Matching Items (45)

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Serum Amyloid A Truncations in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

Description

Serum Amyloid A (SAA) is an acute phase protein complex consisting of several abundant isoforms. The N- terminus of SAA is critical to its function in amyloid formation. SAA is

Serum Amyloid A (SAA) is an acute phase protein complex consisting of several abundant isoforms. The N- terminus of SAA is critical to its function in amyloid formation. SAA is frequently truncated, either missing an arginine or an arginine-serine dipeptide, resulting in isoforms that may influence the capacity to form amyloid. However, the relative abundance of truncated SAA in diabetes and chronic kidney disease is not known.
Methods
Using mass spectrometric immunoassay, the abundance of SAA truncations relative to the native variants was examined in plasma of 91 participants with type 2 diabetes and chronic kidney disease and 69 participants without diabetes.
Results
The ratio of SAA 1.1 (missing N-terminal arginine) to native SAA 1.1 was lower in diabetics compared to non-diabetics (p = 0.004), and in males compared to females (p<0.001). This ratio was negatively correlated with glycated hemoglobin (r = −0.32, p<0.001) and triglyceride concentrations (r = −0.37, p<0.001), and positively correlated with HDL cholesterol concentrations (r = 0.32, p<0.001).
Conclusion
The relative abundance of the N-terminal arginine truncation of SAA1.1 is significantly decreased in diabetes and negatively correlates with measures of glycemic and lipid control.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2015-01-21

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Parallel Workflow for High-Throughput (>1,000 Samples/Day) Quantitative Analysis of Human Insulin-Like Growth Factor 1 Using Mass Spectrometric Immunoassay

Description

Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) is an important biomarker for the management of growth hormone disorders. Recently there has been rising interest in deploying mass spectrometric (MS) methods of detection

Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) is an important biomarker for the management of growth hormone disorders. Recently there has been rising interest in deploying mass spectrometric (MS) methods of detection for measuring IGF1. However, widespread clinical adoption of any MS-based IGF1 assay will require increased throughput and speed to justify the costs of analyses, and robust industrial platforms that are reproducible across laboratories. Presented here is an MS-based quantitative IGF1 assay with performance rating of >1,000 samples/day, and a capability of quantifying IGF1 point mutations and posttranslational modifications. The throughput of the IGF1 mass spectrometric immunoassay (MSIA) benefited from a simplified sample preparation step, IGF1 immunocapture in a tip format, and high-throughput MALDI-TOF MS analysis. The Limit of Detection and Limit of Quantification of the resulting assay were 1.5 μg/L and 5 μg/L, respectively, with intra- and inter-assay precision CVs of less than 10%, and good linearity and recovery characteristics. The IGF1 MSIA was benchmarked against commercially available IGF1 ELISA via Bland-Altman method comparison test, resulting in a slight positive bias of 16%. The IGF1 MSIA was employed in an optimized parallel workflow utilizing two pipetting robots and MALDI-TOF-MS instruments synced into one-hour phases of sample preparation, extraction and MSIA pipette tip elution, MS data collection, and data processing. Using this workflow, high-throughput IGF1 quantification of 1,054 human samples was achieved in approximately 9 hours. This rate of assaying is a significant improvement over existing MS-based IGF1 assays, and is on par with that of the enzyme-based immunoassays. Furthermore, a mutation was detected in ∼1% of the samples (SNP: rs17884626, creating an A→T substitution at position 67 of the IGF1), demonstrating the capability of IGF1 MSIA to detect point mutations and posttranslational modifications.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2014-03-24

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A Multidisciplinary Biospecimen Bank of Renal Cell Carcinomas Compatible with Discovery Platforms at Mayo Clinic, Scottsdale, Arizona

Description

To address the need to study frozen clinical specimens using next-generation RNA, DNA, chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) sequencing and protein analyses, we developed a biobank work flow to prospectively collect biospecimens

To address the need to study frozen clinical specimens using next-generation RNA, DNA, chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) sequencing and protein analyses, we developed a biobank work flow to prospectively collect biospecimens from patients with renal cell carcinoma (RCC). We describe our standard operating procedures and work flow to annotate pathologic results and clinical outcomes. We report quality control outcomes and nucleic acid yields of our RCC submissions (N=16) to The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) project, as well as newer discovery platforms, by describing mass spectrometry analysis of albumin oxidation in plasma and 6 ChIP sequencing libraries generated from nephrectomy specimens after histone H3 lysine 36 trimethylation (H3K36me3) immunoprecipitation. From June 1, 2010, through January 1, 2013, we enrolled 328 patients with RCC. Our mean (SD) TCGA RNA integrity numbers (RINs) were 8.1 (0.8) for papillary RCC, with a 12.5% overall rate of sample disqualification for RIN <7. Banked plasma had significantly less albumin oxidation (by mass spectrometry analysis) than plasma kept at 25°C (P<.001). For ChIP sequencing, the FastQC score for average read quality was at least 30 for 91% to 95% of paired-end reads. In parallel, we analyzed frozen tissue by RNA sequencing; after genome alignment, only 0.2% to 0.4% of total reads failed the default quality check steps of Bowtie2, which was comparable to the disqualification ratio (0.1%) of the 786-O RCC cell line that was prepared under optimal RNA isolation conditions. The overall correlation coefficients for gene expression between Mayo Clinic vs TCGA tissues ranged from 0.75 to 0.82. These data support the generation of high-quality nucleic acids for genomic analyses from banked RCC. Importantly, the protocol does not interfere with routine clinical care. Collections over defined time points during disease treatment further enhance collaborative efforts to integrate genomic information with outcomes.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2015-07-16

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Ebselen inhibits QSOX1 enzymatic activity and suppresses invasion of pancreatic and renal cancer cell lines

Description

Quiescin sulfhydryl oxidase 1 (QSOX1) is a highly conserved disulfide bond-generating enzyme that is overexpressed in diverse tumor types. Its enzymatic activity promotes the growth and invasion of tumor cells

Quiescin sulfhydryl oxidase 1 (QSOX1) is a highly conserved disulfide bond-generating enzyme that is overexpressed in diverse tumor types. Its enzymatic activity promotes the growth and invasion of tumor cells and alters extracellular matrix composition. In a nude mouse-human tumor xenograft model, tumors containing shRNA for QSOX1 grew significantly more slowly than controls, suggesting that QSOX1 supports a proliferative phenotype in vivo. High throughput screening experiments identified ebselen as an in vitro inhibitor of QSOX1 enzymatic activity. Ebselen treatment of pancreatic and renal cancer cell lines stalled tumor growth and inhibited invasion through Matrigel in vitro. Daily oral treatment with ebselen resulted in a 58% reduction in tumor growth in mice bearing human pancreatic tumor xenografts compared to controls. Mass spectrometric analysis of ebselen-treated QSOX1 mechanistically revealed that C165 and C237 of QSOX1 covalently bound to ebselen. This report details the anti-neoplastic properties of ebselen in pancreatic and renal cancer cell lines. The results here offer a “proof-of-principle” that enzymatic inhibition of QSOX1 may have clinical relevancy.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2015-06-01

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The Effects of Norepinephrine on Diet Induced Thermogenesis.

Description

Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is thought to be important in combating obesity as it can expend energy in the form of heat, e.g. thermogenesis. The goal of this study was

Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is thought to be important in combating obesity as it can expend energy in the form of heat, e.g. thermogenesis. The goal of this study was to study the effect of injected norepinephrine (NE) on the activation of BAT in rats that were fed a high fat diet (HFD). A dose of 0.25 mg/kg NE was used to elicit a temperature response that was measured using transponders inserted subcutaneously over the BAT and lower back and intraperitoneally to measure the core temperature. The results found that the thermic effect of the BAT increased after the transition from low fat diet to a high fat diet (LFD) yet, after prolonged exposure to the HFD, the effects resembled levels found with the LFD. This suggests that while a HFD may stimulate the effect of BAT, long term exposure may have adverse effects on BAT activity. This may be due to internal factors that will need to be examined further.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2017-05

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Alternative Plate-based MSIA Protein Analysis Technique

Description

Biomarkers are the cornerstone of modern-day medicine. They are defined as any biological substance in or outside the body that gives insight to the body's condition. Doctors and researchers can

Biomarkers are the cornerstone of modern-day medicine. They are defined as any biological substance in or outside the body that gives insight to the body's condition. Doctors and researchers can measure specific biomarkers to diagnose and treat patients, such as the concentration of hemoglobin Alc and its connection to diabetes. There are a variety of methods, or assays, to detect biomarkers, but the most common assay is enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). A new-generation assay termed mass spectrometric immunoassay (MSIA) can measure proteoforms, the different chemical variations of proteins, and their relative abundance. ELISA on the other hand measures the overall concentration of protein in the sample. Measuring each of the proteoforms of a protein is important because only one or two variations could be biologically significant and/or cause diseases. However, running MSIA is expensive. For this reason, an alternative plate-based MSIA technique was tested for its ability to detect the proteoforms of a protein called apolipoprotein C-III (ApoC-III). This technique combines the protein capturing procedure of ELISA to isolate the protein with detection in a mass spectrometer. A larger amount of ApoC-III present in the body indicates a considerable risk for coronary heart disease. The precision of the assay is determined on the coefficient of variation (CV). A CV value is the ratio of standard deviation in relation to the mean, represented as a percentage. The smaller the percentage, the less variation the assay has, and therefore the more ability it has to detect subtle changes in the biomarker. An accepted CV would be less than 10% for single-day tests (intra-day) and less than 15% for multi-day tests (inter-day). The plate-based MSIA was started by first coating a 96-well round bottom plate with 2.5 micrograms of ApoC-III antibody. Next, a series of steps were conducted: a buffer wash, then the sample incubation, followed by another buffer wash and two consecutive water washes. After the final wash, the wells were filled with a MALDI matrix, then spotted onto a gold plate to dry. The dry gold target was then placed into a MALDI-TOF mass spectrometer to produce mass spectra for each spot. The mass spectra were calibrated and the area underneath each of the four peaks representing the ApoC-III proteoforms was exported as an Excel file. The intra-day CV values were found by dividing the standard deviation by the average relative abundance of each peak. After repeating the same procedure for three more days, the inter-day CVs were found using the same method. After completing the experiment, the CV values were all within the acceptable guidelines. Therefore, the plate-based MSIA is a viable alternative for finding proteoforms than the more expensive MSIA tips. To further validate this, additional tests will need to be conducted with different proteins and number of samples to determine assay flexibility.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2017-12

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Multiplexed, In-Solution Protein Array (MISPA) for Identification of Novel Protein Interactions and Early Detection of Pathogen Induced Cancers

Description

Disturbances in the protein interactome often play a large role in cancer progression. Investigation of protein-protein interactions (PPI) can increase our understanding of cancer pathways and will disclose unknown targets

Disturbances in the protein interactome often play a large role in cancer progression. Investigation of protein-protein interactions (PPI) can increase our understanding of cancer pathways and will disclose unknown targets involved in cancer disease biology. Although numerous methods are available to study protein interactions, most platforms suffer from drawbacks including high false positive rates, low throughput, and lack of quantification. Moreover, most methods are not compatible for use in a clinical setting. To address these limitations, we have developed a multiplexed, in-solution protein microarray (MISPA) platform with broad applications in proteomics. MISPA can be used to quantitatively profile PPIs and as a robust technology for early detection of cancers. This method utilizes unique DNA barcoding of individual proteins coupled with next generation sequencing to quantitatively assess interactions via barcode enrichment. We have tested the feasibility of this technology in the detection of patient immune responses to oropharyngeal carcinomas and in the discovery of novel PPIs in the B-cell receptor (BCR) pathway. To achieve this goal, 96 human papillomavirus (HPV) antigen genes were cloned into pJFT7-cHalo (99% success) and pJFT7-n3xFlag-Halo (100% success) expression vectors. These libraries were expressed via a cell-free in vitro transcription-translation system with 93% and 96% success, respectively. A small-scale study of patient serum interactions with barcoded HPV16 antigens was performed and a HPV proteome-wide study will follow using additional patient samples. In addition, 15 query proteins were cloned into pJFT7_nGST expression vectors, expressed, and purified with 93% success to probe a library of 100 BCR pathway proteins and detect novel PPIs.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2016-12

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The Focusing of Proteins Using Dielectrophoresis in an Improved Microfluidic Device

Description

Dielectrophoresis is a separations strategy that has the potential to separate small amounts of different proteins from each other. The forces at play in the channel used for dielectrophoresis are

Dielectrophoresis is a separations strategy that has the potential to separate small amounts of different proteins from each other. The forces at play in the channel used for dielectrophoresis are electroosmotic flow (EOF), electrophoresis (EP), and dielectrophoresis (DEP). EOF is the force exerted on liquid from an applied potential (1). EP is the force exerted on charged particles in a uniform electric field (2). DEP is the force exerted on particles (charged and uncharged) in a non-uniform electric field (3). This experiment was focused on the testing of a new microfluidic device to see if it could improve the focusing of proteins in dielectrophoresis. It was predicted that the addition of a salt bridge would improve focusing by preventing the ions created by the electrolysis of water around the electrodes from interacting with the proteins and causing aggregation, among other problems. Control trials using the old device showed that electrolysis was likely occurring and was the causal agent for poor outcomes. After applying the electric potential for some time a pH front traveled through the channel causing aggregation of proteins and the current in the channel decreased rapidly, even while the voltage was held constant. The resistance in the channels of the control trials also slightly decreased over time, until the pH shift occurred, at which time it increased rapidly. Experimental trials with a new device that included salt bridges eliminated this pH front and had a roughly linear increase of current in the channel with the voltage applied. This device can now be used in future research with protein dielectrophoresis, including in the potential differentiation of different proteins. References: 1) Electroosmosis. Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology. 2. Oxford University Press: Oxford, England. 2006. 2) Electrophoresis. Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology. 2. Oxford University Press: Oxford, England. 2006. 3) Dielectrophoresis. Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology. 2. Oxford University Press: Oxford, England. 2006.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2016-05

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Investigating geopolymer-mediated adsorption of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus cells and secreted proteins

Description

The rise in community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections and the ability of the organism to develop resistance to antibiotics necessitate new treatment methods for MRSA. Geopolymers (GPs) are cheap,

The rise in community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections and the ability of the organism to develop resistance to antibiotics necessitate new treatment methods for MRSA. Geopolymers (GPs) are cheap, porous materials that have demonstrated adsorptive capabilities. In this study, GPs were investigated for their ability to adsorb whole MRSA cells and MRSA secreted proteins [culture filtrate proteins (CFPs)] as a complementary method of controlling MRSA infections. GPs have been synthesized with variable pore sizes (meso/macro scale) and further modified with stearic acid (SA) to increase surface hydrophobicity. Four GPs (SA-macroGP, macroGP, SA-mesoGP, and mesoGP) were incubated with whole cells and with CFPs to quantify GP adsorption capabilities. Following MRSA culture incubation with GPs, unbound MRSA cells were filtered and plated to determine cell counts. Following CFP incubation with GPs, unbound CFPs were separated via SDS-PAGE, stained with SYPRO Ruby, and analyzed using densitometry. Results indicate that macroGP was the most effective at adsorbing whole MRSA cells. Visual banding patterns and densitometry quantitation indicate that SA-mesoGP was the most effective at adsorbing CFP. Ultimately, GP-based products may be further developed as nonselective or selective adsorbents and integrated into fibrous materials for topical applications.

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Date Created
  • 2020-05

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Evaluating the utility of blood glycan levels as predictors of stage I adenocarcinoma using support vector machines.

Description

Aberrant glycosylation has been shown to be linked to specific cancers, and using this idea, it was proposed that the levels of glycans in the blood could predict stage I

Aberrant glycosylation has been shown to be linked to specific cancers, and using this idea, it was proposed that the levels of glycans in the blood could predict stage I adenocarcinoma. To track this glycosylation, glycan were broken down into glycan nodes via methylation analysis. This analysis utilized information from N-, O-, and lipid linked glycans detected from gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The resulting glycan node-ratios represent the initial quantitative data that were used in this experiment.
For this experiment, two Sets of 50 µl blood plasma samples were provided by NYU Medical School. These samples were then analyzed by Dr. Borges’s lab so that they contained normalized biomarker levels from patients with stage 1 adenocarcinoma and control patients with matched age, smoking status, and gender were examined. An ROC curve was constructed under individual and paired conditions and AUC calculated in Wolfram Mathematica 10.2. Methods such as increasing size of training set, using hard vs. soft margins, and processing biomarkers together and individually were used in order to increase the AUC. Using a soft margin for this particular data set was proved to be most useful compared to the initial set hard margin, raising the AUC from 0.6013 to 0.6585. In regards to which biomarkers yielded the better value, 6-Glc/6-Man and 3,6-Gal glycan node ratios had the best with 0.7687 AUC and a sensitivity of .7684 and specificity of .6051. While this is not enough accuracy to become a primary diagnostic tool for diagnosing stage I adenocarcinoma, the methods examined in the paper should be evaluated further. . By comparison, the current clinical standard blood test for prostate cancer that has an AUC of only 0.67.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2016-05