Matching Items (3)

131303-Thumbnail Image.png

Global motor characteristics in three families with familial speech sound disorders, compared to an adult with a cerebellar stroke: Evidence for the cerebellar hypothesis of apraxia of speech

Description

The purpose of this study was to compare the speech and motor functions a group of individuals with Childhood Apraxia of Speech (CAS) and a case study of an individual

The purpose of this study was to compare the speech and motor functions a group of individuals with Childhood Apraxia of Speech (CAS) and a case study of an individual who has suffered a right cerebellar stroke. The participants consisted of one case study adult and three families made up of three to five members each, all with a history of CAS. All of the participants in the study performed below average on speech and motor function tests. There are some comparable similarities between the CAS group and the case study individual suggesting that there is cerebellar involvement in the fine motor skills needed to perform speech movements.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2020-05

148204-Thumbnail Image.png

Predicting /r/ Acquisition: A Longitudinal Analysis Using Signal Processing

Description

The purpose of this longitudinal study was to predict /r/ acquisition using acoustic signal processing. 19 children, aged 5-7 with inaccurate /r/, were followed until they turned 8 or acquired

The purpose of this longitudinal study was to predict /r/ acquisition using acoustic signal processing. 19 children, aged 5-7 with inaccurate /r/, were followed until they turned 8 or acquired /r/, whichever came first. Acoustic and descriptive data from 14 participants were analyzed. The remaining 5 children continued to be followed. The study analyzed differences in spectral energy at the baseline acoustic signals of participants who eventually acquired /r/ compared to that of those who did not acquire /r/. Results indicated significant differences between groups in the baseline signals for vocalic and postvocalic /r/, suggesting that the acquisition of certain allophones may be predictable. Participants’ articulatory changes made during the progression of acquisition were also analyzed spectrally. A retrospective analysis described the pattern in which /r/ allophones were acquired, proposing that vocalic /r/ and the postvocalic variant of consonantal /r/ may be acquired prior to prevocalic /r/, and /r/ followed by low vowels may be acquired before /r/ followed by high vowels, although individual variations exist.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2021-05

158859-Thumbnail Image.png

Biomarkers of Familial Speech Sound Disorders: Genes, Perception, and Motor Control

Description

Speech sound disorders (SSDs) are the most prevalent type of communication disorder in children. Clinically, speech-language pathologists (SLPs) rely on behavioral methods for assessing and treating SSDs. Though

Speech sound disorders (SSDs) are the most prevalent type of communication disorder in children. Clinically, speech-language pathologists (SLPs) rely on behavioral methods for assessing and treating SSDs. Though clients typically experience improved speech outcomes as a result of therapy, there is evidence that underlying deficits may persist even in individuals who have completed treatment for surface-level speech behaviors. Advances in the field of genetics have created the opportunity to investigate the contribution of genes to human communication. Due to the heterogeneity of many communication disorders, the manner in which specific genetic changes influence neural mechanisms, and thereby behavioral phenotypes, remains largely unknown. The purpose of this study was to identify genotype-phenotype associations, along with perceptual, and motor-related biomarkers within families displaying SSDs. Five parent-child trios participated in genetic testing, and five families participated in a combination of genetic and behavioral testing to help elucidate biomarkers related to SSDs. All of the affected individuals had a history of childhood apraxia of speech (CAS) except for one family that displayed a phonological disorder. Genetic investigation yielded several genes of interest relevant for an SSD phenotype: CNTNAP2, CYFIP1, GPR56, HERC1, KIAA0556, LAMA5, LAMB1, MDGA2, MECP2, NBEA, SHANK3, TENM3, and ZNF142. All of these genes showed at least some expression in the developing brain. Gene ontology analysis yielded terms supporting a genetic influence on central nervous system development. Behavioral testing revealed evidence of a sequential processing biomarker for all individuals with CAS, with many showing deficits in sequential motor skills in addition to speech deficits. In some families, participants also showed evidence of a co-occurring perceptual processing biomarker. The family displaying a phonological phenotype showed milder sequential processing deficits compared to CAS families. Overall, this study supports the presence of a sequential processing biomarker for CAS and shows that relevant genes of interest may be influencing a CAS phenotype via sequential processing. Knowledge of these biomarkers can help strengthen precision of clinical assessment and motivate development of novel interventions for individuals with SSDs.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2020