Matching Items (43)

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An Exploration of User-Informed Design

Description

This paper describes the development of a mobile application aimed at facilitating the communication and collaboration of roommates with regards to grocery shopping, food-sharing, and cost-splitting. The approach involves several methods of user-informed design. First, I conducted an analysis of

This paper describes the development of a mobile application aimed at facilitating the communication and collaboration of roommates with regards to grocery shopping, food-sharing, and cost-splitting. The approach involves several methods of user-informed design. First, I conducted an analysis of user needs, interviewing potential end-users to gauge shopping habits and behaviors. Second, using iterative wireframing and a design tool called Figma, I constructed a working prototype of the design. Third, the prototype was used in a usability study, focused on uncovering pain points and other insights regarding the performance of the app. The usability tests were designed to simulate tasks that users might reasonably encounter when using the app. Finally, a second analysis of user needs was conducted, this time on a much larger scale. These methods were used to develop several informed design decisions that could improve the overall usability in future iterations of the design.

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Date Created
2020-05

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User Experience Laws in Learning

Description

The relationship between user experience, learning, and psychology is complex. There are many rules and concepts that guide experience design. It is likely that some of the guidance is valid whereas other guidance is not. This explores some of that

The relationship between user experience, learning, and psychology is complex. There are many rules and concepts that guide experience design. It is likely that some of the guidance is valid whereas other guidance is not. This explores some of that guidance and evaluates how they are linked to learning. Do the guidance’s made 25, 50, 100 years ago still hold true today? Additionally, the psychological background behind the way someone holds memory is important. Knowing how information is stored and processed helps educators provide the best learning experience possible. With an eye toward perception and cognition, this paper examines the relevance of the various pieces of guidance. The results suggest that, overall, this guidance is still valid and valuable to current learning trends and designs. This suggests that user experience designers for education need to pay attention to the guidance provided by psychology when designing learning management systems, placing content in a course, and choosing which aesthetics to follow.

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Date Created
2020-05

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Priming creativity using multiple artistic objects

Description

As the desire for innovation increases, individuals and companies seek reliable ways to encourage their creative side. There are many office superstitions about how creativity works, but few are based on psychological science and even fewer have been tested empirically.

As the desire for innovation increases, individuals and companies seek reliable ways to encourage their creative side. There are many office superstitions about how creativity works, but few are based on psychological science and even fewer have been tested empirically. One of the most prevalent superstitions is the use of objects to inspire creativity or even make a creative room. It is important to test this kind of notion so workplaces can find reliable ways to be innovative, but also because psychology lacks a breadth of literature on how environmental cues interact with people to shape their mental state. This experiment seeks to examine those gaps and fill in the next steps needed for examining at how multiple objects prime creativity. Participants completed two creativity tasks: one for idea generation and one that relies on insight problem solving, the Remote Association Task. There were four priming conditions that relied on objects: a zero object condition, a four neutral (office) objects condition, a single artistic object condition, and finally a four artistic objects condition. There were no differences found between groups for either type of task or in mood or artistic experience. The number of years a participant spent in the United States, however, did correlate with mood, idea generation scores, and insight problem scores. This potentially demonstrates that performance on idea generation and insight tasks rely on the tasks created and culture.

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Date Created
2013

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Shaped by design: how user-interface design influences medical decision making : the role of monitoring equipment in anesthetic practice

Description

Objective: The aim of this research is to uncover, via a comprehensive cross study analysis, data patterns that could potentially point to a positive correlation between two main variables: anesthetic monitoring equipment and anesthetic decision making. Of particular interest is

Objective: The aim of this research is to uncover, via a comprehensive cross study analysis, data patterns that could potentially point to a positive correlation between two main variables: anesthetic monitoring equipment and anesthetic decision making. Of particular interest is the equipment's monitor screen and the extent to which its user interface design influences anesthetic situation awareness (SA) and hence, decision making. It is hypothesized that poor anesthetic diagnosis from inadequate SA may be largely attributable to patient data displays lacking in human factors design considerations. Methods: A systematic search was conducted of existing empirical studies pertaining to patient physiologic monitoring that spanned across interrelated domains, namely, ergonomics, medical informatics, visual computing, cognitive psychology, human factors, clinical monitoring, intensive care medicine, and intelligent systems etc. all published in scholarly research journals between 1970 to August 2012. Anesthetic-related keywords were queried i.e. anesthetic mishaps, patient physiological data displays, anesthetic vigilance etc. (found in Appendix A). This approach yielded a few thousand results, of which 65 empirical studies were pulled. Further extraction of articles having direct connection to the use of data displays within the anesthetic context produced a total of 20 empirical studies. These studies were grouped under two broad categories of Monitoring and Monitors whereby factors directly contributing to the studies' results were identified with the aim to find emerging themes that provide insights involving interface design and medical decision making. Results: There is a direct correlation between user-interface design and decision making. The situation awareness (SA) required for decision making heavily relies upon data displays oriented towards information extraction and integration. In the systematic assessment of empirical studies, it is undeniable how strikingly prominent visual attributes show up as contributing factors to subjects' enhanced performance in the studies. Conclusions: How and to what users direct their perceptual and cognitive resources necessarily influence their perception of the environment, and by extension, their development of situation awareness (SA). Although patient monitoring equipment employed in anesthetic practice has proven to be indispensable in quality patient care, graphical representations of patient data is still far from optimal in the clinical setting. User-interfaces that lend decision support to facilitate SA and subsequent decision making is critical in crisis management.

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Date Created
2013

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Measuring the Efficacy of Tall Man Lettering

Description

Currently, medical errors are one of the most common causes of death in the United
States (Makary & Daniel, 2016), which includes errors related to look-alike, sound-alike prescription drug name confusion. The use of Tall Man lettering, a text enhancement

Currently, medical errors are one of the most common causes of death in the United
States (Makary & Daniel, 2016), which includes errors related to look-alike, sound-alike prescription drug name confusion. The use of Tall Man lettering, a text enhancement style that capitalizes the dissimilar portions of words, has been recommended by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) as well as the Institute for Safe Medication Practices (ISMP) since 2008 in order to make it easier for healthcare professionals to distinguish and identify two otherwise easily confusable drug names. Research performed on the efficacy of Tall Man lettering and similar text enhancements in successfully differentiating look-alike, sound-alike drug names has thus far been either null or inconclusive. Therefore, it is crucial that further research be conducted in order to provide a path to alleviation by increasing the understanding of the problem, and providing evidence to a clearer solution (Lambert, Schroeder & Galanter, 2015). The objective of the current study was to measure the efficacy of Tall Man Lettering and additional text enhancement strategies through an experiment that replicates some of the previously used methods of research. The current study utilized a repeated measures design. Participants were shown a prime drug name, followed by a brief mask, and then either the same drug name or its confusable drug name pair. They were then asked to identify whether the two drug names presented were identical or different. All of the participants completed a total of four trials representing each condition (regular, Tall Man, Tall Man Bold, highlight) and a practice trial. Overall performance was measured through accuracy and reaction time, which revealed that regular, lowercase text was more effective than any of the other text enhancements, including Tall Man lettering, in quickly and accurately identifying differences in drug names. These results seem to add to the body of inconclusive research on the efficacy of Tall Man lettering and similar text enhancement strategies for reducing drug name confusion. Given the significant impact that drug name confusion errors can have on patient safety, it is imperative that further research be conducted in order to give a more definitive answer of whether text enhancement strategies like Tall Man lettering are helpful in practice.

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Date Created
2019-05

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Equating user experience and Fitts law in gesture based input modalities

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The International Standards Organization (ISO) documentation utilizes Fitts’ law to determine the usability of traditional input devices like mouse and touchscreens for one- or two-dimensional operations. To test the hypothesis that Fitts’ Law can be applied to hand/air gesture based

The International Standards Organization (ISO) documentation utilizes Fitts’ law to determine the usability of traditional input devices like mouse and touchscreens for one- or two-dimensional operations. To test the hypothesis that Fitts’ Law can be applied to hand/air gesture based computing inputs, Fitts’ multi-directional target acquisition task is applied to three gesture based input devices that utilize different technologies and two baseline devices, mouse and touchscreen. Three target distances and three target sizes were tested six times in a randomized order with a randomized order of the five input technologies. A total of 81 participants’ data were collected for the within subjects design study. Participants were instructed to perform the task as quickly and accurately as possible according to traditional Fitts’ testing procedures. Movement time, error rate, and throughput for each input technology were calculated.

Additionally, no standards exist for equating user experience with Fitts’ measures such as movement time, throughput, and error count. To test the hypothesis that a user’s experience can be predicted using Fitts’ measures of movement time, throughput and error count, an ease of use rating using a 5-point scale for each input type was collected from each participant. The calculated Mean Opinion Scores (MOS) were regressed on Fitts’ measures of movement time, throughput, and error count to understand the extent to which they can predict a user’s subjective rating.

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Date Created
2015

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Developing an emotional design predictor for brand loyalty: an introductory research on interrelationship between brand loyalty and emotion, brand loyalty and culture

Description

The aim of this study is to conduct the empirical tests on consumer's emotional responses of product design and the relationship between emotion and consumer's attitudinal loyalty to identify if there exists potential relationship links between these two factors together

The aim of this study is to conduct the empirical tests on consumer's emotional responses of product design and the relationship between emotion and consumer's attitudinal loyalty to identify if there exists potential relationship links between these two factors together by following certain regulation. This study also seeks to compare Brand Loyalty of Apple products across two different cultures - China and US to see if there are any differences regarding their brand loyalty construction and expression. The emotional responses on product design were also studied in order to reveal potential emotional design issues between the two different cultures. Results of this study show that: (1) Brand loyalty strengthens a consumer's emotion bond with a targeted brand through its product carrier. Emotion is seen as a predictor for brand loyalty based on consumer proportionality and conformity of expression. (2) Cognitive experience is not necessary nor a sufficient condition to build brand loyalty. Emotion and culture will be crucial in constructing brand loyalty without cognition. Cultural differences will affect brand loyalty, especially regarding attitudinal loyalty. (3) Different cultures share different ways of emotional expression. Based on the scope, limitations, and results of this research, Chinese consumers appear to be more sensitive in their emotional feelings of the iPad's design than American consumers.

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Date Created
2012

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Effects of elderly priming on driving speeds: a driving simulator study

Description

Research on priming has shown that a stimulus can cause people to behave according to the stereotype held about the stimulus. Two experiments were conducted in which the effects of elderly priming were tested by use of a driving simulator.

Research on priming has shown that a stimulus can cause people to behave according to the stereotype held about the stimulus. Two experiments were conducted in which the effects of elderly priming were tested by use of a driving simulator. In both experiments, participants drove through a simulated world guided by either an elderly or a younger female voice. The voices told the participants where to make each of six turns. Both experiments yielded slower driving speeds in the elderly voice condition. The effect was universal regardless of implicit and explicit attitudes towards elderly people.

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Date Created
2012

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A comparison of the effects of imagery and action observation on baseball batting performance

Description

This study investigated the effect of two different preparation methods on hitting performance in a high&ndashfidelity; baseball batting simulation. Novice and expert players participated in one of three conditions: observation (viewing a video of the goal action), visualization (hearing a

This study investigated the effect of two different preparation methods on hitting performance in a high&ndashfidelity; baseball batting simulation. Novice and expert players participated in one of three conditions: observation (viewing a video of the goal action), visualization (hearing a script of the goal action), or a no&ndashpreparation; control group. Each participant completed three different hitting tasks: pull hit, opposite&ndashfield; hit, and sacrifice fly. Experts had more successful hits, overall, than novices. The number of successful hits was significantly higher for both the observation and visualization conditions than for the control. In most cases, performance was best in the observation condition. Experts demonstrated greater effects from the mental preparation techniques compared to novices. However, these effects were mediated by task difficulty. The difference between experts and novices, as well as the difference between the observation and visualization conditions was greater for the more difficult hitting task (opposite&ndashfield; hitting) than for the easier hitting task (sacrifice fly). These effects of mental preparation were associated with significant changes in batting kinematics (e.g., changes in point of bat/ball contact and swing direction). The results indicate that mental preparation can improve directional hitting ability in baseball with the optimal preparation methods depending on skill&ndashlevel; and task difficulty.

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Date Created
2010

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Restaurant Point-of-Sale Interfaces: Comparisons in Menu Organization and User Efficiency

Description

Careful considerations in designing and organizing information for restaurant point-of-sale (POS) systems can affect user experience. Unfortunately, usability guidelines are sparse for these systems. Applications from other studies, such as categorical organization and F-shape, are implemented in an experimental interface

Careful considerations in designing and organizing information for restaurant point-of-sale (POS) systems can affect user experience. Unfortunately, usability guidelines are sparse for these systems. Applications from other studies, such as categorical organization and F-shape, are implemented in an experimental interface as a starting point of discussion. A control interface was designed after the default version of NCR Aloha’s POS program: Aloha Table Service. Novice and expert order taking strategies were also observed to compare input differences. This study examined selection time, total time, and selection accuracy across both order and interface types. The results show that time and number of key presses are significantly reduced under the treatment interface, and that teaching expert order taking strategies to novice users may help reduce cognitive load.

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2016-05