Matching Items (53)

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The Effect of Executive Control Depletion on Within-Task Transfer

Description

In everyday life, mental fatigue can be detrimental across many domains including driving, learning, and working. Given the importance of understanding and accounting for the deleterious effects of mental fatigue

In everyday life, mental fatigue can be detrimental across many domains including driving, learning, and working. Given the importance of understanding and accounting for the deleterious effects of mental fatigue on behavior, a growing body of literature has studied the role of executive control processes in mental fatigue. In a laboratory setup, participants complete a task that places demands on executive control processes and are later given a transfer task. Generally speaking, decrements to subsequent task performance are taken as evidence that the initial executive control task created mental fatigue through the continued engagement of executive control. Several hypotheses have been developed to account for negative transfer resulting from executive control depletion including cognitive resource depletion and task-switching. In the current study, we provide a brief literature review, specify current theoretical approaches to depletion, and provide a strong empirical test of theories for negative transfer from executive control depletion (i.e., does continued performance of an executive control task negatively transfer to that exact same task).

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  • 2014-12

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Exploring the Relation Between Motivational and Cognitive Systems: The Case of Individual Differences in Religiosity and Working Memory

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This study examined the relation between Religiosity (a motivational system) and Working Memory Capacity (a cognitive system) to determine how they interact to promote goal-directed behavior. Participants completed a religiosity

This study examined the relation between Religiosity (a motivational system) and Working Memory Capacity (a cognitive system) to determine how they interact to promote goal-directed behavior. Participants completed a religiosity questionnaire and engaged in a battery of tasks that were used to assess their Working Memory Capacity (WMC) and overall ability to maintain goal-directed behavior. The Stroop task was used to examine the participants' ability to maintain goals in the face of interference. It was predicted that religiosity and WMC would be inversely related and that when we controlled for religiosity, WMC would be the only significant predictor of Stroop performance. Furthermore, we hypothesized that religiosity and Stoop would be inversely related, whereas WMC and Stroop would be positively correlated with one another. Religiosity and Stroop performance were each divided into three different components. Religiosity was divided into: Intrinsic Motivation, Extrinsic Motivation, and CARMA. Stroop Performance was measured through Stroop Accuracy, the Stroop Effect, and Post-Error Slowing. The results of our study supported each of our hypotheses. These findings demonstrated that there is a cognitive process underlying motivational systems, such as religion, which affect an individual's ability to sustain goal-directed behavior.

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Date Created
  • 2013-12

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Thinking Brains: An Introduction to Neuroscientific Thought

Description

An introduction to neuroscientific thought aimed at an audience that is not educated in biology. Meant to be readable and easily understood by anyone with a high school education. The

An introduction to neuroscientific thought aimed at an audience that is not educated in biology. Meant to be readable and easily understood by anyone with a high school education. The first section is completed in its entirety, with outlines for the proposed final sections to be completed over the next few years.

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  • 2014-05

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Does array training that highlights common vs. distinctive components facilitate the learning of concepts?

Description

Understanding categories and the way in which individuals classify and distinguish between these categories is vital to a number of cognitive functions. The present study introduced a new approach to

Understanding categories and the way in which individuals classify and distinguish between these categories is vital to a number of cognitive functions. The present study introduced a new approach to dimensional identification by using identifiable properties rather than of ill-defined patterns. Although replication of studies that utilize well-defined features is necessary, the results of the study could potentially indicate some interesting findings regarding learning.

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Date Created
  • 2013-05

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Mindfulness Meditation Training: Gold or Oversold?

Description

The effects of meditation on attention control have been widely studied in recent years. However, the methodological flaws of many of these studies raise serious concerns on the validity of

The effects of meditation on attention control have been widely studied in recent years. However, the methodological flaws of many of these studies raise serious concerns on the validity of meditation training as a cognitive enhancer. This study investigated the near and far transfer effects of mindfulness meditation training on attention control when a stringent experimental design was implemented. Participants in the experimental group practiced meditation for three twenty-minute sessions, and participants in the active control group listened to an audio book about meditation for similar times. No significant effect of meditation on change in performance on cognitive tasks was found. This study suggests that short-term mindfulness meditation training does not result in increased attention control.

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Date Created
  • 2013-05

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Effects of Speaking Aloud on Measures of Intelligence and Working Memory Capacity

Description

Previous research has yielded an equivocal answer as to whether speaking aloud while performing intelligence tasks improves, impairs, or has no effect on performance. Some studies show that it impairs

Previous research has yielded an equivocal answer as to whether speaking aloud while performing intelligence tasks improves, impairs, or has no effect on performance. Some studies show that it impairs performance while others show it aids performance. In the studies in which speaking aloud has been shown to help, only children and older adults benefitted. The present study investigated whether college-aged students benefit from speaking aloud while performing a fluid intelligence test. Subjects performed a battery of working memory and intelligence tasks silently. Once they had completed each task, the participants took them again, though this time they spoke aloud while completing the tests. Results showed that subjects did insignificantly worse on the working memory tests when speaking aloud. However, subjects performed significantly better on the measures of fluid intelligence while speaking aloud as opposed to doing them silently. At an individual differences level, low working memory capacity participants benefited more from speaking aloud than the high working memory ones. Finally, we found a positive correlation between working memory scores and fluid intelligence scores, offering further evidence that the two constructs are related, yet different.

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Date Created
  • 2012-12

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The Effects of Depletion on Prospective Memory Retrieval Processes

Description

Prospective memory is defined as remembering to carry out specified actions in the future. Research has suggested that prospective memory retrieval is reliant on multiple cognitive processes to function, and

Prospective memory is defined as remembering to carry out specified actions in the future. Research has suggested that prospective memory retrieval is reliant on multiple cognitive processes to function, and the ways in which these different processes are used is dependent on a variety of variables relating to the prospective memory task at hand. The current study focuses on the strength of the association between the prospective
memory cue and the prospective memory intention. Based on literature suggesting that aspects of prospective memory are reliant on executive control functioning, the current study examined the possibility that executive control depletion would affect prospective memory ability on subsequent tasks. Results showed that depletion of executive control resources, measured objectively, did not impair prospective memory in either a low or
high cue-association condition. However, participants‟ subjective assessment of their own fatigue correlated significantly with their subsequent prospective memory performance, regardless of association condition. The results of the study indicate that depletion studies that fail to account for both objective and subjective measures suffer from an unclear interpretation of effects, and that recognition of perceived expectancies
of cognitive resource limitation can assist in improving prospective memory ability.

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Date Created
  • 2012-12

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Development of a Brief Task to Study Memory in Young and Old Dogs

Description

This study was conducted in order to create a brief task that more efficiently studies the memory of young and old dogs compared to previous dog radial arm mazes. The

This study was conducted in order to create a brief task that more efficiently studies the memory of young and old dogs compared to previous dog radial arm mazes. The hypotheses were older dogs would perform worse than younger dogs, brief tasks with longer delays and the presence of an occluder would produce worse results, and the brief task with the longest delay period without an occluder would be most correlated to the radial arm maze. 45 dogs were tested from a previous sample that had participated in a radial arm maze experiment. The dogs were tested in their owner's homes and watched the researcher place a treat behind one of two boxes. Dogs then waited during different delay periods, of 15, 30, or 45 seconds, and with or without an occluder, which was a curtain. Then, the dog was released to see if it could still remember which box the treat was behind. The results supported all the hypotheses, except the 45-second brief task with an occluder was most correlated the radial arm maze. Additionally, the dogs that had to be excluded from the radial arm maze still had a similar range of results on the brief tasks as dogs that were able to complete the radial arm maze. These results confirm the radial arm maze is very difficult and strenuous on dogs, but the brief task is correlated and probably much more effective at studying memory without these issues. This study can help researchers perfect this simple task in order to study many dogs much quicker and collect more information on dogs' memory. Future studies could overcome limitations including dogs that were not motivated by treats or that were too old to stand up. Specific breeds could be tested or longitudinal studies could be conducted to find differences in memory over time. In the future, this can hopefully relate to human cognitive decline knowledge, as dogs show similar cognitive decline to humans, and help find treatments for cognitive diseases.

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Date Created
  • 2015-12

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The Association Between Ongoing Task Context and Target Action Influences Activity-Based Prospective Memory

Description

Prospective memory is defined as the process of remembering to do something at a particular point in the future after first forming a conscious intention. There are three types of

Prospective memory is defined as the process of remembering to do something at a particular point in the future after first forming a conscious intention. There are three types of prospective memory intentions; event-based, time-based and activity-based intentions. Research has suggested that activity-based is one of the dominant prospective memory failures that people self-report yet there is little research on this area of prospective memory. The current study focuses on how activity-based PM is influenced by the association between the match of internal context and intended action. According to previous research, similar context between intention formation and retrieval has been shown to facilitate prospective memory, which increases the execution of intentions. Based on literature, we hypothesized that there would be higher intention completion when the internal context matches the intended action to be completed in the future. Results showed that internal context affected activity-based intention completion significantly. However the interaction between internal context and the intended action did not significantly affect intention completion. Although we did not get the hypothesized interaction, the means do cross over showing the interaction pattern is there. We decided to treat this as a pilot study and replicate it with a well-powered experiment consisting of 560 valid participants.

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Date Created
  • 2015-12

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Effect of Threat, Costly Signaling, and Religion on Trust Decisions

Description

Trust was measured for a target profile that varied the target's religion and costly signaling behavior. Subjects were primed with a threat, romance, or neutral response previous to viewing the

Trust was measured for a target profile that varied the target's religion and costly signaling behavior. Subjects were primed with a threat, romance, or neutral response previous to viewing the profile to determine if this had any effect on their trust ratings of the target. Participants were drawn from MTurk with ages ranging from 18 to 75 (M= 33.2) and various religious backgrounds (including 210 Christians, 190 atheists/agnostics, and 92 other religious believers). Participants were presented with the threat, romance, or neutral vignette, shown the target profile, and asked to rate the target's trustworthiness. There was no main effect of the vignette condition (p = .088) or costly signaling (p = .099) on the target's trustworthiness. There was a main effect of target religion (p = .006) wherein the Muslim target was trusted more than the Catholic target. These findings do not replicate previous findings on religion, costly signaling, and trust.

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Date Created
  • 2016-05