Matching Items (34)

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Evaluating Social Factors Affecting Treatment of Acute Fibromyalgia Pain in the Emergency Department

Description

Fibromyalgia is a multi-systemic syndrome linked to musculoskeletal pain, fatigue, nausea, and other comorbid syndromes and chronic illnesses. However, difficulties evaluating and managing acute fibromyalgia symptoms may cause individuals to

Fibromyalgia is a multi-systemic syndrome linked to musculoskeletal pain, fatigue, nausea, and other comorbid syndromes and chronic illnesses. However, difficulties evaluating and managing acute fibromyalgia symptoms may cause individuals to present to the emergency department for pain control or further diagnostic workup. However, oligoanalgesia (the undertreatment of pain) detrimentally affects an individual's treatment while in the emergency department. Furthermore, social factors known to influence pain management, such as race, age, or past medical history, affect the diagnostic treatment and evaluation of fibromyalgia patients. As such, ethical evaluation of case studies will indicate how emergency physicians can better manage pain treatment in the emergency department.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2014-05

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Fools and Madmen: Public Health and Personal Autonomy in Vaccination Practices

Description

Vaccine opposition is a growing problem in developed countries where dropping vaccination rates threaten general public health by laying the foundation for resurgence and reemergence of previously eradicated infectious diseases.

Vaccine opposition is a growing problem in developed countries where dropping vaccination rates threaten general public health by laying the foundation for resurgence and reemergence of previously eradicated infectious diseases. This thesis argues that the current movement is only the most recent incarnation of opposition that has co-evolved with vaccine practices for the duration of their mutual histories. Part one provides a historical context for the current movement using the example of the development and deployment of the smallpox vaccine as a representative timeline of vaccine acceptance and opposition. Part two describes the current movement in the United States and the United Kingdom, interprets the reasons for the conclusions drawn by vaccine-concerned parents, and provides a framework for public health officials to approach the issues.

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Date Created
  • 2013-12

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The Past, Present, and Future Role of the Humanities in American Medical Education

Description

There is growing concern among physicians, scholars, medical educators, and most importantly among patients, that science and technology have begun to eclipse fundamental attributes, such as empathy in the doctor-patient

There is growing concern among physicians, scholars, medical educators, and most importantly among patients, that science and technology have begun to eclipse fundamental attributes, such as empathy in the doctor-patient relationship. As a result, “humanism” in medicine has been a widely debated topic—how to define it, how to promote it, whether it can be taught, and how to qualify (much less quantify) its value in the practice of medicine. Through this research project I sought to better understand the role of humanities coursework in American medical school curricula, and determine whether there was a relationship between the integration of humanities coursework and the maintenance or enhancement of empathy levels in medical students. I reviewed literature with three objectives. (1) To better understand the influential social and political factors of pervasive reforms in US medical school curricula at the beginning of the 20th century, which led to science exclusive pedagogy in physician training (2) To become familiar with the works of iconic personalities in the history of American medical school pedagogy, paying special attention to attitudes and claims describing the role of humanities coursework, and the concept of humanism in the practice of medicine. (3) To observe the discourse underway across a variety of disciplines with regard to the current role of humanities coursework in medical curricula. My research shows that empathy is an essential attribute in the healing relationship, which benefits patients, physicians and improves health outcomes. Despite the importance of empathy, current physician training is documented as eroding empathy levels in medical students. Though the definition of ‘humanities’ in the context of medical school curricula remains vague and even contradictory, support for integration of humanities coursework is growing as an effective intervention for maintaining or enhancing levels of empathy.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2014-05

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The Past, Present, and Future Role of the Humanities in American Medical Education

Description

There is growing concern among physicians, scholars, medical educators, and most importantly among patients, that science and technology have begun to eclipse fundamental attributes, such as empathy in the doctor-patient

There is growing concern among physicians, scholars, medical educators, and most importantly among patients, that science and technology have begun to eclipse fundamental attributes, such as empathy in the doctor-patient relationship. As a result, “humanism” in medicine has been a widely debated topic—how to define it, how to promote it, whether it can be taught, and how to qualify (much less quantify) its value in the practice of medicine. Through this research project I sought to better understand the role of humanities coursework in American medical school curricula, and determine whether there was a relationship between the integration of humanities coursework and the maintenance or enhancement of empathy levels in medical students. I reviewed literature with three objectives. (1) To better understand the influential social and political factors of pervasive reforms in US medical school curricula at the beginning of the 20th century, which led to science exclusive pedagogy in physician training (2) To become familiar with the works of iconic personalities in the history of American medical school pedagogy, paying special attention to attitudes and claims describing the role of humanities coursework, and the concept of humanism in the practice of medicine. (3) To observe the discourse underway across a variety of disciplines with regard to the current role of humanities coursework in medical curricula. My research shows that empathy is an essential attribute in the healing relationship, which benefits patients, physicians and improves health outcomes. Despite the importance of empathy, current physician training is documented as eroding empathy levels in medical students. Though the definition of ‘humanities’ in the context of medical school curricula remains vague and even contradictory, support for integration of humanities coursework is growing as an effective intervention for maintaining or enhancing levels of empathy.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2014-05

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What Kind of Problem is the Problem of Obesity?

Description

This project explores a variety of ways of framing the problem of obesity, beginning with a multidisciplinary assessment of genetic, environmental, cultural, nutritional, and socioeconomic factors involved in the structure

This project explores a variety of ways of framing the problem of obesity, beginning with a multidisciplinary assessment of genetic, environmental, cultural, nutritional, and socioeconomic factors involved in the structure and the consequences of each frame. How obesity is framed as a problem has a profound impact on the kinds of solutions that may be deemed scientifically appropriate. But frames are not entirely evidence-based, inasmuch as political and moral values infuse debates about the nature of obesity. Drawing on interdisciplinary resources from bioethics and the philosophy of science, I strive to offer strategic insight in to how to navigate the complexity of these issues.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2014-05

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Measuring the Double-Edged Sword: Does Scientifically Deterministic Evidence Protect or Punish Criminals?

Description

Scientists, lawyers, and bioethicists have pondered the impact of scientifically deterministic evidence on a judge or jury when deciding the sentence of a criminal. Though the impact may be one

Scientists, lawyers, and bioethicists have pondered the impact of scientifically deterministic evidence on a judge or jury when deciding the sentence of a criminal. Though the impact may be one that relieves the amount of personal guilt on the part of the criminal, this evidence may also be the very reason that a judge or jury punishes more strongly, suggesting that this type of evidence may be a double-edged sword. 118 participants were shown three films of fictional sentencing hearings. All three films introduced scientifically deterministic evidence, and participants were asked to recommend a prison sentence. Each hearing portrayed a different criminal with different neurological conditions, a different crime, and a different extent of argumentation during closing arguments about the scientifically deterministic evidence. Though the argumentation from the prosecution and the defense did not affect sentencing, the interaction of type of crime and neurological condition did.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2014-05

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The Bioethics of Cell Free Fetal DNA Testing

Description

Noninvasive prenatal testing using cell-free fetal DNA (CffDNA) testing is a rapidly developing area in prenatal diagnosis. Fetal genetic testing can occur with a simple maternal blood sample, since CffDNA

Noninvasive prenatal testing using cell-free fetal DNA (CffDNA) testing is a rapidly developing area in prenatal diagnosis. Fetal genetic testing can occur with a simple maternal blood sample, since CffDNA can be found in maternal plasma. Thus, no harm is caused to mother or fetus to obtain this genetic information, providing significant benefits for those users. How the test should be integrated in existing prenatal programs has yet to be seen. CffDNA testing is an exciting technology and has attracted attention from many stakeholders, yet the lack of regulation and guidance has left legal, ethical, and social questions unanswered. This paper outlines a number of those issues expressed in the present literature on the matter.

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Date Created
  • 2014-05

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The Ethics of Human Memory Augmentation

Description

Memory augmentation will play a vital role in the development of our future. The predicted introduction of downloadable brains will be the first of many neurocognitive technologies that will alter

Memory augmentation will play a vital role in the development of our future. The predicted introduction of downloadable brains will be the first of many neurocognitive technologies that will alter our lives at both the societal and individual levels. These technologies can affect everything from educational institutions to the judicial system, meanwhile raising issues such as autonomy, human psychology, and selfhood. Because of its tremendous potential, memory augmentation and its implications should thoroughly be examined.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2013-05

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Perceptions versus reality of civil litigation and medical malpractice

Description

Civil litigation and medical malpractice both seem to be plagued by similar misperceptions. The general public, lawyers, physicians and our elected officials are all in considerable error regarding the reality

Civil litigation and medical malpractice both seem to be plagued by similar misperceptions. The general public, lawyers, physicians and our elected officials are all in considerable error regarding the reality behind civil litigation. The perception is that there are an increasing number of claims filed, and that in those cases that are filed the plaintiff is likely to win and be awarded a large sum of money. Regarding medical malpractice, in particular, is the belief that such litigation increases the over-all costs of healthcare by a significant dollar amount through the costs of litigation as well as the increasing instances of defensive medicine. Physicians further state that it is the absurd awards all too common in medical malpractice cases that are to blame for the out of control increases seen in medical malpractice premiums. These increases in premiums are said to have forced a large number of physicians out of practice that will hurt the general public's access to health care. These perceptions are at least reinforced by the media coverage that reports on the rare multimillion-dollar cases and from reports by insurance companies and physicians, in their attempt to lower their business costs by decreasing medical malpractice insurance premiums. By understanding the prevalence of such misperceptions, the truth behind the claims, and how such misinformation reaches the public and has spread to all levels of society, empirical data must be presented to the public in order to overcome the misperceptions.

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Date Created
  • 2013-05

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The Role of the Medical Scribe in Contemporary Medicine

Description

The use of medical scribes in emergency departments has been associated with faster patient discharge times, increased numbers of patients treated, and improved patient satisfaction ratings in previous research studies

The use of medical scribes in emergency departments has been associated with faster patient discharge times, increased numbers of patients treated, and improved patient satisfaction ratings in previous research studies and has also been correlated with improved levels of physician satisfaction as well as a high degree of gratification from scribes. For this paper, I examined the nature of scribing, essentially analyzing the role of the scribe in modern healthcare, and the effects of the occupation on the medical field. Though a shortage of prior research regarding medical scribing persisted, the data I received here mirrored some of the results from earlier studies, specifically those which proclaimed that physicians admit to increased work efficiency when accompanied by scribes. Unlike prior studies, however, this thesis presents novel information regarding scribes‘ perspectives of the profession, including some of the complaints they possess, which are most notably long and irregular shifts, far commute distances, and low wages. Through my research, which relied heavily on interviews and surveys and less heavily on EMR-simulating examinations, scribes were discovered to have a greater average typing speed (64 wpm) than physicians (30 wpm) and performed better in three drills that simulated different manners of patient charting. It was the opinion of all physicians that scribes were beneficial—both to them as physicians and to patients. Though scribes represented varying opinions about their role, the majority (9/11) of those who were interviewed classified scribing as a somewhat stressful job but also stated that they were mostly satisfied with their position.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2012-12