjoyment and satisfaction reported among participants. The average number of prenatal yoga sessions attended was 8.84 (SD = 3.85). There was no significant group differences on the rate of GWG or total GWG throughout the intervention and a significant group x time interaction effect for stress (p=.03). In manuscript three, twelve themes were identified among the data and were organized into the following categories (three themes each): 1) experiences of prenatal yoga, 2) prenatal yoga and weight, 3) barriers to prenatal yoga, and 4) facilitators of prenatal yoga. This initial evidence suggests that prenatal yoga has potential as a strategy to prevent EGWG in pregnant women.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2019

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Effects of physical activity on sleep in sedentary adults with sleep problems

Description

Physical activity is critical for optimal health and has emerged as a viable option to improve sleep. Moderate- and vigorous-intensity physical activity comparisons to improve sleep in non-exercising adults with

Physical activity is critical for optimal health and has emerged as a viable option to improve sleep. Moderate- and vigorous-intensity physical activity comparisons to improve sleep in non-exercising adults with sleep problems is limited. The purpose was to determine the effects of moderate- or vigorous-intensity exercise on sleep outcomes and peripheral skin temperature compared to a no-exercise control. The exercise intensity preference also was determined.

Eleven women (46.9±7.0 years) not participating in regular exercise and self-reporting insomnia completed a graded maximal exercise test followed by a crossover trial of three randomly assigned conditions separated by a 1-week washout. Participants performed moderate-intensity [MIC, 30 minutes, 65-70% maximum heart rate (HRmax)] or high-intensity (HIT, 20 minutes, 1-minute bouts at 90-95% HRmax alternating with 1-minute active recovery) treadmill walking or a no-exercise control (NEC) on two consecutive weekdays 4-6 hours prior to typical bed time. A dual-function wrist-worn accelerometer/temperature monitor recorded movement and skin temperature from which sleep-onset latency (SOL), sleep maintenance, sleep efficiency, total sleep time (TST), and peripheral skin temperature changes were calculated. Participants self-reported sleep outcomes weekly, enjoyment of exercise the morning after HIT and MIC, and exercise intensity preference upon completing all conditions. Mixed models analysis of variance examined differences between and within conditions controlling for demographic characteristics and habitual physical activity.

HIT resulted in up to a 90-minute TST increase on night four (448 minutes, 95% CI 422.4-474.2) compared to nights one-three. MIC nights three (43.5 minutes, 95% CI 30.4-56.6) and four (42.1 minutes 95% CI 29.0-55.2) showed nearly a 30-minute SOL worsening compared to nights one-two. No other actigraphy-measured sleep parameters differenced within or between conditions. Self-reported sleep outcomes, peripheral skin temperature change, and exercise enjoyment between conditions were similar (p>0.05). More participants preferred lower (n=3) to higher (n=1) intensity activities.

Early evening high-intensity and moderate-intensity exercise had no effect on sleep outcomes compared to a control in non-exercising adults reporting sleep complaints. Sleep benefits from HIT may require exercise on successive days. Participants indicated partiality for lower intensity exercise. More information on timing and mode of physical activity to improve sleep in this population is warranted.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2016

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Monitors-based measurement of sedentary behaviors and light physical activity in adults

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Having accurate measurements of sedentary behaviors is important to understand relationships between sedentary behaviors and health outcomes and to evaluate changes in interventions and health promotion programs designed to reduce

Having accurate measurements of sedentary behaviors is important to understand relationships between sedentary behaviors and health outcomes and to evaluate changes in interventions and health promotion programs designed to reduce sedentary behaviors. This dissertation included three projects that examined measurement properties of wearable monitors used to measure sedentary behaviors. Project one examined the validity of three monitors: the ActiGraph GT3X+, activPAL™, and SenseWear 2. None of the monitors were equivalent with the criterion measure of oxygen uptake to estimate the energy cost of sedentary and light-intensity activities. The ActivPAL™ had the best accuracy as compared with the other monitors. In project two, the accuracy of ActiGraph GT3X+and GENEActiv cut-points used to assess sedentary behavior were compared with direct observation during free-living conditions. New vector magnitude cut-points also were developed to classify time spent in sedentary- and stationary behaviors during free-living conditions. The cut-points tested had modest overall accuracy to classify sedentary time as compared to direct observation. New ActiGraph 1-minute vector cut-points increased overall accuracy for classifying sedentary time. Project 3 examined the accuracy of the sedentary sphere by testing various arm elevation- and movement-count configurations using GENEActiv and ActiGraph GT3X+ data obtained during free-living conditions. None of the configurations were equivalent to the criterion measure of direct observation. The best configuration of the GENEActiv was: worn on the dominant wrist at 15 degrees below the horizontal plane with a cut-point <489 for each 15-second interval. The best configuration for the ActiGraph was: worn on the non-dominant wrist at 5° below the horizontal plane with a cut-point of <489 counts for each 15-second interval. Collectively, these findings indicate that the wearable monitors and methods examined in this study are limited in their ability to assess sedentary behaviors and light intensity physical activity. Additional research is needed to further understand the scope and limitations of wearable monitors and methods used to assess sedentary behaviors and light intensity physical activity.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2017

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Acute Glycemic Response to Different Strategies of Breaking Up Sedentary Time

Description

Most studies that explored the health benefits of interrupting sitting time focused on using different modalities (i.e., comparing walking vs standing breaks)33,36,59. However, experimental studies that directly compare patterns of

Most studies that explored the health benefits of interrupting sitting time focused on using different modalities (i.e., comparing walking vs standing breaks)33,36,59. However, experimental studies that directly compare patterns of interrupting sitting time through standing only are needed to advance the field. This study aimed to (i) determine if there is a difference in glucose response between continuous sitting (CS) and two intermittent standing regimes (high frequency, low duration breaks (HFLD) and low frequency, high duration breaks (LFHD)) and (ii) to determine if there is a difference in glucose response between the two strategies (HFLD vs. LFHD).

Ten sedentary employees (mean±SD age 46.8±10.6 years; 70% female) with impaired fasting glucose (mean glucose= 109.0±9.8 mg/dL) participated. Eligible participants were invited to three 7.5 hour laboratory visits where they were randomized to perform each study conditions: (i) CS, (ii) HFLD and (iii) LFHD. Standardized meals (breakfast and lunch) were given with each meal providing 33% of the participant’s total daily caloric needs following a typical American diet (50-60% carbohydrates, 25-30% fat, and 10-20% protein). Participants wore an activPAL device to measure compliance with the sit-stand condition and a continuous glucose monitor to measure post-prandial glucose response. Post-prandial mean glucose, incremental area under the curve and mean amplitude glycemic excursion between conditions were evaluated using linear mixed models.

Participants demonstrated high compliance with the study condition. The results indicated that the mean glucose of the HFLD condition were significantly lower (p< .01) than the CS condition with mean difference of -7.70 (-11.98, -3.42) mg/dL·3.5h and -5.76 (-9.50, -2.03) mg/dL·7h for lunch and total time, respectively. Furthermore, the mean post-prandial glucose during lunch and total time were significantly lower in the HFLD condition compared to the LFHD condition with mean difference of -9.94 (-14.13, -5.74) mg/dL·3.5h and -6.23 (-9.93, -2.52) mg/dL·7h, respectively. No differences were found between the CS and LFHD conditions.

This study provides evidence favoring the use of frequent interruptions in sitting time to improve glycemic control of prediabetic individuals. In contrast, less frequent, although longer bouts of standing resulted in similar post-prandial glucose profile to that of the continuous sitting condition despite total standing time being equal to the LFHD condition.

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Date Created
  • 2019

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Posture, mobility, and 30-day hospital readmission in older adults with heart failure

Description

Background: Heart failure is the leading cause of hospitalization in older adults and has the highest 30-day readmission rate of all diagnoses. An estimated 30 to 60 percent of older

Background: Heart failure is the leading cause of hospitalization in older adults and has the highest 30-day readmission rate of all diagnoses. An estimated 30 to 60 percent of older adults lose some degree of physical function in the course of an acute hospital stay. Few studies have addressed the role of posture and mobility in contributing to, or improving, physical function in older hospitalized adults. No study to date that we are aware of has addressed this in the older heart failure population.

Purpose: To investigate the predictive value of mobility during a hospital stay and patterns of mobility during the month following discharge on hospital readmission and 30-day changes in functional status in older heart failure patients.

Methods: This was a prospective observational study of 21 older (ages 60+) patients admitted with a primary diagnosis of heart failure. Patients wore two inclinometric accelerometers (rib area and thigh) to record posture and an accelerometer placed at the ankle to record ambulatory activity. Patients wore all sensors continuously during hospitalization and the ankle accelerometer for 30 days after hospital discharge. Function was assessed in all patients the day after hospital discharge and again at 30 days post-discharge.

Results: Five patients (23.8%) were readmitted within the 30 day post-discharge period. None of the hospital or post-discharge mobility measures were associated with readmission after adjustment for covariates. Higher percent lying time in the hospital was associated with slower Timed Up and Go (TUG) time (b = .08, p = .01) and poorer hand grip strength (b = -13.94, p = .02) at 30 days post-discharge. Higher daily stepping activity during the 30 day post-discharge period was marginally associated with improvements in SPPB scores at 30 days (b = <.001, p = .06).

Conclusion: For older heart failure patients, increased time lying while hospitalized is associated with slower walking time and poor hand grip strength 30 days after discharge. Higher daily stepping after discharge may be associated with improvements in physical function at 30 days.

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Date Created
  • 2015

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Emotional response to an exercise questionnaire in overweight women

Description

This study aimed to identify the emotional/affective sources of discrepancies between physical activity behavior and a widely used self-perception measure of physical activity motivation. Overweight women (body mass index [BMI]

This study aimed to identify the emotional/affective sources of discrepancies between physical activity behavior and a widely used self-perception measure of physical activity motivation. Overweight women (body mass index [BMI] ≥ 25 kg/m2, 18-64 years of age; N=37) were recruited from Arizona State University community through flyers and online newsletters. Participants wore a SenseWear accelerometer for 6 nights and 7 days and followed their normal patterns of daily living. Participants then completed a single lab visit and verbally responded to questions from the Behavorial Regulation Exercise Questionnaire (BREQ-2) while being video and audio recorded. Captured emotional responses were evaluated with facial recognition software (Noldus FaceReader). Discrepancies between BREQ-2 responses and physical activity behavior were associated with happiness and sadness emotional responses extracted from the facial recognition software using regression-based analyses. Results indicated an association between monitored physical activities and captured emotional response - specifically sadness - and that as intensity in physical activity increases, motivation increases. Associations between happiness/sadness and physical activity were not observed for all intensities of physical activity. A marginally significant association was observed for amotivation and sedentary, light-intensity physical activity, and moderate-vigorous physical activity in the sample. This study demonstrates a proof-of-concept for the integration of an empirical evaluation of happiness and sadness emotional states into the relationship between physical activity motivation and behavior.

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Date Created
  • 2016

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An Examination of Socioecological Factors that Influence Preschool-aged Children's Cardiovascular Fitness and Gross Locomotor Skills within their Developmental Pathway

Description

Through three investigations, this dissertation examined properties of the family and early care and education center (ECEC) environments related to preschool-aged children’s cardiovascular fitness (CVF) and gross locomotor skills (GLS).

Through three investigations, this dissertation examined properties of the family and early care and education center (ECEC) environments related to preschool-aged children’s cardiovascular fitness (CVF) and gross locomotor skills (GLS). Investigation one used a systematic review and meta-analysis to synthesize the effectiveness of school-based interventions at improving CVF, in preschool-aged children. For investigations two and three product- and process-based measures of GLS were collected from children in ECECs (n=16), using the progressive aerobic cardiovascular endurance run (PACER; n=144) and the CHAMPS motor skill protocol (CMSP; n=91), respectively. Investigation two and three examined family factors and ECEC factors for associations with measures of GLS, respectively.

Investigation one revealed a moderate-to-large effect size for school-based interventions (n=10) increasing CVF (g=0.75; 95%CI [0.40-1.11]). Multi-level interventions (g=.79 [0.34-1.25]) were more effective than interventions focused on the individual (g=0.67 [0.12-1.22]). In investigations two and three children (78.3% Hispanic; mean ± SD age 53.2±4.5 months) completed a mean ± SD 3.7±2.3 PACER laps and 19.0±5.5 CSMP criteria. Individual and family factors associated with PACER laps included child sex (B=-0.96, p=0.03) and age (B=0.17, p<0.01), parents’ promotion of inactivity (B=0.66, p=0.08) and screen time (B=0.65, p=0.05), and parents’ concern for child’s safety during physical activity (B=-0.36, p=0.09). Child age (B=0.47, p<0.01) and parent employment (B=2.29, p=0.07) were associated with CMSP criteria. At the ECEC level, policy environment quality (B=-0.17; p=0.01) was significantly associated with number of PACER laps completed. Outdoor play environment quality (B=0.18; p=0.03), outdoor play equipment total (B=0.32; p<0.01) and screen time environment quality (B=0.60; p=0.02) were significantly associated with CMSP criteria. Researchers, ECEC teachers and policy makers should promote positive environmental changes to preschool-aged children’s family and ECEC environments, as these environments have the potential to improve CVF and GLS more than programs focused on the child alone.

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Date Created
  • 2019

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Effects of a fat-sugar supplemented diet, with and without exercise training, on body fat mass and selected cardiometabolic risk markers in overweight and obese, sedentary males

Description

The winter holiday period has been highlighted as a major risk period for weight gain due to excess caloric intake in the form of fat and sugar. Furthermore, diets high

The winter holiday period has been highlighted as a major risk period for weight gain due to excess caloric intake in the form of fat and sugar. Furthermore, diets high in fat and sugar have been implicated in the pathogenesis of diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Exercise aids in the prevention of weight/fat gain, and prevents deleterious changes in cardiometabolic function. The objective of this study was to examine the effects of a fat-sugar supplemented diet, with and without two different exercise training protocols, on body composition, glycemic control and other markers of cardiovascular disease in an at-risk population of overweight and obese males. Twenty-seven, healthy overweight/obese (BMI >25 kg/m2) males were fed 2 donuts per day, 6 days/week, for four weeks, while maintaining their current diet. In addition, all subjects were randomized to one of the following conditions: sedentary control, 1,000 kcal/week moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) (50% of peak oxygen consumption), or 1,000 kcal/week high-intensity interval training (HIIT) (90-95% of peak heart rate). Supervised exercise training was performed 4 days/week on a cycle ergometer. Changes in body weight and composition, endothelial function, arterial stiffness, glycemic control, blood lipids and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) were assessed before and after the intervention. Body weight, lean mass and visceral fat increased significantly in HIIT (p<0.05) and were unchanged in MICT. There was a trend for a significant increase in body weight (p=0.07) and lean mass (p=0.11) in control. Glycemic control during the 2-h OGTT improved significantly in MICT and control, with no change in HIIT. Hepatic insulin resistance index (IRI) and 30-min insulin during the OGTT improved significantly after MICT and worsened following control (p=0.03), while HIIT was unchanged. CRF increased significantly in both HIIT and MICT, with no change in control (p<0.001). There were no significant changes in other markers of cardiovascular disease. The addition of a fat-sugar supplement (~14,500 kcal) over a 4-week period was not sufficient to induce deleterious changes in body composition and cardiometabolic health in overweight/obese young males. Exercise training did not afford overweight/obese males additional health benefits, with the exception of improvements in fitness and hepatic IRI.

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Date Created
  • 2016

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Feasibility of Using Prompts to Reduce Sedentary Behavior in Office Workers with Sit-Stand Workstations: A randomized Cross-Over Trial

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The purpose of this study was to examine the feasibility and preliminary efficacy of a theory-driven and a atheoretical reminder point-of-choice (PoC) prompt interventions on reducing workplace sedentary behavior in

The purpose of this study was to examine the feasibility and preliminary efficacy of a theory-driven and a atheoretical reminder point-of-choice (PoC) prompt interventions on reducing workplace sedentary behavior in office workers with self-reported low usage (<4 hours per day) of their sit-stand workstations in the standing position. The design of this study was a cross-over trial including randomization into either the theory-driven or atheoertical reminder condition, after completion of a no prompt control condition. Participants (N=19) included full-time, primarily female, Caucasian, middle-aged office workers. The primary aim of this study was to assess the feasibility of these two PoC prompt conditions on reducing sedentary behaviors through the use of a Therapy Evaluation Questionnaire. The secondary aim of this study was to assess the preliminary efficacy of the two PoC prompt conditions on reducing sedentary behaviors relative to no-prompt control using the activPAL micro device. For the primary aim, descriptive means adjusted for ordering effect were computed. For the secondary aim, mixed-effects regression models were used to cluster for observations within-persons and were adjusted for age, gender, race, job-type, and ordering effects. During the no-prompt control, participants spent 267.90 ± 68.01 sitting and 170.20 ± 69.34 min/8hr workday standing. The reminder PoC prompt condition significantly increased sanding time (b[se] = 24.52 [11.09], p=0.034) while the theory-driven PoC condition significantly decreased time spent in long sitting bouts b[se] = -34.86 [16.20], p=0.036), both relative to no prompt control. No statistically significant reductions in sitting time were seen in either PoC prompt condition. Furthermore, no statistically significant differences between the two PoC prompt conditions were observed. This study provides feasibility insight in addition to objective measures of sedentary behaviors regarding the use of PoC prompt interventions in the workplace.

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Date Created
  • 2018

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Challenges to Skeletal Muscle During Advancing Age: A Translational Approach

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The purpose of this dissertation was 1) to develop noninvasive strategies to assess skeletal muscle size, architecture, and composition in young and old adults (study #1) and 2) evaluate the

The purpose of this dissertation was 1) to develop noninvasive strategies to assess skeletal muscle size, architecture, and composition in young and old adults (study #1) and 2) evaluate the impact of chemotherapeutic treatment on skeletal muscle satellite cells and capillaries (study #2). For study #1 ultrasound images were obtained from the quadriceps muscles of young (8 m, 8 f) and older (7 m, 5 f) participants on two occasions, separated by 5-15 days. Images were collected while the participants were both standing and supine, and were analyzed for muscle thickness, pennation angle, and echogenicity. In addition, test-retest reliability and ICCs were evaluated for each posture and when imaging sites remained marked or were re-measured from visit #1 to visit #2. Generally, in both younger and older adults muscle thickness was greater and echogenicity was lower in the anterior quadriceps when images were collected standing versus supine. Maintaining the imaging site between visits did not influence test re-test reliability for either age group. Older adults exhibited smaller muscle thickness, lower pennation angle and increased echogenicity. Further, variability for the use of ultrasound to determine muscle thickness and pennation angle was greater in older versus younger adults. Findings from study #1 highlight several methodological considerations for US-based assessment of skeletal muscle characteristics that should be considered for improving reproducibility and generalizability of US to assess skeletal muscle characteristics and function across the aging spectrum. This is particularly relevant given the emerging use of ultrasound to assess skeletal muscle characteristics in healthy and clinical populations. In the second study, ovariectomized female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized to receive three bi-weekly intraperitoneal injections of the chemotherapeutic drug, Doxorubicin (DOX) (4mg/kg; cumulative dose 12mg/kg) or vehicle (VEH; saline). Animals were euthanized 5d following the last injection, and the soleus (SOL) and extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscles were dissected and prepared for immunohistochemical and RT-qPCR analyses. Relative to VEH, cross-sectional area (CSA) of the SOL and EDL muscle fibers were 26% and 33% smaller, respectively, in DOX animals (P<0.05). In the SOL satellite cell and capillary densities were 39% and 35% lower, respectively, in DOX animals (P<0.05), whereas in the EDL satellite cell and capillary densities were unaffected by DOX administration (P>0.05). In the SOL MYF5 mRNA expression was increased in DOX animals (P<0.05), while in the EDL MGF mRNA expression was reduced in DOX animals (P<0.05). Chronic DOX administration is associated with reduced fiber size in multiple skeletal muscles, however DOX appears to impact the satellite cell and capillary densities in a muscle-specific manner. These findings from study #2 highlight that therapeutic targets to protect skeletal muscle from DOX may vary across muscles. Collectively, these findings 1) improve the ability to examine muscle size and function in younger and older adults, and 2) identify promising therapeutic targets to protect skeletal muscle from the harmful effects of chemotherapy treatment.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2018