Matching Items (24)

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Structural Health Monitoring of Fiber Reinforced Composite Structures under High Velocity Impact Loads

Description

This thesis encompasses research performed in the focus area of structural health monitoring. More specifically, this research focuses on high velocity impact testing of carbon fiber reinforced structures, especially plates,

This thesis encompasses research performed in the focus area of structural health monitoring. More specifically, this research focuses on high velocity impact testing of carbon fiber reinforced structures, especially plates, and evaluating the damage post-impact. To this end, various non-destructive evaluation techniques such as ultrasonic C-scan testing and flash thermography were utilized for post-impact analysis. MATLAB algorithms were written and refined for the localization and quantification of damage in plates using data from sensors such as piezoelectric and fiber Bragg gratings sensors. Throughout the thesis, the general plate theory and laminate plate theory, the operations and optimization of the gas gun, and the theory used for the damage localization algorithms will be discussed. Additional quantifiable results are to come in future semesters of experimentation, but this thesis outlines the framework upon which all the research will continue to advance.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2016-05

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STRUCTURAL HEALTH MONITORING OF FIBER REINFORCED COMPOSITE STRUCTURES UNDER HIGH VELOCITY IMPACT LOADS

Description

This thesis encompasses research performed in the focus area of structural health monitoring. More specifically, this research focuses on high velocity impact testing of carbon fiber reinforced structures, especially plates,

This thesis encompasses research performed in the focus area of structural health monitoring. More specifically, this research focuses on high velocity impact testing of carbon fiber reinforced structures, especially plates, and evaluating the damage post-impact. To this end, various non-destructive evaluation techniques such as ultrasonic C-scan testing and flash thermography were utilized for post-impact analysis. MATLAB algorithms were written and refined for the localization and quantification of damage in plates using data from sensors such as piezoelectric and fiber Bragg gratings sensors. Throughout the thesis, the general plate theory and laminate plate theory, the operations and optimization of the gas gun, and the theory used for the damage localization algorithms will be discussed. Additional quantifiable results are to come in future semesters of experimentation, but this thesis outlines the framework upon which all the research will continue to advance.

Contributors

Created

Date Created
  • 2015-05

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The Manufacturing and Effects of Core Geometry in 3D Printed Fuel Grains

Description

The standard for hybrid fuel grains is Hydroxyl-terminated polybutadiene (HTPB). With the advances in additive manufacturing, the promise of 3D printed fuel grains has become a possibility. Yet, 3D printed

The standard for hybrid fuel grains is Hydroxyl-terminated polybutadiene (HTPB). With the advances in additive manufacturing, the promise of 3D printed fuel grains has become a possibility. Yet, 3D printed grains do not have as good of a regression rate as the casted HTPB grains. However, with 3D printing, the core of these grains can be printed to maximize surface area in contact with the oxidizer. The goal of this research is to print hybrid rocket fuel grains with various core geometries and test them on a small-scale hybrid test stand. While the hot fires are still under testing at the time of this abstract, the manufacturing posed an interesting outcome, being more time intensive than expected, contradicting the initial hypothesis of faster manufacturing. Future endeavors will continue research into the cores of the 3D printed grains, possible multi-material made grains and creating core structures for HTPB grains from 3D printed materials.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2019-05

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Sensing and knowledge mining for structural health management

Description

Current economic conditions necessitate the extension of service lives for a variety of aerospace systems. As a result, there is an increased need for structural health management (SHM) systems to

Current economic conditions necessitate the extension of service lives for a variety of aerospace systems. As a result, there is an increased need for structural health management (SHM) systems to increase safety, extend life, reduce maintenance costs, and minimize downtime, lowering life cycle costs for these aging systems. The implementation of such a system requires a collaborative research effort in a variety of areas such as novel sensing techniques, robust algorithms for damage interrogation, high fidelity probabilistic progressive damage models, and hybrid residual life estimation models. This dissertation focuses on the sensing and damage estimation aspects of this multidisciplinary topic for application in metallic and composite material systems. The primary means of interrogating a structure in this work is through the use of Lamb wave propagation which works well for the thin structures used in aerospace applications. Piezoelectric transducers (PZTs) were selected for this application since they can be used as both sensors and actuators of guided waves. Placement of these transducers is an important issue in wave based approaches as Lamb waves are sensitive to changes in material properties, geometry, and boundary conditions which may obscure the presence of damage if they are not taken into account during sensor placement. The placement scheme proposed in this dissertation arranges piezoelectric transducers in a pitch-catch mode so the entire structure can be covered using a minimum number of sensors. The stress distribution of the structure is also considered so PZTs are placed in regions where they do not fail before the host structure. In order to process the data from these transducers, advanced signal processing techniques are employed to detect the presence of damage in complex structures. To provide a better estimate of the damage for accurate life estimation, machine learning techniques are used to classify the type of damage in the structure. A data structure analysis approach is used to reduce the amount of data collected and increase computational efficiency. In the case of low velocity impact damage, fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensors were used with a nonlinear regression tool to reconstruct the loading at the impact site.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2011

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Design and analysis of stop-rotor multimode unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV)

Description

The objective of this work is to develop a Stop-Rotor Multimode UAV. This UAV is capable of vertical take-off and landing like a helicopter and can convert from a helicopter

The objective of this work is to develop a Stop-Rotor Multimode UAV. This UAV is capable of vertical take-off and landing like a helicopter and can convert from a helicopter mode to an airplane mode in mid-flight. Thus, this UAV can hover as a helicopter and achieve high mission range of an airplane. The stop-rotor concept implies that in mid-flight the lift generating helicopter rotor stops and rotates the blades into airplane wings. The thrust in airplane mode is then provided by a pusher propeller. The aircraft configuration presents unique challenges in flight dynamics, modeling and control. In this thesis a mathematical model along with the design and simulations of a hover control will be presented. In addition, the discussion of the performance in fixed-wing flight, and the autopilot architecture of the UAV will be presented. Also presented, are some experimental "conversion" results where the Stop-Rotor aircraft was dropped from a hot air balloon and performed a successful conversion from helicopter to airplane mode.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2011

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Feasibility of a negative pressure system to remove smoke from an aircraft flight deck

Description

Smoke entering a flight deck cabin has been an issue for commercial aircraft for many years. The issue for a flight crew is how to mitigate the smoke so that

Smoke entering a flight deck cabin has been an issue for commercial aircraft for many years. The issue for a flight crew is how to mitigate the smoke so that they can safely fly the aircraft. For this thesis, the feasibility of having a Negative Pressure System that utilizes the cabin altitude pressure and outside altitude pressure to remove smoke from a flight deck was studied. Existing procedures for flight crews call for a descent down to a safe level for depressurizing the aircraft before taking further action. This process takes crucial time that is critical to the flight crew's ability to keep aware of the situation. This process involves a flight crews coordination and fast thinking to manually take control of the aircraft; which has become increasing more difficult due to the advancements in aircraft automation. Unfortunately this is the only accepted procedure that is used by a flight crew. Other products merely displace the smoke. This displacement is after the time it takes for the flight crew to set up the smoke displacement unit with no guarantee that a flight crew will be able to see or use all of the aircraft's controls. The Negative Pressure System will work automatically and not only use similar components already found on the aircraft, but work in conjunction with the smoke detection system and pressurization system so smoke removal can begin without having to descend down to a lower altitude. In order for this system to work correctly many factors must be taken into consideration. The size of a flight deck varies from aircraft to aircraft, therefore the ability for the system to efficiently remove smoke from an aircraft is taken into consideration. For the system to be feasible on an aircraft the cost and weight must be taken into consideration as the added fuel consumption due to weight of the system may be the limiting factor for installing such a system on commercial aircraft.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2013

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Integrated structural health management of complex carbon fiber reinforced composite structures

Description

Structural health management (SHM) is emerging as a vital methodology to help engineers improve the safety and maintainability of critical structures. SHM systems are designed to reliably monitor and test

Structural health management (SHM) is emerging as a vital methodology to help engineers improve the safety and maintainability of critical structures. SHM systems are designed to reliably monitor and test the health and performance of structures in aerospace, civil, and mechanical engineering applications. SHM combines multidisciplinary technologies including sensing, signal processing, pattern recognition, data mining, high fidelity probabilistic progressive damage models, physics based damage models, and regression analysis. Due to the wide application of carbon fiber reinforced composites and their multiscale failure mechanisms, it is necessary to emphasize the research of SHM on composite structures. This research develops a comprehensive framework for the damage detection, localization, quantification, and prediction of the remaining useful life of complex composite structures. To interrogate a composite structure, guided wave propagation is applied to thin structures such as beams and plates. Piezoelectric transducers are selected because of their versatility, which allows them to be used as sensors and actuators. Feature extraction from guided wave signals is critical to demonstrate the presence of damage and estimate the damage locations. Advanced signal processing techniques are employed to extract robust features and information. To provide a better estimate of the damage for accurate life estimation, probabilistic regression analysis is used to obtain a prediction model for the prognosis of complex structures subject to fatigue loading. Special efforts have been applied to the extension of SHM techniques on aerospace and spacecraft structures, such as UAV composite wings and deployable composite boom structures. Necessary modifications of the developed SHM techniques were conducted to meet the unique requirements of the aerospace structures. The developed SHM algorithms are able to accurately detect and quantify impact damages as well as matrix cracking introduced.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2012

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Multiscale modeling of advanced materials for damage prediction and structural health monitoring

Description

Advanced aerospace materials, including fiber reinforced polymer and ceramic matrix composites, are increasingly being used in critical and demanding applications, challenging the current damage prediction, detection, and quantification methodologies. Multiscale

Advanced aerospace materials, including fiber reinforced polymer and ceramic matrix composites, are increasingly being used in critical and demanding applications, challenging the current damage prediction, detection, and quantification methodologies. Multiscale computational models offer key advantages over traditional analysis techniques and can provide the necessary capabilities for the development of a comprehensive virtual structural health monitoring (SHM) framework. Virtual SHM has the potential to drastically improve the design and analysis of aerospace components through coupling the complementary capabilities of models able to predict the initiation and propagation of damage under a wide range of loading and environmental scenarios, simulate interrogation methods for damage detection and quantification, and assess the health of a structure. A major component of the virtual SHM framework involves having micromechanics-based multiscale composite models that can provide the elastic, inelastic, and damage behavior of composite material systems under mechanical and thermal loading conditions and in the presence of microstructural complexity and variability. Quantification of the role geometric and architectural variability in the composite microstructure plays in the local and global composite behavior is essential to the development of appropriate scale-dependent unit cells and boundary conditions for the multiscale model. Once the composite behavior is predicted and variability effects assessed, wave-based SHM simulation models serve to provide knowledge on the probability of detection and characterization accuracy of damage present in the composite. The research presented in this dissertation provides the foundation for a comprehensive SHM framework for advanced aerospace materials. The developed models enhance the prediction of damage formation as a result of ceramic matrix composite processing, improve the understanding of the effects of architectural and geometric variability in polymer matrix composites, and provide an accurate and computational efficient modeling scheme for simulating guided wave excitation, propagation, interaction with damage, and sensing in a range of materials. The methodologies presented in this research represent substantial progress toward the development of an accurate and generalized virtual SHM framework.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2015

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Systems health management and prognosis using physics based modeling and machine learning

Description

There is a concerted effort in developing robust systems health monitoring/management (SHM) technology as a means to reduce the life cycle costs, improve availability, extend life and minimize downtime of

There is a concerted effort in developing robust systems health monitoring/management (SHM) technology as a means to reduce the life cycle costs, improve availability, extend life and minimize downtime of various platforms including aerospace and civil infrastructure. The implementation of a robust SHM system requires a collaborative effort in a variety of areas such as sensor development, damage detection and localization, physics based models, and prognosis models for residual useful life (RUL) estimation. Damage localization and prediction is further complicated by geometric, material, loading, and environmental variabilities. Therefore, it is essential to develop robust SHM methodologies by taking into account such uncertainties. In this research, damage localization and RUL estimation of two different physical systems are addressed: (i) fatigue crack propagation in metallic materials under complex multiaxial loading and (ii) temporal scour prediction near bridge piers. With little modifications, the methodologies developed can be applied to other systems.

Current practice in fatigue life prediction is based on either physics based modeling or data-driven methods, and is limited to predicting RUL for simple geometries under uniaxial loading conditions. In this research, crack initiation and propagation behavior under uniaxial and complex biaxial fatigue loading is addressed. The crack propagation behavior is studied by performing extensive material characterization and fatigue testing under in-plane biaxial loading, both in-phase and out-of-phase, with different biaxiality ratios. A hybrid prognosis model, which combines machine learning with physics based modeling, is developed to account for the uncertainties in crack propagation and fatigue life prediction due to variabilities in material microstructural characteristics, crack localization information and environmental changes. The methodology iteratively combines localization information with hybrid prognosis models using sequential Bayesian techniques. The results show significant improvements in the localization and prediction accuracy under varying temperature.

For civil infrastructure, especially bridges, pier scour is a major failure mechanism. Currently available techniques are developed from a design perspective and provide highly conservative scour estimates. In this research, a fully probabilistic scour prediction methodology is developed using machine learning to accurately predict scour in real-time under varying flow conditions.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2016

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Novel Methodology for Atomistically Informed Multiscale Modeling of Advanced Composites

Description

With the maturity of advanced composites as feasible structural materials for various applications there is a critical need to solve the challenge of designing these material systems for optimal performance.

With the maturity of advanced composites as feasible structural materials for various applications there is a critical need to solve the challenge of designing these material systems for optimal performance. However, determining superior design methods requires a deep understanding of the material-structure properties at various length scales. Due to the length-scale dependent behavior of advanced composites, multiscale modeling techniques may be used to describe the dominant mechanisms of damage and failure in these material systems. With polymer matrix fiber composites and nanocomposites it becomes essential to include even the atomic length scale, where the resin-hardener-nanofiller molecules interact, in the multiscale modeling framework. Additionally, sources of variability are also critical to be included in these models due to the important role of uncertainty in advance composite behavior. Such a methodology should be able to describe length scale dependent mechanisms in a computationally efficient manner for the analysis of practical composite structures.

In the research presented in this dissertation, a comprehensive nano to macro multiscale framework is developed for the mechanical and multifunctional analysis of advanced composite materials and structures. An atomistically informed statistical multiscale model is developed for linear problems, to estimate and scale elastic properties of carbon fiber reinforced polymer composites (CFRPs) and carbon nanotube (CNT) enhanced CFRPs using information from molecular dynamics simulation of the resin-hardener-nanofiller nanoscale system. For modeling inelastic processes, an atomistically informed coupled damage-plasticity model is developed using the framework of continuum damage mechanics, where fundamental nanoscale covalent bond disassociation information is scaled up as a continuum scale damage identifying parameter. This damage model is coupled with a nanocomposite microstructure generation algorithm to study the sub-microscale damage mechanisms in CNT/CFRP microstructures. It is further integrated in a generalized method of cells (GMC) micromechanics model to create a low-fidelity computationally efficient nonlinear multiscale method with imperfect interfaces between the fiber and matrix, where the interface behavior is adopted from nanoscale MD simulations. This algorithm is used to understand damage mechanisms in adhesively bonded composite joints as a case study for the comprehensive nano to macroscale structural analysis of practical composites structures. At each length scale sources of variability are identified, characterized, and included in the multiscale modeling framework.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2018