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Analysis of Screening Tools for Identifying Sex Trafficking Victims in the Medical Setting

Description

The purpose of this study was to create a screening tool specifically for the identification of sex trafficking victims in the medical setting through the analysis of existing human trafficking screening tool studies geared towards use in the medical setting.

The purpose of this study was to create a screening tool specifically for the identification of sex trafficking victims in the medical setting through the analysis of existing human trafficking screening tool studies geared towards use in the medical setting. Screening questions from these studies were compiled and modified into a survey that was distributed to healthcare professionals through the nationwide HEAL (Health Professional Education, Advocacy, Linkage) Trafficking listserv. Each screening tool study demonstrated benefits and disadvantages that were helpful in the sampling and selection of screening tool questions. The small sample size and a lack of data on the attitudes of medical professionals on sex trafficked victims were noted as limitations to this study. Further implications for this study would include validating the screening tool questions in a medical setting to determine the sensitivity of the survey in identifying patients as possible sex trafficking victims.

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2018-05

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The association between screen time, physical activity levels, and metabolic markers in elementary school-aged children

Description

Hispanic children have the highest prevalence of obesity versus other ethnic groups. This leaves this population susceptible to many adverse health risks, including hypertension, cardiovascular disease, and high blood pressure. Unfortunately, little research has been done investigating the contributing cause

Hispanic children have the highest prevalence of obesity versus other ethnic groups. This leaves this population susceptible to many adverse health risks, including hypertension, cardiovascular disease, and high blood pressure. Unfortunately, little research has been done investigating the contributing cause to this issue, specifically common sedentary behaviors in children that limit physical activity and it’s purpose in expending energy. Amongst these behaviors, amount of time spent on electronic devices has proven to have increased drastically in recent years. The relationship between screen time and electronic device use, specifically with television, video games, and computer usage, and physical activity levels, and how those affect cardiometabolic disease risk factors, were explored in this study. Participants of this study were elementary school-aged children from Maricopa County, AZ. Electronic device usage, physical activity amounts, and presence of the specific devices in the child’s were collected from the participants’ parents through self-reported survey questions. Anthropometric and biochemical markers of cardiometabolic disease risk were directly measured. The average time spent engaged in physical activity per day by these participants was 20.02 ± 21.1 minutes and the average total screen time per day was 655 ± 605 minutes. Findings showed strong significance between total screen time and computer and video game use (r=0.482; p=0.01 and r=0.784; p=0.01, respectively). Video game time in the group of children with a video game in their room (350.66 ± 445.96 min/day) was significantly higher than the sample of kids without one in their room (107.19 ± 210.0 min/day ; p=0.000). Total screen time was also significantly greater with children who had a video game system in their room (927.56 ± 928.7 min/day) versus children who did not (543.14 ± 355.11 min/day; p=0.006). Additionally, significance was found showing children with a computer in the bedroom spent more time using the computer per day (450.95 ± 377.95 min/day), compared to those children who did not have a computer in their room (333.5 ± 395.6 min/day; p=0.048). No significant association was found between metabolic markers and screen time. However, HDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, and insulin proved to be dependent on BMI percentile (r=-0.582; p=0.01, r=0.476; p=0.01, r=0.704; p=0.01 respectively). Our data suggest further research needs to be done investigating other potential sources that limit physical activity so that strategies can focus on reducing obesity incidence and the associated health risks. Future studies should use larger sample sizes to be more representative of this population, and develop more direct observations instead of self-reported values to limit bias.

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2018-05

Understanding Volunteer Motivations and Incentives for Retention in the Nonprofit Sector: Delivering Health and Hope to the World, One Super Sort at a Time

Description

Project C.U.R.E. is a nonprofit organization that delivers donated medical supplies and services to developing nations across the world. Currently, the Phoenix location has three full time employees, so a majority of the manual work is completed by episodic and

Project C.U.R.E. is a nonprofit organization that delivers donated medical supplies and services to developing nations across the world. Currently, the Phoenix location has three full time employees, so a majority of the manual work is completed by episodic and long-term volunteers as well as semesterly interns. Volunteers are the backbone of the organization's daily productivity. Productivity among the Project C.U.R.E. warehouses varies greatly by location and is not directly related to the size of the warehouse. Productivity if hereby defined as as a warehouse's capability to meet the organization's goal of one container per week. Productivity can be increased or decreased based on the number of volunteers, funding, and catalogued inventory. Across all warehouses there is generally an overflow of donated equipment and consumable products, and therefore this is not usually a factor in productivity. In order to better understand why the Phoenix warehouse is the second most productive despite being the smallest, we researched how the motivations of volunteers. A survey was conducted to assess the motives of Project C.U.R.E.'s volunteers by quantifying their responses according to the Volunteerism Functional Inventory (VFI). The survey also produced information regarding volunteer demographics (ie. including gender, age, and occupation), as well as statistics about how often they volunteer at Project C.U.R.E. and their overall satisfaction with the organization. The data was then analyzed to determine the most relevant VFI characteristic. Upon analyzing the data, it was observed that the majority of participants were male (58.95%) and were between the ages of 18 and 25 (82.11%). The results also showed that Project C.U.R.E. utilizes a large number of episodic volunteers from Arizona State University (due to its close proximity to the Phoenix warehouse) was supported in that the data showed 72.63% of participants were undergraduate students and that 48.42% had just volunteered for their first time. After combining survey questions that corresponded to the same characteristic of volunteerism as outlined by Clary et al. (values, social, career, understanding, protective, and enhancement) the average of the responses was taken and used to determine the most relevant motives for our volunteer population. Based on the data, values (average score of 5.0) and understanding (average score of 5.0) were the two most relevant characteristics and protective (average score of 1.0) was the least relevant to volunteers. Additionally, 41.1% of survey respondents reported food would incentivize them to return to Project C.U.R.E. Additionally, 35.6% of survey respondents reported receiving Project C.U.R.E. merchandise would incentivize them to return in the future. Moving forward, it is recommended that the Project CURE Phoenix location begin providing their volunteers with merchandise and other forms of recognition based on the number of hours they committed to the organization.

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Date Created
2018-12

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A Wok to Remember: a Culinary Exploration of Asian American Cuisine

Description

Asian Americans have a unique relationship with food. From the moment they landed on American soil, their history and experiences have been tied to food, and not entirely by their own will. Now, the general American population enjoys foods from

Asian Americans have a unique relationship with food. From the moment they landed on American soil, their history and experiences have been tied to food, and not entirely by their own will. Now, the general American population enjoys foods from a multitude of ethnic groups, but in America’s early history, these foods were abhorred and used as justifications for legal discrimination, murders, massacres, and banishment. These struggles forced Asian Americans to work in the food industry (the only work they could do without as much backlash), further promoting the association of Asian Americans and food. While working in the food industry in order to find passage into America and to survive, many Asian dishes had to be assimilated to the palette of the general White American population and many dishes were made up and presented as authentically Asian. Some of these dishes have become iconic when thinking of classic American foods—chow mein, orange chicken, and more. For many non-Asian Americans, these popular dishes contribute to the pairing of Asian Americans with food and the food industry. But for Asian Americans, these dishes symbolize their struggles—leaving their homes and families behind, trying to live out the American dream, assimilating and changing their foods in just the right way in order to fit in, be accepted, and to survive. This project, in the form of a cookbook, examines the significance of food in the Chinese American, Japanese American, and Filipino American experiences in America while looking at the histories of those specific foods as well as histories of each group.

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Date Created
2018-05

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A Mechanistic Model of Art Therapy

Description

The goal of my study is to test the overarching hypothesis that art therapy is effective because it targets emotional dysregulation that often accompanies significant health stressors. By reducing the salience of illness-related stressors, art therapy may improve overall mood

The goal of my study is to test the overarching hypothesis that art therapy is effective because it targets emotional dysregulation that often accompanies significant health stressors. By reducing the salience of illness-related stressors, art therapy may improve overall mood and recovery, particularly in patients with cancer. After consulting the primary literature and review papers to develop psychological and neural mechanisms at work in art therapy, I created a hypothetical experimental procedure to test these hypotheses to explain why art therapy is helpful to patients with chronic illness. Studies found that art therapy stimulates activity of multiple brain regions involved in memory retrieval and the arousal of emotions. I hypothesize that patients with chronic illness have a reduced capacity for emotion regulation, or difficulty recognizing, expressing or altering illness-related emotions (Gross & Barrett, 2011). Further I hypothesize that art therapy improves mood and therapeutic outcomes by acting on the emotion-processing regions of the limbic system, and thereby facilitating the healthy expression of emotion, emotional processing, and reappraisal. More mechanistically, I propose art therapy reduces the perception or salience of stressors by reducing amygdala activity leading to decreased activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. The art therapy literature and my hypothesis about its mechanisms of action became the basis of my proposed study. To assess the effectiveness of art therapy in alleviating symptoms of chronic disease, I am specifically targeting patients with cancer who exhibit a lack of emotional regulation. Saliva is collected 3 times a week on the day of intervention: morning after waking, afternoon, and evening. Stress levels are tested using one-hour art therapy sessions over the course of 3 months. The Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) assesses an individual's perceived stress and feelings in past and present situations, for the control and intervention group. To measure improvement in overall mood, 10 one-hour art sessions are performed on patients over 10 weeks. A one-hour discussion analyzing the participants' artwork follows each art session. The Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) assesses overall mood for the intervention and control groups. I created rationale and predictions based on the intended results of each experiment.

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Date Created
2018-05

Bite Force Analysis of Leucoraja erinacea Skates to Understand Morphological Evolution of Different Cartilaginous Fish

Description

By studying organismal performance, one can gain insight regarding the evolutionary and developmental processes that shape the adult organism. Bite force is an important trait that can be linked to performance, and therefore survival, of the entire organism. In order

By studying organismal performance, one can gain insight regarding the evolutionary and developmental processes that shape the adult organism. Bite force is an important trait that can be linked to performance, and therefore survival, of the entire organism. In order for an animal to successfully feed upon its prey, the components of the jaw, such as the skeleton and attached muscles, must be strong enough to withstand the forces required for capturing and then processing (masticating) the prey. Because sharks and skates have a fully cartilaginous skeleton, they theoretically bite off more than deemed biologically possible, these organisms, therefore, are excellent models for study when trying to understand bite performance. The goal was to measure the bite force of Leucoraja erinacea. Dissections were completed for 14 individuals, in order to expose the muscles beneath the skin. The muscles were then removed, and the mass was recorded. Calculations derived from the literature were used to determine total bite force. Linear regression was used to determine the relationship between bite force and size of the organism. The average maximum bite force of Leucoraja erinacea was determined to be roughly 23.3 Newtons (N). There was a positive relationship between bite force and size. This skate produces a much smaller bite force than many other organisms, providing insight into its ecological role in food webs. Many of the shells of commercially important prey were also much stronger than the bite forces estimated for these skates, suggesting that either the skates were not mature or large enough to feed on these prey, or, perhaps this species is unable to feed on these organisms entirely.

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Date Created
2018-05

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The Etiology and Links Between Idiopathic Chronic Testicular Pain and Pelvic Floor Dysfunction: A Better Way to Diagnose and Treat

Description

As a 21-year-old collegiate athlete, I was overcome with a sudden debilitating pain. Eight months of this pain and over a hundred doctors' appointments could not fix my problem. My issue was not uncommon, as it was due to chronic

As a 21-year-old collegiate athlete, I was overcome with a sudden debilitating pain. Eight months of this pain and over a hundred doctors' appointments could not fix my problem. My issue was not uncommon, as it was due to chronic testicular pain. My experience was so terrible that I want to make sure what happened to me never happens to another person. It is unacceptable that fifty percent of chronic testicular pain cases are idiopathic. This is because conventional diagnostic and treatment protocols for men experiencing testicular pain are insufficient. Because the literature does not consider the body as a whole, testicular pain is diagnosed as idiopathic once trauma and torsion, tumors and cancer, infection, and sexually transmitted diseases are ruled out. This gap in the literature overlooks the links between biomechanical dysfunctions of the pelvic floor and testicular pain. Furthermore, recently proposed treatment algorithms do not consider the pelvic floor and are vague in their approach to treating and diagnosing testicular pain. If up to fifty percent of testicular pain cases are deemed to be idiopathic, then a more holistic approach must be utilized. This paper proposes a method to holistically evaluate patients with testicular pain and how to more efficiently diagnose the source of their pain. This paper will also coincide with my personal case study of idiopathic testicular pain.

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2018-05

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Cognitive Planning Improved after Cycling Exercise in Older Adults with Down Syndrome

Description

Executive function is a crucial part of daily living and activities for individuals with Down Syndrome (DS). The aim of this study was to examine if Assisted Cycle Therapy (ACT) would improve cognitive planning as measured by the Tower of

Executive function is a crucial part of daily living and activities for individuals with Down Syndrome (DS). The aim of this study was to examine if Assisted Cycle Therapy (ACT) would improve cognitive planning as measured by the Tower of London (TOL), set switching as measured by the modified Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, and spatial memory as measured by the Corsi Block Test in older adults with DS. Twenty-six participants were randomly assigned to one of three interventions over eight weeks. 1) Thirteen older adults with DS completed the ACT intervention, which is stationary cycling with the assistance of a motor to maintain a cadence at least 35% greater than voluntary cycling. 2) Eleven older adults with DS completed voluntary cycling (VC) and 3) Two older adults with DS were in our no cycling intervention. There were tests administered a week prior to the invention (or no intervention) and one week after their completed intervention (or no intervention). The pre- and post-tests were used to assess different measures, which could have been influenced from the eight-week intervention. The measures analyzed from our study were as followed; Tower of London, Card Sorting Test, and the Corsi Block Test. Our results showed that cognitive planning improved after ACT and VC, but not NC. Cognitive planning was assessed through the TOL task and showed improvements after the eight-week intervention (due to its sensitive nature in analyzing smaller changes pre- and post-intervention). Our results are discussed with respect to upregulation of neurotrophic factors that increase functioning in the prefrontal cortex that accompanies exercise.

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Date Created
2017-12

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Contributing Factors to the Patient Burden of Work

Description

Patients face tremendous challenges when attempting to navigate the United States health care system. This difficulty to navigate the system creates a burden that is placed on the patient and caregiver, in turn affecting the health outcomes of the patient,

Patients face tremendous challenges when attempting to navigate the United States health care system. This difficulty to navigate the system creates a burden that is placed on the patient and caregiver, in turn affecting the health outcomes of the patient, resulting in higher health care costs, less than desirable outcomes, and a large strain on the patient and caregiver's daily lives. There are several ways that people have tried to create a comprehensive theoretical framework to understand the system from multiple perspectives. This work will expand existing theoretical frameworks that observes the relationship between the patient, their social networks, and health care services such as the Burden of Treatment Theory. Consisting of a comprehensive, multidisciplinary literature review, research was derived from the disciplines of medicine, informatics, management, and ethics. In this paper, I attempt to identify key contributing factors and then develop and categorize these stressors into a typology. Since there are many contributing factors that affect the burden of work at multiple levels, a nested typology will be used which will link micro- and macro-leveled pressures to a single system while also showcasing how each level interacts and is influenced by the others. For the categorization of the contributing factors, they will be sorted into individual actors, organizational level, and macro-level factors. The implications of this work suggest that a combination of historical shifts, structural design, and secondary effects of policy contribute to patients' burden of work.

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Date Created
2017-05

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Identifying Barriers to Care Coordination for Children with Special Health Care Needs: the Provider Perspective Comparing Physical & Behavioral Disability

Description

The term "Children with Special Health Care Needs," often abbreviated as CSHCN, is an umbrella term, encompassing a wide variety of children with a range of health conditions. As of 2011, CSHCN constituted 15-20% of all children age 0-17 in

The term "Children with Special Health Care Needs," often abbreviated as CSHCN, is an umbrella term, encompassing a wide variety of children with a range of health conditions. As of 2011, CSHCN constituted 15-20% of all children age 0-17 in the United States (Bethell et al., 2013). Despite this, CSHCN "account for 80% of all pediatric medical expenses." (Hardy, Vivier, Rivara, & Melzer, 2012). This project specifically compares children with physical disability and behavioral disability in hopes of gaining a greater insight into both groups, assessing/comparing differences, and evaluating whether or not having a co-morbidity has a mediating or contending effect on care coordination.

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Date Created
2017-12