Matching Items (35)

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Longitudinal social networks impacts on weight and weight-related behaviors assessed using mobile-based ecological momentary assessments: Study Protocols for the SPARC study

Description

Background
The transition from the home to college is a phase in which emerging adults shift toward more unhealthy eating and physical activity patterns, higher body mass indices, thus increasing

Background
The transition from the home to college is a phase in which emerging adults shift toward more unhealthy eating and physical activity patterns, higher body mass indices, thus increasing risk of overweight/obesity. Currently, little is understood about how changing friendship networks shape weight gain behaviors. This paper describes the recruitment, data collection, and data analytic protocols for the SPARC (Social impact of Physical Activity and nutRition in College) study, a longitudinal examination of the mechanisms by which friends and friendship networks influence nutrition and physical activity behaviors and weight gain in the transition to college life.
Methods
The SPARC study aims to follow 1450 university freshmen from a large university over an academic year, collecting data on multiple aspects of friends and friendship networks. Integrating multiple types of data related to student lives, ecological momentary assessments (EMAs) are administered via a cell phone application, devilSPARC. EMAs collected in four 1-week periods (a total of 4 EMA waves) are integrated with linked data from web-based surveys and anthropometric measurements conducted at four times points (for a total of eight data collection periods including EMAs, separated by ~1 month). University databases will provide student card data, allowing integration of both time-dated data on food purchasing, use of physical activity venues, and geographical information system (GIS) locations of these activities relative to other students in their social networks.
Discussion
Findings are intended to guide the development of more effective interventions to enhance behaviors among college students that protect against weight gain during college.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2016-08-30

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SCAT: Short-form Corner Store Audit Tool

Description

Programs such as the Healthy Corner Store Initiative have been widely adopted in recent years to increase the availability of healthy foods in small retail food stores. Valid and reliable

Programs such as the Healthy Corner Store Initiative have been widely adopted in recent years to increase the availability of healthy foods in small retail food stores. Valid and reliable measures are necessary to evaluate the effectiveness of these programs. The validated instruments currently available for assessments require in-person evaluations, with surveys taking up to 30 minutes per store to complete. This instrument was developed by researchers at Arizona State University to simplify the process of evaluating the effectiveness of healthy store interventions, and to enable community partners and practitioners to conduct their own evaluations of food access. The SCAT was validated against an adapted version of the Nutrition Environment Measures Survey for Corner Stores, and tested for feasibility of use over the telephone. The SCAT was found to discriminate between corner stores in the top 20% of healthfulness scores from those in the lower 80% with 89% accuracy.

In 2015 a panel of experts was convened by Healthy Eating Research, a program of the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, to establish a set of minimum guidelines small retail food stores could reach to be classified as meeting basic or preferred stocking levels. Work is currently in progress to assess how the SCAT scores correlate with basic and preferred levels. 

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Created

Date Created
  • 2015

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Trying to Keep Up: Energy Drink and Coffee Consumption, Student Involvement, and Sleep Among Diverse College Freshmen

Description

Background While extensive research has been conducted among college students consuming alcohol with energy drinks, there is limited research exploring how extracurricular activities could have an impact on energy drink

Background While extensive research has been conducted among college students consuming alcohol with energy drinks, there is limited research exploring how extracurricular activities could have an impact on energy drink consumption and sleep. Understanding the association between student involvement and the impact it could have on sleep and energy drink consumption among college freshmen is essential in promoting healthy behaviors while in college. Objectives The purpose of this study was to understand the relationship between student involvement, average hours of sleep, and predicted prevalence of energy drink and coffee consumption amongst college freshmen living in residence halls at a large, public university in the Southwest. Student involvement and fewer hours of sleep hypothesized to observe higher energy drink consumption. Methods This study was a secondary data analysis of the second wave of the longitudinal SPARC (Social impact of Physical Activity and nutRition in College) study assessing college freshmen (n=599; 70.6% female; 50.9% non-white) living on campus. Students were enrolled in this study during the 2015\u20142016 school year. Mutually adjusted generalized estimating equation (GEE) binomial models examined the relationship between involvement (academic clubs, sport clubs, honors, taking 16 or more credit hours, and having a job) and sleep with energy drink and coffee consumption, controlling for gender, race/ethnicity, Pell grant status, ever having tried alcohol, and clustering of students in residence halls. Results On average, students were enrolled in 15 credits, slept an average 8 hours per night, those who had a job worked 14 hours for pay per week, 35% reported consuming energy drinks in the past week, and about 29% of students reported coffee consumption. Males showed a higher predicted prevalence of energy drink consumption compared to females (p<0.001), where females showed a higher predicted prevalence of coffee consumption compared to males (<0.001); energy drink consumption was less prevalent amongst Hispanic students compared to white students (p=0.018), but more prevalent amongst black students compared to white students (p=0.002); no associations between race were found in predicted prevalence of coffee consumption. Average hours of sleep per night was inversely associated with energy drink consumption predicted prevalence (p<0.001). There was a lower predicted prevalence of energy drink and coffee consumption in honors student status (p<0.001) compared to non-honors students. Students taking 16 or more class credit hours showed a higher predicted prevalence in both energy drink (p=0.050) and coffee consumption (p=0.023) compared to students taking less than 16 class credit hours. Students involved in physically active clubs showed a greater predicted prevalence of coffee consumption (p<0.001) compared to students not in physically active clubs. There was no difference in the predicted prevalence in energy drink consumption amongst students involved in physically active clubs (p=0.710), non-physically active clubs (p=0.493), and having a job (p=0.146). Coffee consumption predicted prevalence showed no significant prevalence amongst students of different race and ethnicity [Black (p=0.507), Hispanic (p=103), Other (p=116)] as well as students involved in non-physically active (p=0.839) clubs and who had a paid job (p=0.088). Conclusion Associations observed between average hours of sleep, the different types of involvement of student activities, and energy drink and coffee consumption, were interesting in that a few findings were found to be contrary to the hypotheses. Future research should delve deeper into student involvement within honors programs to understand the contextual factors of why these students showed a significant inverse association in energy drink consumption. Contrary to hypothesis, sleep and energy drink consumption prevalence were indirectly related leading future research to examine and understand why students are consuming energy drinks since on average participants were meeting recommended sleep guidelines. Nutrition interventions are needed for the groups at consuming energy drinks and alcohol in combination due to the study finding increased predicted prevalence amongst these groups as well as the increased risky health behavior associated with the combination found in the literature. Support or Funding Information This study was supported by the NIH Common Fund from the Office of the Director and the Office of Behavioral and Social Sciences Research, grant number 1DP5OD017910-01 (PI: M. Bruening). The content is solely the responsibility of the authors and does not necessarily represent the official views of the National Institutes of Health.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2018-05

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Social Connectedness and Fast Food Consumption in College Freshmen

Description

Attending college provides young adults with a major shift in environment from high school where many students are used to living at home with their parents or guardians. Students experience

Attending college provides young adults with a major shift in environment from high school where many students are used to living at home with their parents or guardians. Students experience a newfound freedom once beginning their freshman year, especially if living in on-campus housing. Freshmen are known to gain weight during this transitory period, and this has been partially attributed to changes in eating behaviors, which makes this a population of concern. College freshmen have significant autonomy over their food choices if not living at home, due to not having parents or guardians present. In the transition to college, freshmen are able to adopt new habits, healthy or unhealthy, which could make a large impact on their health habits for the rest of their lives; this is why the freshman population is an area of concern. RESULTS: None of the relationships between social connectedness and FF consumption were found to be statistically significant. Social connectedness was not significantly related to cross-sectional FF intake at the two different phases, or longitudinally between the two phases, even after adjustments were made. Additionally, there were no gender differences present in FF consumption or social connectedness at either phase. CONCLUSION: The lack of significant findings suggest that social connectedness might not be a reason college freshmen consume FF. Students might eat with others due to the convenience of living closely to them rather than as a means to socialize. Also, factors such as time constraints and cost might have played a larger role in why students consumed FF. Future research could involve similar studies using shorter questionnaires more tailored to eating behaviors, with more detailed measures of FF consumption (e.g. What specific FF meals did you consume?) and for a longer duration of time, to allow students to become more situated in their environment and have a better knowledge of all their food options. This study was an important contribution to the sparsely researched topic of social connectedness with a large and diverse sample studied longitudinally. It was also the only study of its kind to be performed on the college population, and had potential for future health implications in obesity and chronic conditions such as hypertension and type II diabetes. Further research is warranted to evaluate the relationship between social connectedness and other eating behaviors.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2016-12

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Impact of BMI and Central Adiposity on Fecal pH in Arizona State University Freshmen

Description

Past studies have shown that, in comparison to lean participants, overweight and obese patients had higher fecal concentration of short chain fatty acids (SCFA). This larger concentration could come from

Past studies have shown that, in comparison to lean participants, overweight and obese patients had higher fecal concentration of short chain fatty acids (SCFA). This larger concentration could come from a variety of factors, such as varied lower colonic fermentation between lean and obese participants, dietary intake, or microbiome diversity. Initially, SCFA were thought to be beneficial in that they reduced gut inflammation contradicting such associations between obesity and increased SCFA concentration. This study looked further into these varied SCFA levels by observing the fecal pH as a reflection of both body mass index (BMI) and central adiposity levels. Analysis of the changes in fecal pH, waist circumference, and BMI of the participants revealed no correlation between the variables. However, upon running a mixed model with covariates, it was determined that there were no significant associations between fecal pH, BMI, and waist circumference. Due to the fact that this study was only done over a year long period, it may take a longer time period or more significant changes in BMI and waist circumference to produce a significant correlation.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2017-05

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The Associations Between Food Insecurity, Weight Status and Emotional Eating

Description

The objective of this study was to access whether there were any associations between food insecurity, weight status and emotional eating for adults and youth, and to discover whether emotional

The objective of this study was to access whether there were any associations between food insecurity, weight status and emotional eating for adults and youth, and to discover whether emotional eating was prevalent for both age groups. By gathering participants from six various low-income housing communities throughout the Phoenix, Arizona, the researchers were able to gather data from 114 participants, 57 adults and 57 youth. The participants were a convenience sample, and were recruited by flyers sent via the mail and door-to-door announcements in the spring and summer of 2014. The adult and youth were asked to complete a survey that was part of a larger study, which included the Weight-Related Eating Questionnaire to access the participants' emotional eating. The participants' height and weight were measured manually and were integrated into the BMI system, and the participants' food insecurity statuses were validated using the US Household Food Security Survey. The results of the study illustrated associations between food insecurity and emotional eating for adults, but not for youth. In addition, there were no associations between adults' emotional eating and their child's emotional eating. The results from this study were consisted with the current research examining the associations of food insecurity and emotional eating, where there is only a correlation between food insecurity and emotional eating for adults. However, this study was not consistent with past research accessing the associations between adults' emotional eating and their child's emotional eating since this study found no relationship between the two. Being that a cross-sectional survey-based research was incorporated into this study, further research needs to explore on food insecurity, weight status and emotional eating to determine their causality.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2015-12

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Fit Minded College Edition-Podcasts: Feasibility of using a Facebook page to promote physical activity in female college students as compared to a website discussion board

Description

Background: The purpose of this study was to determine the feasibility of using Facebook as compared to a discussion board in an online, web-based intervention, Fit Minded College Edition-Podcasts (FMCEP),

Background: The purpose of this study was to determine the feasibility of using Facebook as compared to a discussion board in an online, web-based intervention, Fit Minded College Edition-Podcasts (FMCEP), to improve physical activity and self-worth in female college students.
Methods: Participants (n=55) were randomly assigned to either a private Facebook group (FB) or the Fit Minded discussion board (DB) to participate in discussion of health and wellness related podcasts. FMCEP was a 6-week intervention guided by the self-determination theory (SDT) to target autonomy, relatedness and competence. Each week participants were instructed to complete three tasks: (1) listen to an assigned podcast, (2) complete a workbook assignment, and (3) participate in FB or DB online discussion. Participants completed assessments at baseline and post-intervention (6-weeks).
Results: Self-reported physical activity (p=0.032, η2= 0.193) and physical self-worth (p<0.001, η2=0.747) increased significantly over time, but no difference was seen between the groups for both physical activity (p=0.266, η2= 0.056) and physical self-worth (p=0.485, η2=0.024). Website use (measured by mean number of engagements per day, each week) declined across the 6-week intervention in the DB group but was consistent in the FB group.
Conclusion: These findings suggest web-based interventions, guided by SDT, can improve physical activity and physical self-worth among female college students, and the Facebook group may be more feasible and effective. Future studies are needed to optimize web-based physical activity interventions in college females.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2016-05

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Content Analysis of Existing Nutrition Marketing Materials in Central Arizona Schools

Description

The objective of this study was to evaluate and compare the content of nutrition marketing materials within the cafeterias of schools in Central Arizona. By collecting photographs of marketing material

The objective of this study was to evaluate and compare the content of nutrition marketing materials within the cafeterias of schools in Central Arizona. By collecting photographs of marketing material from three elementary schools, one K-8 school, three middle schools and three high schools, 59 pieces of nutrition marketing were gathered. The schools chosen were a convenience sample and selected from schools that were already participating in ASU' s School Lunch Study. The photographs were sorted by grade level and then coded quantitatively and qualitatively for their purpose, visual components, strategies used and relevance. Results from this novel study provided insight into prevalence, size, textual content, educational content, strategies for fruit and vegetable marketing, messaging and overall design of existing nutrition marketing within the sample schools. This study found that the prevalence of nutrition marketing within all school cafeterias appeared to be low, particularly within elementary and middle schools. Diverse types of messaging were present among elementary, middle and high schools and a variety of appeals were utilized with little consistency. Many of the strategies used in the nutrition marketing appeared disconnected from the population it was intended to appeal to. Educational components were notably lacking within middle school cafeterias but were often effectively integrated into high school nutrition marketing. The results are unique to this population, and further research is required to evaluate the content of existing nutrition material on a larger scale, so efforts can be made to improve the persuasiveness of nutrition marketing in promoting fruit and vegetable consumption.

Contributors

Created

Date Created
  • 2018-12

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Fit Minded College Edition: Pilot test of a magazine-based discussion group on physical activity in female college freshmen

Description

Objective: Fewer than 50% of female college freshmen meet physical activity (PA) guidelines. Innovative approaches that help college women increase their PA are warranted. The study purpose was to pilot

Objective: Fewer than 50% of female college freshmen meet physical activity (PA) guidelines. Innovative approaches that help college women increase their PA are warranted. The study purpose was to pilot test a magazine-based discussion group for improving PA, self-worth, and nutrition behaviors in freshmen college females. Method: Thirty-seven women (18-20 years) were randomized to intervention (n=17) and control (n=20) groups. The intervention group participated in an 8-week magazine-based discussion group adapted from a previously tested social cognitive theory based intervention, Fit Minded. Excerpts from a popular women's health magazine were discussed during weekly meetings incorporating PA, self-worth and nutrition education. The control group did not attend meetings, but received the magazines. Outcomes and feasibility measures included: self-reported PA, general self-worth, knowledge self-worth, self-efficacy, social support, and daily fruits, vegetables, junk food, sugar-sweetened beverage consumption. Results: Twelve participants from the intervention group attended more than 75% of meetings. A time effect was observed for PA (p=0.001) and family social support (p=0.002). Time x group effects were observed for PA (p=0.001), general self-worth (p=0.04), knowledge self-worth (p=0.03), and daily sugar-sweetened beverage consumption (p=0.03), with the intervention group reporting greater increases in PA, general self-worth and knowledge self-worth and greater decreases in daily sugar-sweetened beverage consumption. Although not significant, the intervention group demonstrated positive trends in self-efficacy, friend social support and fruit and veggie consumption as compared to the control group. Conclusion: A magazine-based discussion group may provide a promising platform to improve PA, self-worth and nutrition behaviors in female college freshmen.

Contributors

Created

Date Created
  • 2014-05

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Conditioning Vegetable Preferences through Texture Pairing in Children

Description

Neophobia is a sensory phenomenon common in children that makes novel foods taste unpleasant. Our study tested exposure and pairing effects on neophobia in children by exposing them to novel

Neophobia is a sensory phenomenon common in children that makes novel foods taste unpleasant. Our study tested exposure and pairing effects on neophobia in children by exposing them to novel vegetables paired with varying textures. Results showed a significant increase in liking for all subject groups after six exposures, which is less exposure than required in other studies. Except in one case, texture was not related to a change in liking that differed significantly from other groups.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2013-05