Matching Items (18)

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Novel strategies for producing proteins with non-proteinogenic amino acids

Description

The biological and chemical diversity of protein structure and function can be greatly expanded by position-specific incorporation of non-natural amino acids bearing a variety of functional groups. Non-cognate amino acids can be incorporated into proteins at specific sites by using

The biological and chemical diversity of protein structure and function can be greatly expanded by position-specific incorporation of non-natural amino acids bearing a variety of functional groups. Non-cognate amino acids can be incorporated into proteins at specific sites by using orthogonal aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase/tRNA pairs in conjunction with nonsense, rare, or 4-bp codons. There has been considerable progress in developing new types of amino acids, in identifying novel methods of tRNA aminoacylation, and in expanding the genetic code to direct their position. Chemical aminoacylation of tRNAs is accomplished by acylation and ligation of a dinucleotide (pdCpA) to the 3'-terminus of truncated tRNA. This strategy allows the incorporation of a wide range of natural and unnatural amino acids into pre-determined sites, thereby facilitating the study of structure-function relationships in proteins and allowing the investigation of their biological, biochemical and biophysical properties. Described in Chapter 1 is the current methodology for synthesizing aminoacylated suppressor tRNAs. Aminoacylated suppressor tRNACUAs are typically prepared by linking pre-aminoacylated dinucleotides (aminoacyl-pdCpAs) to 74 nucleotide (nt) truncated tRNAs (tRNA-COH) via a T4 RNA ligase mediated reaction. Alternatively, there is another route outlined in Chapter 1 that utilizes a different pre-aminoacylated dinucleotide, AppA. This dinucleotide has been shown to be a suitable substrate for T4 RNA ligase mediated coupling with abbreviated tRNA-COHs for production of 76 nt aminoacyl-tRNACUAs. The synthesized suppressor tRNAs have been shown to participate in protein synthesis in vitro, in an S30 (E. coli) coupled transcription-translation system in which there is a UAG codon in the mRNA at the position corresponding to Val10. Chapter 2 describes the synthesis of two non-proteinogenic amino acids, L-thiothreonine and L-allo-thiothreonine, and their incorporation into predetermined positions of a catalytically competent dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) analogue lacking cysteine. Here, the elaborated proteins were site-specifically derivitized with a fluorophore at the thiothreonine residue. The synthesis and incorporation of phosphorotyrosine derivatives into DHFR is illustrated in Chapter 3. Three different phosphorylated tyrosine derivatives were prepared: bis-nitrobenzylphosphoro-L-tyrosine, nitrobenzylphosphoro-L-tyrosine, and phosphoro-L-tyrosine. Their ability to participate in a protein synthesis system was also evaluated.

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2013

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Study of ribosomes having modifications in the peptidyltransferase center using non-alpha-L-amino acids and synthesis and biological evaluation of topopyrones

Description

The ribosome is a ribozyme and central to the biosynthesis of proteins in all organisms. It has a strong bias against non-alpha-L-amino acids, such as alpha-D-amino acids and beta-amino acids. Additionally, the ribosome is only able to incorporate one amino

The ribosome is a ribozyme and central to the biosynthesis of proteins in all organisms. It has a strong bias against non-alpha-L-amino acids, such as alpha-D-amino acids and beta-amino acids. Additionally, the ribosome is only able to incorporate one amino acid in response to one codon. It has been demonstrated that reengineering of the peptidyltransferase center (PTC) of the ribosome enabled the incorporation of both alpha-D-amino acids and beta-amino acids into full length protein. Described in Chapter 2 are five modified ribosomes having modifications in the peptidyltrasnferase center in the 23S rRNA. These modified ribosomes successfully incorporated five different beta-amino acids (2.1 - 2.5) into E. coli dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR). The second project (Chapter 3) focused on the study of the modified ribosomes facilitating the incorporation of the dipeptide glycylphenylalanine (3.25) and fluorescent dipeptidomimetic 3.26 into DHFR. These ribosomes also had modifications in the peptidyltransferase center in the 23S rRNA of the 50S ribosomal subunit. The modified DHFRs having beta-amino acids 2.3 and 2.5, dipeptide glycylphenylalanine (3.25) and dipeptidomimetic 3.26 were successfully characterized by the MALDI-MS analysis of the peptide fragments produced by "in-gel" trypsin digestion of the modified proteins. The fluorescent spectra of the dipeptidomimetic 3.26 and modified DHFR having fluorescent dipeptidomimetic 3.26 were also measured. The type I and II DNA topoisomerases have been firmly established as effective molecular targets for many antitumor drugs. A "classical" topoisomerase I or II poison acts by misaligning the free hydroxyl group of the sugar moiety of DNA and preventing the reverse transesterfication reaction to religate DNA. There have been only two classes of compounds, saintopin and topopyrones, reported as dual topoisomerase I and II poisons. Chapter 4 describes the synthesis and biological evaluation of topopyrones. Compound 4.10, employed at 20 µM, was as efficient as 0.5 uM camptothecin, a potent topoisomerase I poison, in stabilizing the covalent binary complex (~30%). When compared with a known topoisomerase II poison, etoposide (at 0.5 uM), topopyorone 4.10 produced similar levels of stabilized DNA-enzyme binary complex (~34%) at 5 uM concentration.

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2013

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Bleomycin, from start to finish: total synthesis of novel analogues to in vitro fluorescence microscopy imaging

Description

The bleomycins are a family of glycopeptide-derived antibiotics isolated from various Streptomyces species and have been the subject of much attention from the scientific community as a consequence of their antitumor activity. Bleomycin clinically and is an integral part of

The bleomycins are a family of glycopeptide-derived antibiotics isolated from various Streptomyces species and have been the subject of much attention from the scientific community as a consequence of their antitumor activity. Bleomycin clinically and is an integral part of a number of combination chemotherapy regimens. It has previously been shown that bleomycin has the ability to selectively target tumor cells over their non-malignant counterparts. Pyrimidoblamic acid, the N-terminal metal ion binding domain of bleomycin is known to be the moiety that is responsible for O2 activation and the subsequent chemistry leading to DNA strand scission and overall antitumor activity. Chapter 1 describes bleomycin and related DNA targeting antitumor agents as well as the specific structural domains of bleomycin. Various structural analogues of pyrimidoblamic acid were synthesized and subsequently incorporated into their corresponding full deglycoBLM A6 derivatives by utilizing a solid support. Their activity was measured using a pSP64 DNA plasmid relaxation assay and is summarized in Chapter 2. The specifics of bleomycin—DNA interaction and kinetics were studied via surface plasmon resonance and are presented in Chapter 3. By utilizing carefully selected 64-nucleotide DNA hairpins with variable 16-mer regions whose sequences showed strong binding in past selection studies, a kinetic profile was obtained for several BLMs for the first time since bleomycin was discovered in 1966. The disaccharide moiety of bleomycin has been previously shown to be a specific tumor cell targeting element comprised of L-gulose-D-mannose, especially between MCF-7 (breast cancer cells) and MCF-10A ("normal" breast cells). This phenomenon was further investigated via fluorescence microscopy using multiple cancerous cell lines with matched "normal" counterparts and is fully described in Chapter 4.

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2013

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Synthesis, biochemical and pharmacological evaluation of rationally designed multifunctional radical quenchers

Description

Mitochondria are crucial intracellular organelles which play a pivotal role in providing energy to living organisms in the form of adenosine triphosphate (ATP). The mitochondrial electron transport chain (ETC) coupled with oxidative phosphorylation (OX-PHOS) transforms the chemical energy of amino

Mitochondria are crucial intracellular organelles which play a pivotal role in providing energy to living organisms in the form of adenosine triphosphate (ATP). The mitochondrial electron transport chain (ETC) coupled with oxidative phosphorylation (OX-PHOS) transforms the chemical energy of amino acids, fatty acids and sugars to ATP. The mitochondrial electron transport system consumes nearly 90% of the oxygen used by the cell. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the form of superoxide anions (O2*-) are generated as byproduct of cellular metabolism due to leakage of electrons from complex I and complex III to oxygen. Under normal conditions, the effects of ROS are offset by a variety of antioxidants (enzymatic and non-enzymatic).

Mitochondrial dysfunction has been proposed in the etiology of various pathologies, including cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease, ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury, diabetes and aging. To treat these disorders, it is imperative to target mitochondria, especially the electron transport chain. One of the methodologies currently used for the treatment of mitochondrial and neurodegenerative diseases where endogenous antioxidant defenses are inadequate for protecting against ROS involves the administration of exogenous antioxidants.

As part of our pursuit of effective neuroprotective drugs, a series of pyridinol and pyrimidinol analogues have been rationally designed and synthesized. All the analogues were evaluated for their ability to quench lipid peroxidation and reactive oxygen species (ROS), and preserve mitochondrial membrane potential (Δm) and support ATP synthesis. These studies are summarized in Chapter 2.

Drug discovery and lead identification can be reinforced by assessing the metabolic fate of orally administered drugs using simple microsomal incubation experiments. Accordingly, in vitro microsomal studies were designed and carried out using bovine liver microsomes to screen available pyridinol and pyrimidinol analogues for their metabolic lability. The data obtained was utilized for an initial assessment of potential bioavailability of the compounds screened and is summarized fully in Chapter 3.

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2014

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Synthesis and evaluation of multifunctional radical quenchers for the protection of mitochondrial function

Description

Mitochondria produce the majority portion of ATP required in eukaryotic cells. ATP is generated through a process known as oxidative phosphorylation, through an pathway consisting five multi subunit proteins (complex I-IV and ATP synthase), embedded inside the mitochondrial membrane. Mitochondrial

Mitochondria produce the majority portion of ATP required in eukaryotic cells. ATP is generated through a process known as oxidative phosphorylation, through an pathway consisting five multi subunit proteins (complex I-IV and ATP synthase), embedded inside the mitochondrial membrane. Mitochondrial electron transport chain dysfunction increases reactive oxygen species in the cell and causes several serious disorders. Described herein are the synthesis of antioxidant molecules to reduce the effects in an already dysfunctional system. Also described is the study of the mitochondrial electron transport chain to understand the mechanism of action of a library of antioxidants. Illustrated in chapter 1 is the general history of research on mitochondrial dysfunction and reported ways to ameliorate them. Chapter 2 describes the design and synthesis of a series of compounds closely resembling the redox-active quinone core of the natural product geldanamycin. Geldanamycin has been reported to confer cytoprotection to FRDA lymphocytes in a dose dependent manner under conditions of induced oxidative stress. A library of rationally designed derivatives has been synthesized as a part of our pursuit of a better neuroprotective drug. Chapter 3 describes the design and synthesis of a library of pyrimidinol analogues. Compounds of this type have demonstrated the ability to quench reactive oxygen species and sustain mitochondrial membrane potential. Described herein are our efforts to increase their metabolic stability and total ATP production. It is crucial to understand the nature of interaction between a potential drug molecule and the mitochondrial electron transport chain to enable the design and synthesis a better therapeutic candidates. Chapter 4 describes a part of the enzymatic

binding studies between a molecular library synthesized in our laboratory and the mitochondrial electron transport chain using sub mitochondrial particles (SMP).

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2015

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Synthesis of benzoquinone antioxidants and a bleomycin disaccharide library

Description

Healthy mitochondria are essential for cell survival. Described herein is the synthesis of a family of novel aminoquinone antioxidants designed to alleviate oxidative stress and prevent the impairment of cellular function. In addition, a library of bleomycin disaccharide analogues has

Healthy mitochondria are essential for cell survival. Described herein is the synthesis of a family of novel aminoquinone antioxidants designed to alleviate oxidative stress and prevent the impairment of cellular function. In addition, a library of bleomycin disaccharide analogues has also been synthesized to better probe the tumor targeting properties of bleomycin. The first study involves the synthesis of a benzoquinone natural product and analogues that closely resemble the redox core of the natural product geldanamycin. The synthesized 5-amino-3-tridecyl-1,4-benzoquinone antioxidants were tested for their ability to protect Friedreich's ataxia (FRDA) lymphocytes from induced oxidative stress. Some of the analogues synthesized conferred cytoprotection in a dose-dependent manner in FRDA lymphocytes at micromolar concentrations. The biological assays suggest that the modification of the 2-hydroxyl and N-(3-carboxypropyl) groups in the natural product can improve its antioxidant activity and significantly enhance its ability to protect mitochondrial function under conditions of oxidative stress. The second project focused on the synthesis of a library of bleomycin disaccharide-dye conjugates and monitored their cellular uptake by fluorescence microscopy. The studies reveal that the position of the carbamoyl group plays an important role in modulating the cellular uptake of the disaccharide. It also led to the discovery of novel disaccharides with improved tumor selectivity.

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2013

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Probing receptors and enzymes with synthetic small molecules

Description

ABSTRACT Manipulation of biological targets using synthetic or naturally occurring organic compounds has been the focal point of medicinal chemistry. The work described herein centers on the synthesis of organic small molecules that are targeted either to cell surface receptors,

ABSTRACT Manipulation of biological targets using synthetic or naturally occurring organic compounds has been the focal point of medicinal chemistry. The work described herein centers on the synthesis of organic small molecules that are targeted either to cell surface receptors, to the ribosomal catalytic center or to human immunodeficiency virus reverse transcriptase. Bleomycins (BLMs) are a family of naturally occurring glycopeptidic antitumor agents with an inherent selectivity towards cancer cells. DeglycoBLM, which lacks the sugar moiety of bleomycin, has much lower cytotoxicity in cellular assays. A recent study using microbbuble conjugates of BLM and deglycoBLM showed that BLM was able to selectively bind to breast cancer cells, whereas the deglyco analogue was unable to target either the cancer or normal cells. This prompted us to further investigate the role of the carbohydrate moiety in bleomycin. Fluorescent conjugates of BLM, deglycoBLM and the BLM carbohydrate were studied for their ability to target cancer cells. Work presented here describes the synthesis of the fluorescent carbohydrate conjugate. Cell culture assays showed that the sugar moiety was able to selectively target various cancer cells. A second conjugate was prepared to study the importance of the C-3 carbamoyl group present on the mannose residue of the carbohydrate. Three additional fluorescent probes were prepared to improve the uptake of this carbohydrate moiety into cancer cells. Encouraged by the results from the fluorescence experiments, the sugar moiety was conjugated to a cytotoxic molecule to selectively deliver this drug into cancer cells. The nonsense codon suppression technique has enabled researchers to site specifically incorporate noncanonical amino acids into proteins. The amino acids successfully incorporated this way are mostly α-L-amino acids. The non-α-L-amino acids are not utilized as substrates by ribosome catalytic center. Hoping that mutations near the ribosome peptidyltransferase site might alleviate its bias towards α-L-amino acids, a library of modified ribosomes was generated. Analogues of the naturally occurring antibiotic puromycin were used to select promising candidates that would allow incorporation of non-α-L-amino acids into proteins. Syntheses of three different puromycin analogues are described here. The reverse transcriptase enzyme from HIV-1 (HIV-1 RT) has been a popular target of HIV therapeutic agents due to its crucial role in viral replication. The 4-chlorophenyl hydrazone of mesoxalic acid (CPHM) was identified in a screen designed to find inhibitors of strand transfer reactions catalyzed by HIV-1 RT. Our collaborators designed several analogues of CPHM with different substituents on the aromatic ring using molecular docking simulations. Work presented here describes the synthesis of eight different analogues of CPHM.

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2013

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Synthesis of redox-cycling therapeutic agents

Description

Cellular redox phenomena are essential for the life of organisms. Described here is a summary of the synthesis of a number of redox-cycling therapeutic agents. The work centers on the synthesis of antitumor antibiotic bleomycin congeners. In addition, the synthesis

Cellular redox phenomena are essential for the life of organisms. Described here is a summary of the synthesis of a number of redox-cycling therapeutic agents. The work centers on the synthesis of antitumor antibiotic bleomycin congeners. In addition, the synthesis of pyridinol analogues of alpha-tocopherol is also described. The bleomycins (BLMs) are a group of glycopeptide antibiotics that have been used clinically to treat several types of cancers. The antitumor activity of BLM is thought to be related to its degradation of DNA, and possibly RNA. Previous studies have indicated that the methylvalerate subunit of bleomycin plays an important role in facilitating DNA cleavage by bleomycin and deglycobleomycin. A series of methylvalerate analogues have been synthesized and incorporated into deglycobleomycin congeners by the use of solid-phase synthesis. All of the deglycobleomycin analogues were found to effect the relaxation of plasmid DNA. Those analogues having aromatic C4-substituents exhibited cleavage efficiency comparable to that of deglycoBLM A5. Some, but not all, of the deglycoBLM analogues were also capable of mediating sequence-selective DNA cleavage. The second project focused on the synthesis of bicyclic pyridinol analogues of alpha-tocopherol. Bicyclic pyridinol antioxidants have recently been reported to suppress the autoxidation of methyl linoleate more effectively than alpha-tocopherol. However, the complexity of the synthetic routes has hampered their further development as therapeutic agents. Described herein is a concise synthesis of two bicyclic pridinol antioxidants and a facile approach to their derivatives with simple alkyl chains attached to the antioxidant core. These analogues were shown to retain biological activity and exhibit tocopherol-like behaviour.

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2011

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Study of site specific cleavage of strongly bound hairpin DNAs by bleomycin

Description

Natural products that target the DNA of cancer cells have been an important source of knowledge and understanding in the development of anticancer chemotherapeutic agents. Bleomycin (BLM) exemplifies this class of DNA damaging agent. The ability of BLM to chelate

Natural products that target the DNA of cancer cells have been an important source of knowledge and understanding in the development of anticancer chemotherapeutic agents. Bleomycin (BLM) exemplifies this class of DNA damaging agent. The ability of BLM to chelate metal ions and effect oxidative damage of the deoxyribose sugar moiety of DNA has been studied extensively for four decades. Here, the study of BLM A5 was conducted using a previously isolated library of hairpin DNAs found to bind strongly to metal free BLM. The ability of BLM to effect single-stranded was then extensively characterized on both the 3′ and 5′-arms of the hairpin DNAs. The strongly bound DNAs were found to be efficient substrates for Fe·BLM A5-mediated cleavage. Surprisingly, the most prevalent site of damage by BLM was found to be a 5′-AT-3′ dinucleotide sequence. This dinucleotide sequence and others generally not cleaved by BLM when examined using arbitrarily chosen DNA substrate were found in examining the library of ten hairpin DNAs. In total, 111 sites of DNA damage were found to be produced by exposure of the hairpin DNA library to Fe·BLM A5. Also, an assay was developed with which to test the propensity of the hairpin DNAs to undergo double stranded DNA damage. Adapting methods previously described by the Povirk laboratory, one hairpin was characterized using this method. The results were in accordance with those previously reported.

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2011

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Structure activity studies of quinones and analogues

Description

Many natural and synthetic quinones have shown biological and pharmacological activity. Some of them have also shown anticancer activity. Ubiquinone (CoQ10) which is a natural quinone, is a component of the electron transport chain and participates in generation of ATP

Many natural and synthetic quinones have shown biological and pharmacological activity. Some of them have also shown anticancer activity. Ubiquinone (CoQ10) which is a natural quinone, is a component of the electron transport chain and participates in generation of ATP (adenosine triphosphate). Cellular oxidative stress is key feature of many neurodegenerative diseases such as Friedreich's ataxia, Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease. The increased generation of reactive oxygen species damages cell membranes and leads to cell death. Analogues of ubiquinone in the form of pyrimidinols and pyridinols, were effective in protecting Friedreich's ataxia lymphocytes from oxidative stress- induced cell death. There were some structural features which could be identified that should be useful for the design of the analogues for cellular protection against oxidative stress. There are quinones such as doxorubicin, daunomycin and topopyrones which have anticancer activity. Here I evaluated topopyrone analogues which poison both topoisomerases I and II. The topopyrone analogues were lethal to human breast cancer cells, but these analogues were not as potent as camptothecin.

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Date Created
2011