Matching Items (36)

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Building the Green Hospital: An Analysis of Construction Strategies Contributing to Building Efficiency in the Healthcare Sector

Description

Hospitals constitute 9 percent of commercial energy consumption in the U.S. annually, though they only make up 2 percent of the U.S. commercial floor space. Consuming an average of 259,000 Btu per square foot, U.S. hospitals spend about 8.3 billion

Hospitals constitute 9 percent of commercial energy consumption in the U.S. annually, though they only make up 2 percent of the U.S. commercial floor space. Consuming an average of 259,000 Btu per square foot, U.S. hospitals spend about 8.3 billion dollars on energy every year. Utilizing collaborative delivery method for hospital construction can effectively save healthcare business owners thousands of dollars while reducing construction time and resulting in a better product: a building that has fewer operational deficiencies and requires less maintenance. Healthcare systems are integrated by nature, and are rich in technical complexity to meet the needs of their various patients. In addition to being technologically and energy intensive, hospitals must meet health regulations while maintaining human comfort. The interdisciplinary nature of hospitals suggests that multiple perspectives would be valuable in optimizing the building design. Integrated project delivery provides a means to reaching the optimal design by emphasizing group collaboration and expertise of the architect, engineer, owner, builder, and hospital staff. In previous studies, IPD has proven to be particularly beneficial when it comes to highly complex projects, such as hospitals. To assess the effects of a high level of team collaboration in the delivery of a hospital, case studies were prepared on several hospitals that have been built in the past decade. The case studies each utilized some form of a collaborative delivery method, and each were successful in saving and/or redirecting time and money to other building components, achieving various certifications, recognitions, and awards, and satisfying the client. The purpose of this research is to determine key strategies in the construction of healthcare facilities that allow for quicker construction, greater monetary savings, and improved operational efficiency. This research aims to communicate the value of both "green building" and a high level of team collaboration in the hospital-building process.

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2017-05

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Engineering Lean, Packaged Energy Systems for Rapid, Economical Deployment and Distributed Generation

Description

The following document addresses two grand challenges posed to engineers: to make solar energy economically viable and to restore and improve urban infrastructure. Design solutions to these problems consist of the preliminary designs of two energy systems: a Packaged Photovoltaic

The following document addresses two grand challenges posed to engineers: to make solar energy economically viable and to restore and improve urban infrastructure. Design solutions to these problems consist of the preliminary designs of two energy systems: a Packaged Photovoltaic (PPV) energy system and a natural gas based Modular Micro Combined Cycle (MMCC) with 3D renderings. Defining requirements and problem-solving approach methodology for generating complex design solutions required iterative design and a thorough understanding of industry practices and market trends. This paper briefly discusses design specifics; however, the major emphasis is on aspects pertaining to economical manufacture, deployment, and subsequent suitability to address the aforementioned challenges. The selection of these systems is based on the steady reduction of PV installation costs in recent years (average among utility, commercial, and residential down 27% from Q4 2012 to Q4 2013) and the dramatic decline in natural gas prices to $5.61 per thousand cubic feet. In addition, a large number of utility scale coal-based power plants will be retired in 2014, many due to progressive emission criteria, creating a demand for additional power systems to offset the capacity loss and to increase generating capacity in order to facilitate the ever-expanding world population. The proposed energy systems are not designed to provide power to the masses through a central location. Rather, they are intended to provide economical, reliable, and high quality power to remote locations and decentralized power to community-based grids. These energy systems are designed as a means of transforming and supporting the current infrastructure through distributed electricity generation.

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Date Created
2014-05

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Life cycle assessment of wall systems

Description

Natural resource depletion and environmental degradation are the stark realities of the times we live in. As awareness about these issues increases globally, industries and businesses are becoming interested in understanding and minimizing the ecological footprints of their activities. Evaluating

Natural resource depletion and environmental degradation are the stark realities of the times we live in. As awareness about these issues increases globally, industries and businesses are becoming interested in understanding and minimizing the ecological footprints of their activities. Evaluating the environmental impacts of products and processes has become a key issue, and the first step towards addressing and eventually curbing climate change. Additionally, companies are finding it beneficial and are interested in going beyond compliance using pollution prevention strategies and environmental management systems to improve their environmental performance. Life-cycle Assessment (LCA) is an evaluative method to assess the environmental impacts associated with a products' life-cycle from cradle-to-grave (i.e. from raw material extraction through to material processing, manufacturing, distribution, use, repair and maintenance, and finally, disposal or recycling). This study focuses on evaluating building envelopes on the basis of their life-cycle analysis. In order to facilitate this analysis, a small-scale office building, the University Services Building (USB), with a built-up area of 148,101 ft2 situated on ASU campus in Tempe, Arizona was studied. The building's exterior envelope is the highlight of this study. The current exterior envelope is made of tilt-up concrete construction, a type of construction in which the concrete elements are constructed horizontally and tilted up, after they are cured, using cranes and are braced until other structural elements are secured. This building envelope is compared to five other building envelope systems (i.e. concrete block, insulated concrete form, cast-in-place concrete, steel studs and curtain wall constructions) evaluating them on the basis of least environmental impact. The research methodology involved developing energy models, simulating them and generating changes in energy consumption due to the above mentioned envelope types. Energy consumption data, along with various other details, such as building floor area, areas of walls, columns, beams etc. and their material types were imported into Life-Cycle Assessment software called ATHENA impact estimator for buildings. Using this four-stepped LCA methodology, the results showed that the Steel Stud envelope performed the best and less environmental impact compared to other envelope types. This research methodology can be applied to other building typologies.

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Date Created
2013

The net zero-energy home: precedent and catalyst for local performance-based architecture

Description

The building sector is responsible for consuming the largest proportional share of global material and energy resources. Some observers assert that buildings are the problem and the solution to climate change. It appears that in the United States a coherent

The building sector is responsible for consuming the largest proportional share of global material and energy resources. Some observers assert that buildings are the problem and the solution to climate change. It appears that in the United States a coherent national energy policy to encourage rapid building performance improvements is not imminent. In this environment, where many climate and ecological scientists believe we are running out of time to reverse the effects of anthropogenic climate change, a local grass-roots effort to create demonstration net zero-energy buildings (ZEB) appears necessary. This paper documents the process of designing a ZEB in a community with no existing documented ZEB precedent. The project will establish a framework for collecting design, performance, and financial data for use by architects, building scientists, and the community at large. This type of information may prove critical in order to foster a near-term local demand for net zero-energy buildings.

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Date Created
2014

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Enhancing the cooling capacity of roof ponds using polyethylene band filter

Description

With the desire of high standards of comfort, huge amount of energy is being consumed to maintain the indoor environment. In US building consumes 40% of the total primary energy while residential buildings consume about 21%. A large proportion of

With the desire of high standards of comfort, huge amount of energy is being consumed to maintain the indoor environment. In US building consumes 40% of the total primary energy while residential buildings consume about 21%. A large proportion of this consumption is due to cooling of buildings. Deteriorating environmental conditions due to excessive energy use suggest that we should look at passive designs and renewable energy opportunities to supply the required comfort. Phoenix gets about 300 days of clear sky every year. It also witnesses large temperature variations from night and day. The humidity ratio almost always stays below the 50% mark. With more than six months having outside temperatures more than 75 oF, night sky radiative cooling promise to be an attractive means to cool the buildings during summer. This technique can be useful for small commercial facilities or residential buildings. The roof ponds can be made more effective by covering them with Band Filters. These band filters block the solar heat gain and allow the water to cool down to lower temperatures. It also reduces the convection heat gain. This helps rood ponds maintain lower temperatures and provide more cooling then an exposed pond. 50 μm Polyethylene band filter is used in this study. Using this band filter, roof ponds can be made up to 10% more effective. About 45% of the energy required to cool a typical residential building in summer can be saved.

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Date Created
2013

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Envelope as climate negotiator: evaluating adaptive building envelope's capacity to moderate indoor climate and energy

Description

Through manipulation of adaptable opportunities available within a given environment, individuals become active participants in managing personal comfort requirements, by exercising control over their comfort without the assistance of mechanical heating and cooling systems. Similarly, continuous manipulation of a building

Through manipulation of adaptable opportunities available within a given environment, individuals become active participants in managing personal comfort requirements, by exercising control over their comfort without the assistance of mechanical heating and cooling systems. Similarly, continuous manipulation of a building skin's form, insulation, porosity, and transmissivity qualities exerts control over the energy exchanged between indoor and outdoor environments. This research uses four adaptive response variables in a modified software algorithm to explore an adaptive building skin's potential in reacting to environmental stimuli with the purpose of minimizing energy use without sacrificing occupant comfort. Results illustrate that significant energy savings can be realized with adaptive envelopes over static building envelopes even under extreme summer and winter climate conditions; that the magnitude of these savings are dependent on climate and orientation; and that occupant thermal comfort can be improved consistently over comfort levels achieved by optimized static building envelopes. The resulting adaptive envelope's unique climate-specific behavior could inform designers in creating an intelligent kinetic aesthetic that helps facilitate adaptability and resiliency in architecture.

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Date Created
2013

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Effectiveness of in-home feedback devices in conjunction with energy use information on residential energy consumption

Description

Residential energy consumption accounts for 22% of the total energy use in the United States. The consumer's perception of energy usage and conservation are very inaccurate which is leading to growing number of individuals who try to seek out ways

Residential energy consumption accounts for 22% of the total energy use in the United States. The consumer's perception of energy usage and conservation are very inaccurate which is leading to growing number of individuals who try to seek out ways to use energy more wisely. Hence behavioral change in consumers with respect to energy use, by providing energy use feedback may be important in reducing home energy consumption. Real-time energy information feedback delivered via technology along with feedback interventions has been reported to produce up to 20 percent declines in residential energy consumption through past research and pilot studies. There are, however, large differences in the estimates of the effect of these different types of feedback on energy use. As part of the Energize Phoenix Program, (a U.S. Department of Energy funded program), a Dashboard Study was conducted by the Arizona State University to estimate the impact of real-time, home-energy displays in conjunction with other feedback interventions on the residential rate of energy consumption in Phoenix, while also creating awareness and encouragement to households to reduce energy consumption. The research evaluates the effectiveness of these feedback initiatives. In the following six months of field experiment, a selected number of low-income multi-family apartments in Phoenix, were divided in three groups of feedback interventions, where one group received residential energy use related education and information, the second group received the same education as well as was equipped with the in-home feedback device and the third was given the same education, the feedback device and added budgeting information. Results of the experiment at the end of the six months did not lend a consistent support to the results from literature and past pilot studies. The data revealed a statistically insignificant reduction in energy consumption for the experiment group overall and inconsistent results for individual households when compared to a randomly selected control sample. However, as per the participant survey results, the study proved effective to foster awareness among participating residents of their own patterns of residential electricity consumption and understanding of residential energy use related savings.

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Date Created
2013

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Solar Power Purchase Agreements for 10MWP Distributed Grid-tied Photovoltaic Systems at the Arizona State University Main Campus: Estimated vs. Actual Energy Output

Description

The majority of the 52 photovoltaic installations at ASU are governed by power purchase agreements (PPA) that set a fixed per kilowatt-hour rate at which ASU buys power from the system owner over the period of 15-20 years. PPAs require

The majority of the 52 photovoltaic installations at ASU are governed by power purchase agreements (PPA) that set a fixed per kilowatt-hour rate at which ASU buys power from the system owner over the period of 15-20 years. PPAs require accurate predictions of the system output to determine the financial viability of the system installations as well as the purchase price. The research was conducted using PPAs and historical solar power production data from the ASU's Energy Information System (EIS). The results indicate that most PPAs slightly underestimate the annual energy yield. However, the modeled power output from PVsyst indicates that higher energy outputs are possible with better system monitoring.

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2012-12

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Investigation of heat dissipation enhancement due to backfill modification in ground coupled heat pump systems

Description

Due to the lack of understanding of soil thermal behavior, rules-of-thumb and generalized procedures are typically used to guide building professionals in the design of ground coupled heat pump systems. This is especially true when sizing the ground heat exchanger

Due to the lack of understanding of soil thermal behavior, rules-of-thumb and generalized procedures are typically used to guide building professionals in the design of ground coupled heat pump systems. This is especially true when sizing the ground heat exchanger (GHE) loop. Unfortunately, these generalized procedures often encourage building engineers to adopt a conservative design approach resulting in the gross over-sizing of the GHE, thus drastically increasing their installation cost. This conservative design approach is particularly prevalent for buildings located in hot and arid climates, where the soils are often granular and where the water table tends to exist deep below the soil surface. These adverse soil conditions reduce the heat dissipation efficiency of the GHE and have hindered the adoption of ground coupled heat pump systems in such climates. During cooling mode operation, heat is extracted from the building and rejected into the ground via the GHE. Prolonged heat dissipation into the ground can result in a coupled flow of both heat and moisture, causing the moisture to migrate away from the GHE piping. This coupled flow phenomenon causes the soil near the GHE to dry out and results in the degradation of the GHE heat dissipation capacity. Although relatively simple techniques of backfilling the GHE have been used in practice to mitigate such coupled effects, methods of improving the thermal behavior of the backfill region around the GHE, especially in horizontal systems, have not been extensively studied. This thesis presents an experimental study of heat dissipation from a horizontal GHE, buried in two backfill materials: (1) dry sand, and (2) wax-sand composite mixture. The HYDRUS software was then used to numerically model the temperature profiles associated with the aforementioned backfill conditions, and the influence of the contact resistance at the GHE-backfill interface was studied. The modeling strategy developed in HYDRUS was proven to be adequate in predicting the thermal performance of GHE buried in dry sand. However, when predicting the GHE heat dissipation in the wax-sand backfill, significant discrepancies between model prediction and experimental results still exist even after calibrating the model by including a term for the contact resistance. Overall, the thermal properties of the backfill were determined to be a key determinant of the GHE heat dissipation capacity. In particular, the wax-sand backfill was estimated to dissipate 50-60% more heat than dry sand backfill.

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Date Created
2012

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The effect of high SRI roofing finishes across climate zones in the U.S

Description

The intent of this research is to determine if cool roofs lead to increased energy use in the U.S. and if so, in what climates. Directed by the LEED environmental building rating system, cool roofs are increasingly specified in an

The intent of this research is to determine if cool roofs lead to increased energy use in the U.S. and if so, in what climates. Directed by the LEED environmental building rating system, cool roofs are increasingly specified in an attempt to mitigate urban heat island effect. A typical single story retail building was simulated using eQUEST energy software across seven different climatic zones in the U.S.. Two roof types are varied, one with a low solar reflectance index of 30 (typical bituminous roof), and a roof with SRI of 90 (high performing membrane roof). The model also varied the perimeter / core fraction, internal loads, and schedule of operations. The data suggests a certain point at which a high SRI roofing finish results in energy penalties over the course of the year in climate zones which are heating driven. Climate zones 5 and above appear to be the flipping point, beyond which the application of a high SRI roof creates sufficient heating penalties to outweigh the cooling energy benefits.

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Date Created
2011