Matching Items (39)

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Generation and characterization of human induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC) lines from an Alzheimer's disease (ASUi003-A) and non-demented control (ASUi004-A) patient homozygous for the Apolipoprotein e4 (APOE4) risk variant

Description

Although the majority of late-onset Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients are labeled sporadic, multiple genetic risk variants have been identified, the most powerful and prevalent of which is the e4 variant

Although the majority of late-onset Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients are labeled sporadic, multiple genetic risk variants have been identified, the most powerful and prevalent of which is the e4 variant of the Apolipoprotein E (APOE) gene. Here, we generated human induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC) lines from the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of a clinically diagnosed AD patient [ASUi003-A] and a non-demented control (NDC) patient [ASUi004-A] homozygous for the APOE4 risk allele. These hiPSCs maintained their original genotype, expressed pluripotency markers, exhibited a normal karyotype, and retained the ability to differentiate into cells representative of the three germ layers.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2017-07-10

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May I Cut in? Gene Editing Approaches in Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells

Description

In the decade since Yamanaka and colleagues described methods to reprogram somatic cells into a pluripotent state, human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) have demonstrated tremendous promise in numerous disease

In the decade since Yamanaka and colleagues described methods to reprogram somatic cells into a pluripotent state, human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) have demonstrated tremendous promise in numerous disease modeling, drug discovery, and regenerative medicine applications. More recently, the development and refinement of advanced gene transduction and editing technologies have further accelerated the potential of hiPSCs. In this review, we discuss the various gene editing technologies that are being implemented with hiPSCs. Specifically, we describe the emergence of technologies including zinc-finger nuclease (ZFN), transcription activator-like effector nuclease (TALEN), and clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/Cas9 that can be used to edit the genome at precise locations, and discuss the strengths and weaknesses of each of these technologies. In addition, we present the current applications of these technologies in elucidating the mechanisms of human development and disease, developing novel and effective therapeutic molecules, and engineering cell-based therapies. Finally, we discuss the emerging technological advances in targeted gene editing methods.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2017-02-06

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Generation of an expandable intermediate mesoderm restricted progenitor cell line from human pluripotent stem cells

Description

The field of tissue engineering entered a new era with the development of human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs), which are capable of unlimited expansion whilst retaining the potential to differentiate

The field of tissue engineering entered a new era with the development of human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs), which are capable of unlimited expansion whilst retaining the potential to differentiate into all mature cell populations. However, these cells harbor significant risks, including tumor formation upon transplantation. One way to mitigate this risk is to develop expandable progenitor cell populations with restricted differentiation potential. Here, we used a cellular microarray technology to identify a defined and optimized culture condition that supports the derivation and propagation of a cell population with mesodermal properties. This cell population, referred to as intermediate mesodermal progenitor (IMP) cells, is capable of unlimited expansion, lacks tumor formation potential, and, upon appropriate stimulation, readily acquires properties of a sub-population of kidney cells. Interestingly, IMP cells fail to differentiate into other mesodermally-derived tissues, including blood and heart, suggesting that these cells are restricted to an intermediate mesodermal fate.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2015-11-10

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Biomaterial Approaches for Stem Cell-Based Myocardial Tissue Engineering

Description

Adult and pluripotent stem cells represent a ready supply of cellular raw materials that can be used to generate the functionally mature cells needed to replace damaged or diseased heart

Adult and pluripotent stem cells represent a ready supply of cellular raw materials that can be used to generate the functionally mature cells needed to replace damaged or diseased heart tissue. However, the use of stem cells for cardiac regenerative therapies is limited by the low efficiency by which stem cells are differentiated in vitro to cardiac lineages as well as the inability to effectively deliver stem cells and their derivatives to regions of damaged myocardium. In this review, we discuss the various biomaterial-based approaches that are being implemented to direct stem cell fate both in vitro and in vivo. First, we discuss the stem cell types available for cardiac repair and the engineering of naturally and synthetically derived biomaterials to direct their in vitro differentiation to the cell types that comprise heart tissue. Next, we describe biomaterial-based approaches that are being implemented to enhance the in vivo integration and differentiation of stem cells delivered to areas of cardiac damage. Finally, we present emerging trends of using stem cell-based biomaterial approaches to deliver pro-survival factors and fully vascularized tissue to the damaged and diseased cardiac tissue.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2015-06-01

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Nonsense-Mediated RNA Decay Influences Human Embryonic Stem Cell Fate

Description

Nonsense-mediated RNA decay (NMD) is a highly conserved pathway that selectively degrades specific subsets of RNA transcripts. Here, we provide evidence that NMD regulates early human developmental cell fate. We

Nonsense-mediated RNA decay (NMD) is a highly conserved pathway that selectively degrades specific subsets of RNA transcripts. Here, we provide evidence that NMD regulates early human developmental cell fate. We found that NMD factors tend to be expressed at higher levels in human pluripotent cells than in differentiated cells, raising the possibility that NMD must be downregulated to permit differentiation. Loss- and gain-of-function experiments in human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) demonstrated that, indeed, NMD downregulation is essential for efficient generation of definitive endoderm. RNA-seq analysis identified NMD target transcripts induced when NMD is suppressed in hESCs, including many encoding signaling components. This led us to test the role of TGF-β and BMP signaling, which we found NMD acts through to influence definitive endoderm versus mesoderm fate. Our results suggest that selective RNA decay is critical for specifying the developmental fate of specific human embryonic cell lineages.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2016-06-14

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A chemically defined substrate for the expansion and neuronal differentiation of human pluripotent stem cell-derived neural progenitor cells

Description

Due to the limitation of current pharmacological therapeutic strategies, stem cell therapies have emerged as a viable option for treating many incurable neurological disorders. Specifically, human pluripotent stem cell (hPSC)-derived

Due to the limitation of current pharmacological therapeutic strategies, stem cell therapies have emerged as a viable option for treating many incurable neurological disorders. Specifically, human pluripotent stem cell (hPSC)-derived neural progenitor cells (hNPCs), a multipotent cell population that is capable of near indefinite expansion and subsequent differentiation into the various cell types that comprise the central nervous system (CNS), could provide an unlimited source of cells for such cell-based therapies. However the clinical application of these cells will require (i) defined, xeno-free conditions for their expansion and neuronal differentiation and (ii) scalable culture systems that enable their expansion and neuronal differentiation in numbers sufficient for regenerative medicine and drug screening purposes. Current extracellular matrix protein (ECMP)-based substrates for the culture of hNPCs are expensive, difficult to isolate, subject to batch-to-batch variations, and, therefore, unsuitable for clinical application of hNPCs. Using a high-throughput array-based screening approach, we identified a synthetic polymer, poly(4-vinyl phenol) (P4VP), that supported the long-term proliferation and self-renewal of hNPCs. The hNPCs cultured on P4VP maintained their characteristic morphology, expressed high levels of markers of multipotency, and retained their ability to differentiate into neurons. Such chemically defined substrates will eliminate critical roadblocks for the utilization of hNPCs for human neural regenerative repair, disease modeling, and drug discovery.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2015-05-13

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Nonsense-Mediated RNA Decay Influences Human Embryonic Stem Cell Fate

Description

Nonsense-mediated RNA decay (NMD) is a highly conserved pathway that selectively degrades specific subsets of RNA transcripts. Here, we provide evidence that NMD regulates early human developmental cell fate. We

Nonsense-mediated RNA decay (NMD) is a highly conserved pathway that selectively degrades specific subsets of RNA transcripts. Here, we provide evidence that NMD regulates early human developmental cell fate. We found that NMD factors tend to be expressed at higher levels in human pluripotent cells than in differentiated cells, raising the possibility that NMD must be downregulated to permit differentiation. Loss- and gain-of-function experiments in human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) demonstrated that, indeed, NMD downregulation is essential for efficient generation of definitive endoderm. RNA-seq analysis identified NMD target transcripts induced when NMD is suppressed in hESCs, including many encoding signaling components. This led us to test the role of TGF-β and BMP signaling, which we found NMD acts through to influence definitive endoderm versus mesoderm fate. Our results suggest that selective RNA decay is critical for specifying the developmental fate of specific human embryonic cell lineages.

Contributors

Created

Date Created
  • 2016-06-14

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Lipopolymer-Mediated Transgene Delivery to Human Stem Cells

Description

Genetic manipulation of human cell lines has widespread applications in biomedical research ranging from disease modeling to therapeutic development. Human cells are generally difficult to genetically engineer, but exogenous nucleic

Genetic manipulation of human cell lines has widespread applications in biomedical research ranging from disease modeling to therapeutic development. Human cells are generally difficult to genetically engineer, but exogenous nucleic acids can be expressed by viral, chemical, or nonchemical means. Chemical transfections are simpler in practice than both viral and nonchemical delivery of genetic material, but often suffer from cytotoxicity and low efficiency. Novel aminoglycoside antibiotic-derived lipopolymers have been synthesized to mediate transgene delivery to human cells. These polymers are comprised of either paromomycin or apramycin crosslinked with glycerol diglycidylether and derivatized with stearoyl chloride in varying molar ratios. In this work, three previously identified target lipopolymers were screened against a library of human embryonic and induced pluripotent stem cell lines. Cells were transfected with a plasmid encoding green fluorescent protein (GFP) and expression was quantified with flow cytometry 48 hours after transfection. Transfection efficiency was evaluated between three distinct lipopolymers and four lipopolymer:DNA mass ratios. GFP expression was compared to that of cells transfected with commercially available chemical gene delivery reagent controls\u2014JetPEI, Lipofectamine, and Fugene\u2014at their recommended reagent:DNA ratios. Improved transgene expression in stem cell lines allows for improved research methods. Human stem cell-derived neurons that have been genetically manipulated to express phenotypic characteristics of aging can be utilized to model neurodegenerative diseases, elucidating information about these diseases that would be inaccessible in unmanipulated tissue.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2017-05

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Stem Cell Growth Factor Supplementation: Efficacy of PRP and Prolotherapy Treatment Evidence

Description

the project led by Professor Emma Frow, researching of stem cell clinics focused on stem cell applications, adherence to FDA guidelines, and characterization of information available and physician credentials. Regenerative

the project led by Professor Emma Frow, researching of stem cell clinics focused on stem cell applications, adherence to FDA guidelines, and characterization of information available and physician credentials. Regenerative medicine clinics commonly offered stem cell therapy, but introduced platelet rich plasma (PRP) and prolotherapy as regenerative therapies.
PRP and Prolotherapy are individual treatments that were even suggested and used in combination with stem cell therapies. Prolotherapy predates PRP as a chemical irritant therapy originally used to sclerose tissues. Prolotherapy is meant to stimulate platelet derived growth factors release to improve tissue healing response. Prolotherapy shows negligible efficacy improvements over corticosteroids, but may have underlying side effects from being an irritant. PRP is a more modern therapy for improved healing. Speculations state initial use was in an open heart surgery to improve healing post-surgery. PRP is created via centrifugation of patient blood to isolate growth factors by removing serum and other biological components to increase platelet concentration. PRP is comparable to corticosteroid injections in efficacy, but as an autologous application, there are no side effects making it more advantageous. Growth factors induce healing response and reduce inflammation. Growth factors stimulate cell growth, proliferation, differentiation, and stimulate cellular response mechanism such as angiogenesis and mitogenesis. The growth factor stimulation of PRP and prolotherapy both assist stem cell proliferation. Additional research is needed to determine differential capacity to ensure multipotent stem cells regenerate the correct cell type from the increased differential capacity offered by growth factor recruitment. The application of combination therapy for stem cells is unsubstantiated and applications violate FDA ‘minimal manipulation’ guidelines.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2017-05

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Large Scale Biomanufacturing of Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Neurons

Description

Current culturing methods allow for human neural progenitor cells to be differentiated into neurons for use in diagnostic tools and disease modeling. An issue arises in the relatively low number

Current culturing methods allow for human neural progenitor cells to be differentiated into neurons for use in diagnostic tools and disease modeling. An issue arises in the relatively low number of cells that can be successfully expanded and differentiated using these current methods, making the progress of research dependent on these cultures as a large number of cells are needed to conduct relevant assays. This project focuses on the expansion and differentiation of human neural progenitor cells cultured on microcarriers and within a rotating bioreactor system as a way to increase the total number of cells generated. Additionally, cryopreservation and the characteristics of these neurons post thaw is being investigated to create a way for long term storage, as well as, a method for standardizing cell lines between multiple experiments at different time points. The experiments covered in this study are aimed to compare the characteristics of differentiated human neurons, both demented and non-demented cell lines between pre-cryopreservation, freshly differentiated neurons and post-cryopreservation neurons. The assays conducted include immunofluorescence, calcium imaging, quantitative polymerase chain reaction, flow cytometry and ELISA data looking at Alzheimer’s disease traits. With the data collected within this study, the use of bioreactors, in addition to, cryopreservation of human neurons for long term storage can be better implemented into human neural progenitor cell research. Both of these aspects will increase the output of these cultures and potentially remove the bottleneck currently found within human neural disease modeling.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2020-05