Matching Items (7)

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Genetic Population Structure Accounts for Contemporary Ecogeographic Patterns in Tropic and Subtropic-Dwelling Humans

Description

Contemporary human populations conform to ecogeographic predictions that animals will become more compact in cooler climates and less compact in warmer ones. However, it remains unclear to what extent this

Contemporary human populations conform to ecogeographic predictions that animals will become more compact in cooler climates and less compact in warmer ones. However, it remains unclear to what extent this pattern reflects plastic responses to current environments or genetic differences among populations. Analyzing anthropometric surveys of 232,684 children and adults from across 80 ethnolinguistic groups in sub-Saharan Africa, Asia and the Americas, we confirm that body surface-to-volume correlates with contemporary temperature at magnitudes found in more latitudinally diverse samples (Adj. R[superscript 2] = 0.14-0.28). However, far more variation in body surface-to-volume is attributable to genetic population structure (Adj. R[superscript 2] = 0.50-0.74). Moreover, genetic population structure accounts for nearly all of the observed relationship between contemporary temperature and body surface-to-volume among children and adults. Indeed, after controlling for population structure, contemporary temperature accounts for no more than 4% of the variance in body form in these groups. This effect of genetic affinity on body form is also independent of other ecological variables, such as dominant mode of subsistence and household wealth per capita. These findings suggest that the observed fit of human body surface-to-volume with current climate in this sample reflects relatively large effects of existing genetic population structure of contemporary humans compared to plastic response to current environments.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2015-03-27

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Longitudinal social networks impacts on weight and weight-related behaviors assessed using mobile-based ecological momentary assessments: Study Protocols for the SPARC study

Description

Background
The transition from the home to college is a phase in which emerging adults shift toward more unhealthy eating and physical activity patterns, higher body mass indices, thus increasing

Background
The transition from the home to college is a phase in which emerging adults shift toward more unhealthy eating and physical activity patterns, higher body mass indices, thus increasing risk of overweight/obesity. Currently, little is understood about how changing friendship networks shape weight gain behaviors. This paper describes the recruitment, data collection, and data analytic protocols for the SPARC (Social impact of Physical Activity and nutRition in College) study, a longitudinal examination of the mechanisms by which friends and friendship networks influence nutrition and physical activity behaviors and weight gain in the transition to college life.
Methods
The SPARC study aims to follow 1450 university freshmen from a large university over an academic year, collecting data on multiple aspects of friends and friendship networks. Integrating multiple types of data related to student lives, ecological momentary assessments (EMAs) are administered via a cell phone application, devilSPARC. EMAs collected in four 1-week periods (a total of 4 EMA waves) are integrated with linked data from web-based surveys and anthropometric measurements conducted at four times points (for a total of eight data collection periods including EMAs, separated by ~1 month). University databases will provide student card data, allowing integration of both time-dated data on food purchasing, use of physical activity venues, and geographical information system (GIS) locations of these activities relative to other students in their social networks.
Discussion
Findings are intended to guide the development of more effective interventions to enhance behaviors among college students that protect against weight gain during college.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2016-08-30

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Analyzing sugar-sweetened beverage and juice consumption patterns across three field sites in Puerto Rico after Hurricane Maria

Description

On September 20, 2017, Hurricane Maria made landfall in Puerto Rico, triggering widespread catastrophic damage to the island. Aside from the extensive physical devastation that Hurricane Maria wielded, it also

On September 20, 2017, Hurricane Maria made landfall in Puerto Rico, triggering widespread catastrophic damage to the island. Aside from the extensive physical devastation that Hurricane Maria wielded, it also exacerbated larger underlying economic instabilities and public health challenges that the island has faced. Among these were compromised access to safe, clean drinking water and nutritious foods. While studies have primarily focused on the mortality count, health and food-behaviors post-Hurricane Maria have been rarely investigated. Documenting what Puerto Ricans drank following the natural disaster is necessary to identify changes in their consumption patterns as well as to understand how weather-related shocks influence these changes. The aim of this study was to examine sociodemographic factors associated with the consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) and fruit juice among a sample of Puerto Rican adults after Hurricane Maria. The data analyzed for this thesis project was derived from a larger, multi-year, academic research project known as the Global Ethnohydrology Study (GES). An improved understanding of SSB and fruit juice consumption patterns can inform effective public health interventions to reduce consumption across the island. Collecting valid, descriptive post-Hurricane Maria data would greatly help identify areas of public health need in addition to promote further studies on the risk factors to chronic diseases within the island’s context by comparing the health status situation before and after Hurricane Maria (Mattei et al., 2018). Thus, gaining insight into Puerto Ricans’ beverage consumption patterns in relation to sociodemographic and behavioral factors serves as a promising line of research with potential to help public health officials mitigate post-disaster situations and take clinically relevant action.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2020-05

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Breast Health Seeking Behaviors In Countries With Varying Health Coverage

Description

There is an enormous unmet need for services, education, and outreach to improve women’s breast health. Healthcare systems and insurance systems vary widely around the world, and this may play

There is an enormous unmet need for services, education, and outreach to improve women’s breast health. Healthcare systems and insurance systems vary widely around the world, and this may play an important role in understanding variability in women’s breast health knowledge and behavior globally. The goal of this study is to determine how varying healthcare systems in three countries (Japan, Paraguay, US) affect a woman’s likelihood of seeing a physician in regard to their breasts. For example, Japan is a clear example of a region that provides universal health insurance to its citizens. The government takes responsibility in giving accessible and equitable healthcare to its entire population (Zhang & Oyama, 2016). On the other hand, a country such as Paraguay is composed of both public and private sectors. In order for citizens to gain insurance, one would have to either be formally employed or choose to pay out-of-pocket for hospital visits (“Paraguay”, 2017). A country such as the United States does not have universal health insurance. However, it does have a mix of public and private sectors, meaning there is little to no coverage for its citizens. To accommodate for this, the United States came up with the Affordable Care Act, which extends coverage to the uninsured. Although the United States might be a country that spends more on healthcare than any other nation, there are residents that still lack healthcare (De Lew, Greenberg & Kinchen, 1992). This study, then, compares women’s breast health knowledge and behavior in Japan, Paraguay, and the US. Other variables, which are also considered in this study, that might affect this include wealth level, education, having general awareness of breast cancer, having regular health checks, and having some breast education. Using statistical analysis of breast check rates of women in Japan, Paraguay, and the United States, this research found that women sampled in Asunción, Paraguay check their breasts more often than either women sampled from Scottsdale, U.S. or Osaka, Japan. It was also found that women sampled from Paraguay were more confident in detecting changes in their breast compared to women sampled from the Japan or the US. Finally, it was noted that women sampled from Japan were least likely to partake in seeing a doctor in concern of changes in their breasts compared to women sampled from the other two research locations. These findings have relevance for the implementation of advocacy and public education about breast health.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2020-05

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The Science of Water Art: Children's Perspectives on Water and the Environment in Guatemala

Description

Children's drawings are increasingly being used to assess understanding and diagnose misconceptions about water issues and the environment. As part of Arizona State University's Global Ethnohydrology Study and Community Health

Children's drawings are increasingly being used to assess understanding and diagnose misconceptions about water issues and the environment. As part of Arizona State University's Global Ethnohydrology Study and Community Health and Medical Anthropology Field School, 315 pieces of artwork from 158 Guatemalan schoolchildren, ages 9-10, were collected using ethnographic field methods. The children were asked to draw two pieces of art: one showing how they saw water being used in their neighborhood today and one showing how they imagined water would be used in their neighborhood 100 years from now. Using visual content analysis, the drawings were coded for the presence of vegetation, scarcity, pollution, commercial sources, existing technology, technological innovation, domestic use, and natural sources of water. The study finds that (1) students' drawings of the future contain significantly more pollution and scarcity than those in the present, and (2) both boys and girls depict existing technology significantly more often in the drawings of today than the drawings of the future. Additionally, (1) boys are significantly more likely than girls to draw more negative depictions of water (i.e., pollution and scarcity), and (2) boys are significantly more likely than girls to depict the natural world (i.e., natural sources of water). Through examining gendered perceptions and future expectations of climate change and water issues, this study explores possible areas of intervention in environmental education in a developing country.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2015-05

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Water and Worry: Disasters in Queretaro, Mexico

Description

Research has been conducted analyzing factors that affect mental health in regions that suffer from water insecurity and water scarcity. Amber Wutich and Alexandra Brewis (2019) explain the effects that

Research has been conducted analyzing factors that affect mental health in regions that suffer from water insecurity and water scarcity. Amber Wutich and Alexandra Brewis (2019) explain the effects that water scarcity has on mental health and how chronic worry can trigger depression, stress, anxiety and in extreme cases this can lead to suicidal thoughts. Bina Agarwal (2000) analyzes gender roles in relation to water insecurity where women express more signs of anxiety and worry due to the limited options they have when seeking water outside their household. There are limited studies done on water insecurity at a household level which limit an understanding of possible coping mechanisms along with additional factors that affect mental health. In this study, surveys are conducted in the city of San Juan Del Rio, Queretaro in Mexico where residents have been affected by massive flooding’s. Additionally, residents in Mexico not only suffer from water scarcity but also from poor water infrastructure, constant water outages, shortages, and contaminated water supply. Respondents answers (n=23) regarding the amount of worry, household size, being head of household, and gender was used to conduct paired sample statistical tests where associations were determined. Associations relating to the amount of worry resulted in the idea that residents in San Juan Del Rio because they consistently struggle with water shortages, have developed a coping strategy to deal with water outages and therefore, show fewer signs of worry when faced with a household water situation. In consideration, surveys conducted in surrounding towns and in a rural setting can provide additional information regarding how poverty is related to mental health and water scarcity along with a deeper understanding of possible coping strategies at a household level.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2019-05

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Longitudinal social networks impacts on weight and weight-related behaviors assessed using mobile-based ecological momentary assessments: Study Protocols for the SPARC study

Description

Background

The transition from the home to college is a phase in which emerging adults shift toward more unhealthy eating and physical activity patterns, higher body mass indices, thus increasing

Background

The transition from the home to college is a phase in which emerging adults shift toward more unhealthy eating and physical activity patterns, higher body mass indices, thus increasing risk of overweight/obesity. Currently, little is understood about how changing friendship networks shape weight gain behaviors. This paper describes the recruitment, data collection, and data analytic protocols for the SPARC (Social impact of Physical Activity and nutRition in College) study, a longitudinal examination of the mechanisms by which friends and friendship networks influence nutrition and physical activity behaviors and weight gain in the transition to college life.

Methods

The SPARC study aims to follow 1450 university freshmen from a large university over an academic year, collecting data on multiple aspects of friends and friendship networks. Integrating multiple types of data related to student lives, ecological momentary assessments (EMAs) are administered via a cell phone application, devilSPARC. EMAs collected in four 1-week periods (a total of 4 EMA waves) are integrated with linked data from web-based surveys and anthropometric measurements conducted at four times points (for a total of eight data collection periods including EMAs, separated by ~1 month). University databases will provide student card data, allowing integration of both time-dated data on food purchasing, use of physical activity venues, and geographical information system (GIS) locations of these activities relative to other students in their social networks.

Discussion

Findings are intended to guide the development of more effective interventions to enhance behaviors among college students that protect against weight gain during college.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2016-08-30