Matching Items (42)

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Social ecological correlates of workplace sedentary behavior

Description

Background
To identify social ecological correlates of objectively measured workplace sedentary behavior.
Methods
Participants from 24 worksites - across academic, industrial, and government sectors - wore an activPAL-micro accelerometer for

Background
To identify social ecological correlates of objectively measured workplace sedentary behavior.
Methods
Participants from 24 worksites - across academic, industrial, and government sectors - wore an activPAL-micro accelerometer for 7-days (Jan-Nov 2016). Work time was segmented using daily logs. Sedentary behavior outcomes included time spent sitting, standing, in light intensity physical activity (LPA, stepping cadence <100 steps/min), and in prolonged sitting bouts (>30 min). Outcomes were standardized to an 8 h work day. Two electronic surveys were completed to derive individual (job type and work engagement), cultural (lunch away from the desk, walking at lunch and face-to-face interaction), physical (personal printer and office type) and organizational (sector) factors. Mixed-model analyses with worksite-level clustering were performed to examine multi-level associations. Secondary analyses examined job type and sector as moderators of these associations. All models were adjusted for age, race/ethnicity and gender.
Results
Participants (N = 478; 72% female; age: 45.0 ± 11.3 years; 77.8% non-Hispanic white) wore the activPAL-micro for 90.2 ± 15.5% of the reported workday. Walking at lunch was positively associated with LPA (5.0 ± 0.5 min/8 h, P < 0.001). Regular face-to-face interaction was negatively associated with prolonged sitting (−11.3 ± 4.8 min/8 h, P < 0.05). Individuals in private offices sat more (20.1 ± 9.1 min/8 h, P < 0.05), stood less (−21.5 ± 8.8 min/8 h, P < 0.05), and engaged in more prolonged sitting (40.9 ± 11.2 min/8 h, P < 0.001) than those in public office space. These associations were further modified by job type and sector.
Conclusions
Work-specific individual, cultural, physical and organizational factors are associated with workplace sedentary behavior. Associations vary by job type and sector and should be considered in the design of workplace interventions to reduce sedentary behavior.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2017-08-31

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Validation of a Smartphone App for the Assessment of Sedentary and Active Behaviors

Description

Background: Although current technological advancements have allowed for objective measurements of sedentary behavior via accelerometers, these devices do not provide the contextual information needed to identify targets for behavioral interventions

Background: Although current technological advancements have allowed for objective measurements of sedentary behavior via accelerometers, these devices do not provide the contextual information needed to identify targets for behavioral interventions and generate public health guidelines to reduce sedentary behavior. Thus, self-reports still remain an important method of measurement for physical activity and sedentary behaviors.
Objective: This study evaluated the reliability, validity, and sensitivity to change of a smartphone app in assessing sitting, light-intensity physical activity (LPA), and moderate-vigorous physical activity (MVPA).
Methods: Adults (N=28; 49.0 years old, standard deviation [SD] 8.9; 85% men; 73% Caucasian; body mass index=35.0, SD 8.3 kg/m2) reported their sitting, LPA, and MVPA over an 11-week behavioral intervention. During three separate 7-day periods, participants wore the activPAL3c accelerometer/inclinometer as a criterion measure. Intraclass correlation (ICC; 95% CI) and bias estimates (mean difference [δ] and root of mean square error [RMSE]) were used to compare app-based reported behaviors to measured sitting time (lying/seated position), LPA (standing or stepping at <100 steps/minute), and MVPA (stepping at >100 steps/minute).
Results: Test-retest results suggested moderate agreement with the criterion for sedentary time, LPA, and MVPA (ICC=0.65 [0.43-0.82], 0.67 [0.44-0.83] and 0.69 [0.48-0.84], respectively). The agreement between the two measures was poor (ICC=0.05-0.40). The app underestimated sedentary time (δ=-45.9 [-67.6, -24.2] minutes/day, RMSE=201.6) and overestimated LPA and MVPA (δ=18.8 [-1.30 to 38.9] minutes/day, RMSE=183; and δ=29.3 [25.3 to 33.2] minutes/day, RMSE=71.6, respectively). The app underestimated change in time spent during LPA and MVPA but overestimated change in sedentary time. Both measures showed similar directions in changed scores on sedentary time and LPA.
Conclusions: Despite its inaccuracy, the app may be useful as a self-monitoring tool in the context of a behavioral intervention. Future research may help to clarify reasons for under- or over-reporting of behaviors.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2017-08

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Efficacy of a Student-Led, Community-Based, Multifactorial Fall Prevention Program: Stay in Balance

Description

Background: Falls are a major public health concern in older adults. Recent fall prevention guidelines recommend the use of multifactorial fall prevention programs (FPPs) that include exercise for community-dwelling older

Background: Falls are a major public health concern in older adults. Recent fall prevention guidelines recommend the use of multifactorial fall prevention programs (FPPs) that include exercise for community-dwelling older adults; however, the availability of sustainable, community-based FPPs is limited.
Methods: We conducted a 24-week quasi-experimental study to evaluate the efficacy of a community-based, multifactorial FPP [Stay in Balance (SIB)] on dynamic and functional balance and muscular strength. The SIB program was delivered by allied health students and included a health education program focused on fall risk factors and a progressive exercise program emphasizing lower-extremity strength and balance. All participants initially received the 12-week SIB program, and participants were non-randomly assigned at baseline to either continue the SIB exercise program at home or as a center-based program for an additional 12 weeks. Adults aged 60 and older (n = 69) who were at-risk of falling (fall history or 2+ fall risk factors) were recruited to participate. Mixed effects repeated measures using Statistical Application Software Proc Mixed were used to examine group, time, and group-by-time effects on dynamic balance (8-Foot Up and Go), functional balance (Berg Balance Scale), and muscular strength (30 s chair stands and 30 s arm curls). Non-normally distributed outcome variables were log-transformed.
Results: After adjusting for age, gender, and body mass index, 8-Foot Up and Go scores, improved significantly over time [F[subscript (2,173)] = 8.92, p = 0.0; T0 − T2 diff = 1.2 (1.0)]. Berg Balance Scores [F[subscript (2,173)] = 29.0, p < 0.0001; T0 − T2 diff = 4.96 (0.72)], chair stands [F[subscript (2,171)] = 10.17, p < 0.0001; T0 − T2 diff = 3.1 (0.7)], and arm curls [F[subscript (2,171)] = 12.7, p < 0.02; T0 − T2 diff = 2.7 (0.6)] also all improved significantly over time. There were no significant group-by-time effects observed for any of the outcomes.
Conclusion: The SIB program improved dynamic and functional balance and muscular strength in older adults at-risk for falling. Our findings indicate continuing home-based strength and balance exercises at home after completion of a center-based FPP program may be an effective and feasible way to maintain improvements in balance and strength parameters.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2017-02-27

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Behavioral Periodicity Detection from 24 h Wrist Accelerometry and Associations with Cardiometabolic Risk and Health-Related Quality of Life

Description

Periodicities (repeating patterns) are observed in many human behaviors. Their strength may capture untapped patterns that incorporate sleep, sedentary, and active behaviors into a single metric indicative of better health.

Periodicities (repeating patterns) are observed in many human behaviors. Their strength may capture untapped patterns that incorporate sleep, sedentary, and active behaviors into a single metric indicative of better health. We present a framework to detect periodicities from longitudinal wrist-worn accelerometry data. GENEActiv accelerometer data were collected from 20 participants (17 men, 3 women, aged 35–65) continuously for 64.4±26.2 (range: 13.9 to 102.0) consecutive days. Cardiometabolic risk biomarkers and health-related quality of life metrics were assessed at baseline. Periodograms were constructed to determine patterns emergent from the accelerometer data. Periodicity strength was calculated using circular autocorrelations for time-lagged windows. The most notable periodicity was at 24 h, indicating a circadian rest-activity cycle; however, its strength varied significantly across participants. Periodicity strength was most consistently associated with LDL-cholesterol (r’s = 0.40–0.79, P’s < 0.05) and triglycerides (r’s = 0.68–0.86, P’s < 0.05) but also associated with hs-CRP and health-related quality of life, even after adjusting for demographics and self-rated physical activity and insomnia symptoms. Our framework demonstrates a new method for characterizing behavior patterns longitudinally which captures relationships between 24 h accelerometry data and health outcomes.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2016-01-04

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Patient and Provider Perceptions of mHealth Technologies in Clinical Settings

Description

Mobile health or "mHealth" defines a broad spectrum of medical or public health practice supported by mobile devices. The patient's perception of mobile health applications is the key point in

Mobile health or "mHealth" defines a broad spectrum of medical or public health practice supported by mobile devices. The patient's perception of mobile health applications is the key point in confronting whether or not patients will utilize the tools at their disposal As such, the primary aim of this study was to examine participant feedback through quantitative and qualitative measures using the Therapy Evaluation Questionnaire and a patient interview, respectively, to further understand the patient rated acceptability of using BeWell24 and SleepWell24 for improving health outcomes. For BeWell24, it was hypothesized that patients who received the Multicomponent version would report higher acceptability scores than those randomized to the Health Education version. Furthermore, in regard to SleepWell24, it was hypothesized that the SleepWell24 patient would provide positive feedback and suggestions regarding their own experience with the SleepWell24 app. Data from this thesis was pulled from two ongoing randomized controlled trials currently being conducted at the Phoenix Veteran Affairs Health Care Service (PVACHS) and Mayo Clinic hospitals. Means, standard deviations, frequencies, and percentages were commuted to summarize demographics and TEQ scores. In addition, key concepts from a qualitative interview with a SleepWell24 participant were derived. The results showed a greater acceptability of the multicomponent versions of BeWell24 and SleepWell24 but a lower TEQ score of perceived usability. mHealth implementations pose a potential to become an important part of the health sector for establishing innovative approaches to delivering care, and while benefits have been highly praised, it is clear that the perceptions of mHealth must be positive if the technology is to transcend into a practical clinical setting.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2018-05

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The Effects of Increased Standing and Light Physical Activity in the Workplace on Postprandial Glucose

Description

This thesis paper examines the effects of increased standing and light physical activity in the workplace on postprandial glucose. Sedentary behavior is detrimental to our health, affecting metabolic risk factors.

This thesis paper examines the effects of increased standing and light physical activity in the workplace on postprandial glucose. Sedentary behavior is detrimental to our health, affecting metabolic risk factors. An easy way to implement change is by decreasing sedentary time in workplaces where sitting is common, such as office workspaces. To consider how postprandial glucose is affected by decreasing sedentary time, participants ate a standardized meal for lunch and were asked to decrease their sitting time by replacing it with standing and light physical activity.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2020-12

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The Trojan Horse of Sleep Technology: How the Introduction of Sleep-oriented Features is Leading the Charge in Improving Sleep Habits

Description

As science has progressed, sleep deficiency has been discovered to be associated with declines in both mental and physical health, and similarly, sleep deficiency has been noted as a public

As science has progressed, sleep deficiency has been discovered to be associated with declines in both mental and physical health, and similarly, sleep deficiency has been noted as a public safety concern with 20 percent of motor vehicle crashes linked to driving while drowsy. The National Sleep Foundation has identified that 62 percent of Americans do nothing to address their sleep deficiency, and with a society that normalizes coping mechanisms such as napping and caffeine consumption, it is easy to see why nothing has been done to resolve this issue. Nevertheless, with sleep technology falling in the hands of more and more Americans this thesis aims to explore how these technologies are being adopted and how the introduction of sleep-oriented features for established products may lead to more sleep conscious consumers.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2020-12

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Liberating Science: Accelerating the Innovation of Health Technology

Description

Translating research has been a goal of the Department of Health and Human Services since 1999. Through two years of iteration and interview with our community members, we have collected

Translating research has been a goal of the Department of Health and Human Services since 1999. Through two years of iteration and interview with our community members, we have collected insights into the barriers to accomplishing this goal. Liberating Science is a think-tank of researchers and scientists who seek to create a more transparent process to accelerate innovation starting with behavioral health research.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2014-05

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Accuracy of Commercially-Available Accelerometers For Measuring Steps

Description

Over the last decade, the ability to track daily activity through step counting devices has undergone major changes. Advanced technologies have brought about new step counting devices and new

Over the last decade, the ability to track daily activity through step counting devices has undergone major changes. Advanced technologies have brought about new step counting devices and new form factors. The validity of these new devices is not fully known. The purpose of this study was to validate and compare the step counting accuracy of commercially available hip- and wrist-worn accelerometers. A total of 185 participants (18-64 years of age) were analyzed for this study, with the sample composed nearly evenly of each gender (53.5% female) and BMI classification (33% overweight, 31.9% obese). Each participant wore five devices including hip-worn Omron HJ-112 and Fitbit One, and wrist-worn Fitbit Flex, Nike Fuelband, and Jawbone UP. A range of activities (some constant among all participants, some randomly assigned) were then used to accumulate steps including walking on a hard surface for 400m, treadmill walking/running at 2mph, 3mph, and ≥5mph, walking up five flights of stairs, and walking down five flights of stairs. To validate the accuracy of each device, steps were also counted by direct observation. Results showed high concordance with directly observed steps for all devices (intraclass correlation coefficient range: 0.86 to 0.99), with hip-worn devices more accurate than wrist-worn devices. Absolute percent error values were lower among hip-worn devices and at faster walking/running speeds. Nike Fuelband consistently was the worst performing of all test devices. These results are important because as pedometers become more complex, it is important that they remain accurate throughout a variety of activities. Future directions for this research are to explore the validity of these devices in free-living settings and among younger and older populations.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2014-05

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Improving Time Management Skills In College Students Using Personalized Interventions

Description

Learning how to manage time efficiently is something that many people struggle with, college students in particular. The purpose of this study was to examine if personalization via self-experimentation of

Learning how to manage time efficiently is something that many people struggle with, college students in particular. The purpose of this study was to examine if personalization via self-experimentation of strategies to improve time management skills is a useful strategy for achieving this goal. This study used a multiple baseline approach with three phases: phase one, the baseline, phase two, which included individuals receiving examples of plausible strategies to improve time management skills, and phase three, which involved the self-experimentation component. Results of this study suggest no significant changes in time management based on self-reported completion of tasks but do indicate a trend towards improved time management skills overall based on the time management questionnaire taken at the beginning and end of the study. These results suggest that further exploration in the use of self-experimentation strategies for improving time management is likely warranted but that current strategies likely require additional research. Results from the interviews indicate that the self-experimentation strategy, as delivered via PACO does increase awareness and thinking about time management.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2016-05