Matching Items (46)

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The Effects of Increased Standing and Light Physical Activity in the Workplace on Postprandial Glucose

Description

This thesis paper examines the effects of increased standing and light physical activity in the workplace on postprandial glucose. Sedentary behavior is detrimental to our health, affecting metabolic risk factors. An easy way to implement change is by decreasing sedentary

This thesis paper examines the effects of increased standing and light physical activity in the workplace on postprandial glucose. Sedentary behavior is detrimental to our health, affecting metabolic risk factors. An easy way to implement change is by decreasing sedentary time in workplaces where sitting is common, such as office workspaces. To consider how postprandial glucose is affected by decreasing sedentary time, participants ate a standardized meal for lunch and were asked to decrease their sitting time by replacing it with standing and light physical activity.

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Created

Date Created
2020-12

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Patient and Provider Perceptions of mHealth Technologies in Clinical Settings

Description

Mobile health or "mHealth" defines a broad spectrum of medical or public health practice supported by mobile devices. The patient's perception of mobile health applications is the key point in confronting whether or not patients will utilize the tools at

Mobile health or "mHealth" defines a broad spectrum of medical or public health practice supported by mobile devices. The patient's perception of mobile health applications is the key point in confronting whether or not patients will utilize the tools at their disposal As such, the primary aim of this study was to examine participant feedback through quantitative and qualitative measures using the Therapy Evaluation Questionnaire and a patient interview, respectively, to further understand the patient rated acceptability of using BeWell24 and SleepWell24 for improving health outcomes. For BeWell24, it was hypothesized that patients who received the Multicomponent version would report higher acceptability scores than those randomized to the Health Education version. Furthermore, in regard to SleepWell24, it was hypothesized that the SleepWell24 patient would provide positive feedback and suggestions regarding their own experience with the SleepWell24 app. Data from this thesis was pulled from two ongoing randomized controlled trials currently being conducted at the Phoenix Veteran Affairs Health Care Service (PVACHS) and Mayo Clinic hospitals. Means, standard deviations, frequencies, and percentages were commuted to summarize demographics and TEQ scores. In addition, key concepts from a qualitative interview with a SleepWell24 participant were derived. The results showed a greater acceptability of the multicomponent versions of BeWell24 and SleepWell24 but a lower TEQ score of perceived usability. mHealth implementations pose a potential to become an important part of the health sector for establishing innovative approaches to delivering care, and while benefits have been highly praised, it is clear that the perceptions of mHealth must be positive if the technology is to transcend into a practical clinical setting.

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Created

Date Created
2018-05

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Validation of a Smartphone App for the Assessment of Sedentary and Active Behaviors

Description

Background: Although current technological advancements have allowed for objective measurements of sedentary behavior via accelerometers, these devices do not provide the contextual information needed to identify targets for behavioral interventions and generate public health guidelines to reduce sedentary behavior. Thus,

Background: Although current technological advancements have allowed for objective measurements of sedentary behavior via accelerometers, these devices do not provide the contextual information needed to identify targets for behavioral interventions and generate public health guidelines to reduce sedentary behavior. Thus, self-reports still remain an important method of measurement for physical activity and sedentary behaviors.

Objective: This study evaluated the reliability, validity, and sensitivity to change of a smartphone app in assessing sitting, light-intensity physical activity (LPA), and moderate-vigorous physical activity (MVPA).
Methods: Adults (N=28; 49.0 years old, standard deviation [SD] 8.9; 85% men; 73% Caucasian; body mass index=35.0, SD 8.3 kg/m2) reported their sitting, LPA, and MVPA over an 11-week behavioral intervention. During three separate 7-day periods, participants wore the activPAL3c accelerometer/inclinometer as a criterion measure. Intraclass correlation (ICC; 95% CI) and bias estimates (mean difference [δ] and root of mean square error [RMSE]) were used to compare app-based reported behaviors to measured sitting time (lying/seated position), LPA (standing or stepping at <100 steps/minute), and MVPA (stepping at >100 steps/minute).

Results: Test-retest results suggested moderate agreement with the criterion for sedentary time, LPA, and MVPA (ICC=0.65 [0.43-0.82], 0.67 [0.44-0.83] and 0.69 [0.48-0.84], respectively). The agreement between the two measures was poor (ICC=0.05-0.40). The app underestimated sedentary time (δ=-45.9 [-67.6, -24.2] minutes/day, RMSE=201.6) and overestimated LPA and MVPA (δ=18.8 [-1.30 to 38.9] minutes/day, RMSE=183; and δ=29.3 [25.3 to 33.2] minutes/day, RMSE=71.6, respectively). The app underestimated change in time spent during LPA and MVPA but overestimated change in sedentary time. Both measures showed similar directions in changed scores on sedentary time and LPA.

Conclusions: Despite its inaccuracy, the app may be useful as a self-monitoring tool in the context of a behavioral intervention. Future research may help to clarify reasons for under- or over-reporting of behaviors.

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Created

Date Created
2017-08

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Validity and Reliability of Nike + Fuelband for Estimating Physical Activity Energy Expenditure

Description

Background: The Nike + Fuelband is a commercially available, wrist-worn accelerometer used to track physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE) during exercise. However, validation studies assessing the accuracy of this device for estimating PAEE are lacking. Therefore, this study examined the validity and reliability

Background: The Nike + Fuelband is a commercially available, wrist-worn accelerometer used to track physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE) during exercise. However, validation studies assessing the accuracy of this device for estimating PAEE are lacking. Therefore, this study examined the validity and reliability of the Nike + Fuelband for estimating PAEE during physical activity in young adults. Secondarily, we compared PAEE estimation of the Nike + Fuelband with the previously validated SenseWear Armband (SWA).

Methods: Twenty-four participants (n = 24) completed two, 60-min semi-structured routines consisting of sedentary/light-intensity, moderate-intensity, and vigorous-intensity physical activity. Participants wore a Nike + Fuelband and SWA, while oxygen uptake was measured continuously with an Oxycon Mobile (OM) metabolic measurement system (criterion).

Results: The Nike + Fuelband (ICC = 0.77) and SWA (ICC = 0.61) both demonstrated moderate to good validity. PAEE estimates provided by the Nike + Fuelband (246 ± 67 kcal) and SWA (238 ± 57 kcal) were not statistically different than OM (243 ± 67 kcal). Both devices also displayed similar mean absolute percent errors for PAEE estimates (Nike + Fuelband = 16 ± 13 %; SWA = 18 ± 18 %). Test-retest reliability for PAEE indicated good stability for Nike + Fuelband (ICC = 0.96) and SWA (ICC = 0.90).

Conclusion: The Nike + Fuelband provided valid and reliable estimates of PAEE, that are similar to the previously validated SWA, during a routine that included approximately equal amounts of sedentary/light-, moderate- and vigorous-intensity physical activity.

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Created

Date Created
2015-06-30

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Implementation maintenance outcomes from the ‘Stand and Move at Work’ Cluster Randomized Trial

Description

The purpose of this study was to examine the overall maintenance of behavior during the 12 to 24 month period of the ​Stand&Move@Work​ study and the impact of implementation factors (i.e., facilitators, advocate activity, and the amount of strategies used)

The purpose of this study was to examine the overall maintenance of behavior during the 12 to 24 month period of the ​Stand&Move@Work​ study and the impact of implementation factors (i.e., facilitators, advocate activity, and the amount of strategies used) on behavior change. The design of the study was a cluster randomized trial which was facilitated by researchers for the first 12 months of the study. The primary aim of the study was to examine the maintenance of behavior change (i.e., sitting time) at the 12 month and 24 month marks using objectively measured sedentary behavior (activPAL micro). The secondary aim of the study was to examine the impact of implementation factors (i.e., facilitators, advocate activity, and the amount of strategies used) on behavior change during the 12 through 24 months maintenance period. Participants (N=630) included full-time, caucasian, middle-aged office workers. For the primary aim, descriptive means were used to cluster for observations within-persons and were adjusted for age, gender, race, job-type, and ordering effects.. For the secondary aim, descriptive means adjusted for workplace culture and environment were computed. At the 24 month mark, participants spent 280.67 ± 87.67 min/8hr workday sitting and 161.94 ± 85.87 min/8hr workday standing. The top performing worksites displayed reductions in sitting time which largely translated into standing time by about 30 minutes per 8 hour workday at 24 months. Feasibility findings indicated that implementation strategies do not show differences between the top 25% and bottom 25% performing worksites. This study provides insight to implementation strategies for interventions in the workplace.

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Created

Date Created
2019-05

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Associations Between Sedentary and More Active Behaviors and Cardiometabolic Risk Among Sedentary Working Adults.

Description

Cardiovascular disease attributed to about 800,000 deaths per year and is the leading cause of all-cause mortality in the U.S. Previous studies indicate that reducing sedentary time or increasing physical activity (PA) can independently reduce cardiometabolic risk (CMR). Further, studies

Cardiovascular disease attributed to about 800,000 deaths per year and is the leading cause of all-cause mortality in the U.S. Previous studies indicate that reducing sedentary time or increasing physical activity (PA) can independently reduce cardiometabolic risk (CMR). Further, studies have shown that higher levels of moderate-to-vigorous PA can attenuate the negative effects of sedentary behavior on CMR.
In this study, we evaluated the association between sedentary time, light-intensity PA (LPA), and moderate-vigorous PA (MVPA) and CMR biomarkers (high density lipoprotein level, low density lipoprotein level, triglycerides, fasting glucose, total cholesterol, blood pressure, and body mass index). Additionally, we examined if the detrimental association between sedentary time and CMR biomarkers is partially or fully attenuated by MVPA. Baseline objective physical activity and cardiometabolic risk data from a two-arm-cluster randomized trial (Stand&Move@work) were used in this study. Multilevel models clustered by worksite evaluated the fixed effects and interaction between MVPA and sedentary time on CMR. Data from 630 sedentary working adults (from 24 worksites) were included in the analysis. The sample was mainly middle aged (44.6±11.2) females (74%) with race distributions as follows; 70.5% white, 13.8% hispanic, 4.1% black, 5.1% asian, and 2.1% other. Our study showed detrimental trends consistent with previous studies between sedentary behavior and cardiometabolic outcomes including HDL, LDL, and total cholesterol. MVPA demonstrated beneficial associations with lipoproteins including HDL, LDL, total cholesterol, and triglycerides. We observed that high levels of MVPA may be able to partially attenuate the negative effects of highly sedentary behavior on fasting glucose, total cholesterol, and LDL levels. Overall, sedentary behavior indicated deleterious associations with cardiometabolic outcomes. Future directions for this study could examine a more at-risk population or a highly active population for further assessment of CMR biomarkers and the effects of behavior.

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Created

Date Created
2019-05

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Determining Who Responds Better to a Computer- VS. Human-Delivered Physical Activity Intervention: Results From the Community Health Advice by Telephone (CHAT) Trial

Description

Background: Little research has explored who responds better to an automated vs. human advisor for health behaviors in general, and for physical activity (PA) promotion in particular. The purpose of this study was to explore baseline factors (i.e., demographics, motivation, interpersonal

Background: Little research has explored who responds better to an automated vs. human advisor for health behaviors in general, and for physical activity (PA) promotion in particular. The purpose of this study was to explore baseline factors (i.e., demographics, motivation, interpersonal style, and external resources) that moderate intervention efficacy delivered by either a human or automated advisor.

Methods: Data were from the CHAT Trial, a 12-month randomized controlled trial to increase PA among underactive older adults (full trial N = 218) via a human advisor or automated interactive voice response advisor. Trial results indicated significant increases in PA in both interventions by 12 months that were maintained at 18-months. Regression was used to explore moderation of the two interventions.

Results: Results indicated amotivation (i.e., lack of intent in PA) moderated 12-month PA (d = 0.55, p < 0.01) and private self-consciousness (i.e., tendency to attune to one’s own inner thoughts and emotions) moderated 18-month PA (d = 0.34, p < 0.05) but a variety of other factors (e.g., demographics) did not (p > 0.12).

Conclusions: Results provide preliminary evidence for generating hypotheses about pathways for supporting later clinical decision-making with regard to the use of either human- vs. computer-delivered interventions for PA promotion.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
2013-09-22

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Social Ecological Correlates of Workplace Sedentary Behavior

Description

Background: To identify social ecological correlates of objectively measured workplace sedentary behavior.

Methods: Participants from 24 worksites - across academic, industrial, and government sectors - wore an activPAL-micro accelerometer for 7-days (Jan-Nov 2016). Work time was segmented using daily logs. Sedentary behavior outcomes

Background: To identify social ecological correlates of objectively measured workplace sedentary behavior.

Methods: Participants from 24 worksites - across academic, industrial, and government sectors - wore an activPAL-micro accelerometer for 7-days (Jan-Nov 2016). Work time was segmented using daily logs. Sedentary behavior outcomes included time spent sitting, standing, in light intensity physical activity (LPA, stepping cadence <100 steps/min), and in prolonged sitting bouts (>30 min). Outcomes were standardized to an 8 h work day. Two electronic surveys were completed to derive individual (job type and work engagement), cultural (lunch away from the desk, walking at lunch and face-to-face interaction), physical (personal printer and office type) and organizational (sector) factors. Mixed-model analyses with worksite-level clustering were performed to examine multi-level associations. Secondary analyses examined job type and sector as moderators of these associations. All models were adjusted for age, race/ethnicity and gender.

Results: Participants (N = 478; 72% female; age: 45.0 ± 11.3 years; 77.8% non-Hispanic white) wore the activPAL-micro for 90.2 ± 15.5% of the reported workday. Walking at lunch was positively associated with LPA (5.0 ± 0.5 min/8 h, P < 0.001). Regular face-to-face interaction was negatively associated with prolonged sitting (−11.3 ± 4.8 min/8 h, P < 0.05). Individuals in private offices sat more (20.1 ± 9.1 min/8 h, P < 0.05), stood less (−21.5 ± 8.8 min/8 h, P < 0.05), and engaged in more prolonged sitting (40.9 ± 11.2 min/8 h, P < 0.001) than those in public office space. These associations were further modified by job type and sector.

Conclusions: Work-specific individual, cultural, physical and organizational factors are associated with workplace sedentary behavior. Associations vary by job type and sector and should be considered in the design of workplace interventions to reduce sedentary behavior.

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Created

Date Created
2017-08-31

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Harnessing Different Motivational Frames Via Mobile Phones to Promote Daily Physical Activity and Reduce Sedentary Behavior in Aging Adults

Description

Mobile devices are a promising channel for delivering just-in-time guidance and support for improving key daily health behaviors. Despite an explosion of mobile phone applications aimed at physical activity and other health behaviors, few have been based on theoretically derived

Mobile devices are a promising channel for delivering just-in-time guidance and support for improving key daily health behaviors. Despite an explosion of mobile phone applications aimed at physical activity and other health behaviors, few have been based on theoretically derived constructs and empirical evidence. Eighty adults ages 45 years and older who were insufficiently physically active, engaged in prolonged daily sitting, and were new to smartphone technology, participated in iterative design development and feasibility testing of three daily activity smartphone applications based on motivational frames drawn from behavioral science theory and evidence. An “analytically” framed custom application focused on personalized goal setting, self-monitoring, and active problem solving around barriers to behavior change. A “socially” framed custom application focused on social comparisons, norms, and support.

An “affectively” framed custom application focused on operant conditioning principles of reinforcement scheduling and emotional transference to an avatar, whose movements and behaviors reflected the physical activity and sedentary levels of the user. To explore the applications' initial efficacy in changing regular physical activity and leisure-time sitting, behavioral changes were assessed across eight weeks in 68 participants using the CHAMPS physical activity questionnaire and the Australian sedentary behavior questionnaire. User acceptability of and satisfaction with the applications was explored via a post-intervention user survey. The results indicated that the three applications were sufficiently robust to significantly improve regular moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity and decrease leisure-time sitting during the 8-week behavioral adoption period. Acceptability of the applications was confirmed in the post-intervention surveys for this sample of midlife and older adults new to smartphone technology. Preliminary data exploring sustained use of the applications across a longer time period yielded promising results. The results support further systematic investigation of the efficacy of the applications for changing these key health-promoting behaviors.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
2013-04-25

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Validity of the Rapid Eating Assessment for Patients for assessing dietary patterns in NCAA athletes

Description

Background
Athletes may be at risk for developing adverse health outcomes due to poor eating behaviors during college. Due to the complex nature of the diet, it is difficult to include or exclude individual food items and specific food groups

Background
Athletes may be at risk for developing adverse health outcomes due to poor eating behaviors during college. Due to the complex nature of the diet, it is difficult to include or exclude individual food items and specific food groups from the diet. Eating behaviors may better characterize the complex interactions between individual food items and specific food groups. The purpose was to examine the Rapid Eating Assessment for Patients survey (REAP) as a valid tool for analyzing eating behaviors of NCAA Division-I male and female athletes using pattern identification. Also, to investigate the relationships between derived eating behavior patterns and body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) while stratifying by sex and aesthetic nature of the sport.
Methods
Two independent samples of male (n = 86; n = 139) and female (n = 64; n = 102) collegiate athletes completed the REAP in June-August 2011 (n = 150) and June-August 2012 (n = 241). Principal component analysis (PCA) determined possible factors using wave-1 athletes. Exploratory (EFA) and confirmatory factor analyses (CFA) determined factors accounting for error and confirmed model fit in wave-2 athletes. Wave-2 athletes' BMI and WC were recorded during a physical exam and sport participation determined classification in aesthetic and non-aesthetic sport. Mean differences in eating behavior pattern score were explored. Regression models examined interactions between pattern scores, participation in aesthetic or non-aesthetic sport, and BMI and waist circumference controlling for age and race.
Results
A 5-factor PCA solution accounting for 60.3% of sample variance determined fourteen questions for EFA and CFA. A confirmed solution revealed patterns of Desserts, Healthy food, Meats, High-fat food, and Dairy. Pattern score (mean ± SE) differences were found, as non-aesthetic sport males had a higher (better) Dessert score than aesthetic sport males (2.16 ± 0.07 vs. 1.93 ± 0.11). Female aesthetic athletes had a higher score compared to non-aesthetic female athletes for the Dessert (2.11 ± 0.11 vs. 1.88 ± 0.08), Meat (1.95 ± 0.10 vs. 1.72 ± 0.07), High-fat food (1.70 ± 0.08 vs. 1.46 ± 0.06), and Dairy (1.70 ± 0.11 vs. 1.43 ± 0.07) patterns.
Conclusions
REAP is a construct valid tool to assess dietary patterns in college athletes. In light of varying dietary patterns, college athletes should be evaluated for healthful and unhealthful eating behaviors.

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Created

Date Created
2014-08-15