Matching Items (25)

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Understanding the Impact of Phytoestrogens on Memory & the Cholinergic System

Description

Menopause is reproductive senescence characterized by a loss of ovarian estrogen and progesterone. Women can experience cognitive decline and other negative symptoms with the loss of ovarian hormones (Sherwin, 2006).

Menopause is reproductive senescence characterized by a loss of ovarian estrogen and progesterone. Women can experience cognitive decline and other negative symptoms with the loss of ovarian hormones (Sherwin, 2006). While hormone therapies (HT) can treat symptoms of menopause and may have neuroprotective properties, such as the potential to decrease the risk of Alzheimer's Disease (Behl & Manthey, 2000), there are many effects of current HTs that are not ideal. Indeed, optimizing conventional HTs has proven complex, indicating a need for alternative therapies. Phytoestrogens are estrogenic compounds found naturally in plants such as soybeans, that could provide new treatment options. Dietary phytoestrogens can benefit memory in the rodent model (Luine, 2006), although the mechanism underlying these effects is unclear. Basal forebrain cholinergic projections have been shown to mediate the cognitive benefits of estrogen (Gibbs, 2010); we hypothesize that phytoestrogens act similarly, via the cholinergic system, to impact memory. We administered varying doses of phytoestrogen-containing diets to ovariectomized female rats, and used the place recognition task to evaluate spatial memory. Brains were then analyzed for choline acetyltransferase (ChAT), the synthesizing enzyme for acetylcholine, in the vertical-diagonal bands (VDB) and the medial septum (MS) of the basal forebrain. Results showed that ChAT cell counts in the VDB were marginally higher with dietary phytoestrogen treatment. Further, VDB ChAT cell counts positively correlated with place recognition performance, indicating that animals with more VDB ChAT neurons exhibited better spatial memory performance. These results suggest that phytoestrogens might act similarly to natural, endogenously circulating estrogens, and identify phytoestrogens as a direction for investigation as a HT.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2014-05

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Clonal Analysis of a Human Breast Cancer

Description

Breast and other solid tumors exhibit high and varying degrees of intra-tumor heterogeneity resulting in targeted therapy resistance and other challenges that make the management and treatment of these diseases

Breast and other solid tumors exhibit high and varying degrees of intra-tumor heterogeneity resulting in targeted therapy resistance and other challenges that make the management and treatment of these diseases rather difficult. Due to the presence of admixtures of non-neoplastic cells with polyclonal cell populations, it is difficult to define cancer genomes in patient samples. By isolating tumor cells from normal cells, and enriching distinct clonal populations, clinically relevant genomic aberrations that drive disease can be identified in patients in vivo. An in-depth analysis of clonal architecture and tumor heterogeneity was performed in a stage II chemoradiation-naïve breast cancer from a sixty-five year old patient. DAPI-based DNA content measurements and DNA content-based flow sorting was used to to isolate nuclei from distinct clonal populations of diploid and aneuploid tumor cells in surgical tumor samples. We combined DNA content-based flow cytometry and ploidy analysis with high-definition array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) and next-generation sequencing technologies to interrogate the genomes of multiple biopsies from the breast cancer. The detailed profiles of ploidy, copy number aberrations and mutations were used to recreate and map the lineages present within the tumor. The clonal analysis revealed driver events for tumor progression (a heterozygous germline BRCA2 mutation converted to homozygosity within the tumor by a copy number event and the constitutive activation of Notch and Akt signaling pathways. The highlighted approach has broad implications in the study of tumor heterogeneity by providing a unique ultra-high resolution of polyclonal tumors that can advance effective therapies and clinical management of patients with this disease.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2015-05

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Clinical Decision Aids: An Investigation of the Necessity of Patient Education Platforms that Incorporate Health Literacy

Description

Considering the overwhelming prevalence of BPH, how can it best be managed in light of the aging population? The purpose of this investigation is to illustrate that BPH and LUTS

Considering the overwhelming prevalence of BPH, how can it best be managed in light of the aging population? The purpose of this investigation is to illustrate that BPH and LUTS are conditions that are highly conducive to health literacy technology interventions. This objective will be met by: a) Providing an overview of the clinically relevant information regarding BPH, including anatomy, physiology, epidemiology, symptoms, and medical treatment for the disease; b) Establishing the necessity for novel health care delivery solutions by identifying past successes and challenges associated with technologic advances in related fields; c) Providing evidence of a lack of a systematic approach to BPH education, especially as it relates to health literacy. The relative successes and failures of previously established clinical decision aids will be discussed, leading to recommendations on how to improve upon these standards. Finally, the procedures and results of a pilot study will be analyzed in an effort to further highlight the necessity of engaging patients in the clinical decision making process.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2014-12

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Conflict of Interest and Medical Devices: Investigating the Relationship between Physicians and the Medical Device Industry

Description

In a world in which technologies proliferate at a rapid rate, it is no surprise that the medical device industry has grown in leaps and bounds. This surge in medical

In a world in which technologies proliferate at a rapid rate, it is no surprise that the medical device industry has grown in leaps and bounds. This surge in medical technology, especially implantable medical technology, has altered the modern operating room, transforming surgery from a technique-driven activity into a technology-driven profession. This reliance upon technologies has fostered close ties between physicians and the medical device industry and within this relationship, medical device representatives play an integral role. This paper will investigate the relationship that exists between physicians and the medical device industry along with the potential conflicts of interest that may result due to this relationship. I will focus in particular on orthopedic medical devices due to media attention as a result of a 2007 Department of Justice settlement involving the leading orthopedic companies. This case proved instrumental in highlighting previously unknown instances in which conflicts of interest were occurring in the medical device industry.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2014-05

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Contributing Factors to the Patient Burden of Work

Description

Patients face tremendous challenges when attempting to navigate the United States health care system. This difficulty to navigate the system creates a burden that is placed on the patient and

Patients face tremendous challenges when attempting to navigate the United States health care system. This difficulty to navigate the system creates a burden that is placed on the patient and caregiver, in turn affecting the health outcomes of the patient, resulting in higher health care costs, less than desirable outcomes, and a large strain on the patient and caregiver's daily lives. There are several ways that people have tried to create a comprehensive theoretical framework to understand the system from multiple perspectives. This work will expand existing theoretical frameworks that observes the relationship between the patient, their social networks, and health care services such as the Burden of Treatment Theory. Consisting of a comprehensive, multidisciplinary literature review, research was derived from the disciplines of medicine, informatics, management, and ethics. In this paper, I attempt to identify key contributing factors and then develop and categorize these stressors into a typology. Since there are many contributing factors that affect the burden of work at multiple levels, a nested typology will be used which will link micro- and macro-leveled pressures to a single system while also showcasing how each level interacts and is influenced by the others. For the categorization of the contributing factors, they will be sorted into individual actors, organizational level, and macro-level factors. The implications of this work suggest that a combination of historical shifts, structural design, and secondary effects of policy contribute to patients' burden of work.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2017-05

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Creating a Non-Profit: Coping with the Loss of a Child

Description

Grief reaches across all human differences and boundaries. Grief, when it does not resolve on its own, is known as complicated grief. Parents of children who die are at increased

Grief reaches across all human differences and boundaries. Grief, when it does not resolve on its own, is known as complicated grief. Parents of children who die are at increased risk for experiencing complicated grief. This case study seeks commonalities and possible contributing factors for the creation of a non-profit in reaction to the death of a child. This study finds that previous achievements such as completing a marathon or graduating from a graduate program may indicate the presence of characteristics like resilience that result in the creation of a non-profit.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2016-12

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Review of Current ACL Graft Choices and Recommendations for Improved Graft and Repair Mechanisms

Description

Ruptures in the anterior cruciate ligament are a prevalent injury, particularly in young athletes. This injury is frequently treated with surgical repair utilizing autologous tissue, cadaver allografts or synthetic grafts.

Ruptures in the anterior cruciate ligament are a prevalent injury, particularly in young athletes. This injury is frequently treated with surgical repair utilizing autologous tissue, cadaver allografts or synthetic grafts. However there is no definitive answer on which is the best graft option. This review aims to compare clinical results of patellar tendon autograft (PT), hamstring autograft (HT), cadaver allograft and LARS synthetic ligament in ACL reconstruction. The ASU library was systematically searched for comparison studies or meta-analyses that compared or described ACL reconstruction graft options. The results of the studies were analyzed according to re-tear rate, return to pre-injury level of activity, KT-1000 laxity scores, post-operative muscle strength, International Knee Documentation Committee Score (IKDC), Lysholm score, Lachman test and donor site morbidity. Allografts showed the highest re-tear rate and increase in laxity when compared with the PT autograft and HT autograft. PT autograft provided the most stability according to the KT-1000 results. Knee extensor muscle strength was not graft dependent, but knee flexor strength decreased significantly in HT autograft patients. All grafts showed comparable results for IKDC, Lysholm scores and Lachman tests. There was increased anterior knee pain in PT autograft patients however this did not seem to have an affect on the stability or durability of the graft. The PT autograft is the best choice for individuals undergoing ACL reconstruction on the basis of lower re-tear rates and greater joint stability.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2015-05

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Connecting to the Community: A Needs Assessment of Families and Early Childhood Professionals

Description

The Paradise Valley Family Resource Center (PVFRC) is a not for profit, community based organization funded by First Things First and a part of the Paradise Valley Unified School District

The Paradise Valley Family Resource Center (PVFRC) is a not for profit, community based organization funded by First Things First and a part of the Paradise Valley Unified School District (PVUSD) in Phoenix, Arizona. The mission of this organization is to connect and strengthen families with children from birth to five years old in the Phoenix valley. The PVFRC longed to be more cognizant of what the needs of the community they serve are, and how they, as an organization, can administer programs of value to the community. Hence, the PVFRC entered a partnership with the Community Action Research Experiences (CARE) program at Arizona State University to develop a research proposal to improve their effectiveness and efficiency at achieving their mission. The purpose of this research project was to identify and evaluate the needs of the families with children ages birth to five within the community, to improve upon existing programs and services or to implement new programs, and to discover more effective modes of awareness and advertisement to the community about the programs and services the PVFRC provides. The main research questions of the experiment included asking participants about what programs and services they need, wish, or want to exist at the PVFRC, what barriers or gaps they see or experience regarding attending the PVFRC, how did participants learn about the PVFRC, and what are the best ways to contact families in their community. The methods of the research included conducting focus group interviews with families who utilize the programs and services at the PVFRC and with early childhood professionals in the Paradise Valley Unified School District (PVUSD), which included social workers and preschool teachers. A total of 25 participants were interviewed (10 families, 6 social workers, and 9 preschool teachers) and responses from the interviews were coded by the researcher. The results of the research was that the PVFRC is meeting many needs and current families are satisfied, participants desire some changes to current programs and services, and the best modes of advertisement and awareness were "word of mouth" and the internet. It was recommended that in order to better achieve their mission, it is advised that the PVFRC make appropriate changes to programs and services as suggested by the participants, connect with mom's or parents groups in the community, collaborate with preschool teachers on the front line, and increase their online presence through the use of social media and their website.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2016-05

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SHAKE IT OFF: ESTABLISHING A TEEN SUPPORT GROUP AT THE MUHAMMAD ALI PARKINSON'S CENTER

Description

This thesis discusses the experiences of starting and building a support group for teenagers who have a loved one with Parkinson's Disease. One of the goals of this thesis was

This thesis discusses the experiences of starting and building a support group for teenagers who have a loved one with Parkinson's Disease. One of the goals of this thesis was to share our experiences with the staff at the Muhammad Ali Parkinson's Center, and the teenagers who will be taking over this group in the future. We discuss why we wanted to start the group, how it's foundation was built, and the challenges we faced and overcame. This is done by highlighting three significant group meetings, and various implications. Transportation, funding, and other issues are discussed.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2015-05

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How do perceptions of nutrition influence student nutritional health behavior and nutritional health seeking behavior?

Description

The transition from high school to college is, for many, a drastic change in lifestyle, social networks, and dietary choices. The prevalence of obesity in college students has been steadily

The transition from high school to college is, for many, a drastic change in lifestyle, social networks, and dietary choices. The prevalence of obesity in college students has been steadily increasing. Freshmen weight gains have been associated with a decrease in fruits and vegetables and an increase in unhealthy items such as desserts, alcohol, and late night snacking after dinner. A survey of college students was constructed to gauge students' perceptions of nutrition how these perceptions influenced dietary practices and behaviors. Survey results indicated that awareness of nutrition and health does not translate to dietary practices, aligning with results from previous studies. Several sex differences were noted in regards to dietary choices and perceptions, knowledge seeking behavior, and sources of information. While there were some similarities, it is clear from the results obtained that men and women have different approaches and thoughts with regard to nutrition. The results showed that college students who actively seek our nutritional information are more likely to do so in the form of social media or Internet sources. This study could be useful for those planning on conducting college-based nutritional programs in that the results indicate patterns and trends that should be taken into consideration in order for a successful nutrition intervention

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Created

Date Created
  • 2015-05