Matching Items (54)

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Proxy Assessment of Biospecimen Exposure to Thawed Conditions via Direct Fluorescence Visualization

Description

In the development of personalized medicine and many other clinical studies, biospecimen integrity serves as the prerequisite for not only the accurate derivation of patient- and disease-specific molecular data from biological specimens but the meaningful downstream validation of biomarkers. However,

In the development of personalized medicine and many other clinical studies, biospecimen integrity serves as the prerequisite for not only the accurate derivation of patient- and disease-specific molecular data from biological specimens but the meaningful downstream validation of biomarkers. However, a large number of preanalytical variables may influence the quality of biospecimens in an undesired way and ultimately render the samples unsuitable for molecular analysis. The limited ability to directly reduce discrepancies caused by preanalytical variables gives rise to the need for development and retrospective application of appropriate tests for assessment of biospecimen integrity. Nevertheless, the most standard approaches to assessing biospecimen integrity involve nontrivial procedures. Thus, the need for quality control tools or tests that are readily applicable and can produce results in a straightforward way becomes critical. As one of the major ex vivo biomolecular degradation mechanisms, oxidation that occurs when blood plasma and serum samples are exposed to thawed states during storage and processing is hard to forestall and detect. In an attempt to easily detect and monitor the degree of oxidation, the technique of Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) was examined to determine whether this concept could be employed to monitor exposure of samples to thawed conditions when controlled by spontaneous oxidative disulfide bonding. The intended mode of usage was envisioned as a fluorescence liquid being stored in a separate compartment but within the same test tube as archived plasma and serum samples. This would allow the assessment of sample integrity by direct visualization of fluorescence under a hand-held black light. The fluorescent dynamic range as well as kinetic control of the reaction were studied. While the addition of Cu(II) proved to facilitate excellent dynamic range with regard to fluorescence quenching, the kinetics of the reaction were too rapid for practical use. Further investigation revealed that the fluorescence quenching mechanism might have actually occurred via Intramolecular Charge Transfer (ICT) rather than FRET mediated by oxidative disulfide bond formation. Introduction of Cu(II) via copper metal slowed fluorescence quenching to the point of practical utility; facilitating demonstration that storing at room temperature, refrigerating or freezing the samples delayed fluorescence quenching to different extents. To establish better kinetic control, future works will focus on establishing controlled, thoroughly understood kinetic release of Cu(II) from copper metal.

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2018-12

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The Effects of Norepinephrine on Diet Induced Thermogenesis.

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Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is thought to be important in combating obesity as it can expend energy in the form of heat, e.g. thermogenesis. The goal of this study was to study the effect of injected norepinephrine (NE) on the

Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is thought to be important in combating obesity as it can expend energy in the form of heat, e.g. thermogenesis. The goal of this study was to study the effect of injected norepinephrine (NE) on the activation of BAT in rats that were fed a high fat diet (HFD). A dose of 0.25 mg/kg NE was used to elicit a temperature response that was measured using transponders inserted subcutaneously over the BAT and lower back and intraperitoneally to measure the core temperature. The results found that the thermic effect of the BAT increased after the transition from low fat diet to a high fat diet (LFD) yet, after prolonged exposure to the HFD, the effects resembled levels found with the LFD. This suggests that while a HFD may stimulate the effect of BAT, long term exposure may have adverse effects on BAT activity. This may be due to internal factors that will need to be examined further.

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2017-05

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Alternative Plate-based MSIA Protein Analysis Technique

Description

Biomarkers are the cornerstone of modern-day medicine. They are defined as any biological substance in or outside the body that gives insight to the body's condition. Doctors and researchers can measure specific biomarkers to diagnose and treat patients, such as

Biomarkers are the cornerstone of modern-day medicine. They are defined as any biological substance in or outside the body that gives insight to the body's condition. Doctors and researchers can measure specific biomarkers to diagnose and treat patients, such as the concentration of hemoglobin Alc and its connection to diabetes. There are a variety of methods, or assays, to detect biomarkers, but the most common assay is enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). A new-generation assay termed mass spectrometric immunoassay (MSIA) can measure proteoforms, the different chemical variations of proteins, and their relative abundance. ELISA on the other hand measures the overall concentration of protein in the sample. Measuring each of the proteoforms of a protein is important because only one or two variations could be biologically significant and/or cause diseases. However, running MSIA is expensive. For this reason, an alternative plate-based MSIA technique was tested for its ability to detect the proteoforms of a protein called apolipoprotein C-III (ApoC-III). This technique combines the protein capturing procedure of ELISA to isolate the protein with detection in a mass spectrometer. A larger amount of ApoC-III present in the body indicates a considerable risk for coronary heart disease. The precision of the assay is determined on the coefficient of variation (CV). A CV value is the ratio of standard deviation in relation to the mean, represented as a percentage. The smaller the percentage, the less variation the assay has, and therefore the more ability it has to detect subtle changes in the biomarker. An accepted CV would be less than 10% for single-day tests (intra-day) and less than 15% for multi-day tests (inter-day). The plate-based MSIA was started by first coating a 96-well round bottom plate with 2.5 micrograms of ApoC-III antibody. Next, a series of steps were conducted: a buffer wash, then the sample incubation, followed by another buffer wash and two consecutive water washes. After the final wash, the wells were filled with a MALDI matrix, then spotted onto a gold plate to dry. The dry gold target was then placed into a MALDI-TOF mass spectrometer to produce mass spectra for each spot. The mass spectra were calibrated and the area underneath each of the four peaks representing the ApoC-III proteoforms was exported as an Excel file. The intra-day CV values were found by dividing the standard deviation by the average relative abundance of each peak. After repeating the same procedure for three more days, the inter-day CVs were found using the same method. After completing the experiment, the CV values were all within the acceptable guidelines. Therefore, the plate-based MSIA is a viable alternative for finding proteoforms than the more expensive MSIA tips. To further validate this, additional tests will need to be conducted with different proteins and number of samples to determine assay flexibility.

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2017-12

Human Biospecimen Preanalytics

Description

The purpose of this thesis creative project was to create an educational video to present research findings on the increasingly important issue of human biospecimen preanalytic variables. When a human biospecimen, such as blood, urine, or tissue, is removed from

The purpose of this thesis creative project was to create an educational video to present research findings on the increasingly important issue of human biospecimen preanalytic variables. When a human biospecimen, such as blood, urine, or tissue, is removed from the body, it is subjected to a plethora of variables that are not recorded or regulated in a vast majority of cases. Frequently, these samples arrive at the research or pathology lab with an unknown history, then undergo analysis for translational research purposes, or to guide clinical management decisions. Thus, compromised specimen quality caused by preanalytic variables has substantial, and potentially devastating, downstream effects. To identify the preanalytic variables with the greatest impact on blood and tissue specimen quality, 45 articles were gathered using PubMed and Google Scholar databases and cited. Based on the articles, the top five variables with the most detrimental effects were identified for both blood and tissue samples. Multiple sets of parameters ensuring specimen fitness were compared for each of the five variables for each specimen type. Then, specific parameters guaranteeing the fitness of the greatest number of analytes were verified. To present the research findings in greater detail, a paper was written that focused on identifying the top variables and key parameters to ensure analyte fitness. To present the overall issue in an easy-to-digest format, a storyboard and script were created as a guideline for a final video project. Ultimately, two alternate versions of the video were created to pertain to the audience of choice (one version for patients, one version for professionals). It is the hope that these videos will be used as educational tools to continue efforts to standardize and enforce human biospecimen preanalytic variable parameters. This is a necessary step to improve the accuracy of our biomedical research data and the healthcare of patients worldwide.

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2018-12

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Techniques for the Analysis of Cysteine Sulfhydryls and Oxidative Protein Folding

Description

Significance: Modification of cysteine thiols dramatically affects protein function and stability. Hence, the abilities to quantify specific protein sulfhydryl groups within complex biological samples and map disulfide bond structures are crucial to gaining greater insights into how proteins operate in

Significance: Modification of cysteine thiols dramatically affects protein function and stability. Hence, the abilities to quantify specific protein sulfhydryl groups within complex biological samples and map disulfide bond structures are crucial to gaining greater insights into how proteins operate in human health and disease. Recent Advances: Many different molecular probes are now commercially available to label and track cysteine residues at great sensitivity. Coupled with mass spectrometry, stable isotope-labeled sulfhydryl-specific reagents can provide previously unprecedented molecular insights into the dynamics of cysteine modification. Likewise, the combined application of modern mass spectrometers with improved sample preparation techniques and novel data mining algorithms is beginning to routinize the analysis of complex protein disulfide structures. Critical Issues: Proper application of these modern tools and techniques, however, still requires fundamental understanding of sulfhydryl chemistry as well as the assumptions that accompany sample preparation and underlie effective data interpretation. Future Directions: The continued development of tools, technical approaches, and corresponding data processing algorithms will, undoubtedly, facilitate site-specific protein sulfhydryl quantification and disulfide structure analysis from within complex biological mixtures with ever-improving accuracy and sensitivity. Fully routinizing disulfide structure analysis will require an equal but balanced focus on sample preparation and corresponding mass spectral dataset reproducibility.

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2014-07-20

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Mass Spectrometric Immunoassay for the Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis of the Cytokine Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor (MIF)

Description

Background: The cytokine MIF (Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor) has diverse physiological roles and is present at elevated concentrations in numerous disease states. However, its molecular heterogeneity has not been previously investigated in biological samples. Mass Spectrometric Immunoassay (MSIA) may help elucidate

Background: The cytokine MIF (Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor) has diverse physiological roles and is present at elevated concentrations in numerous disease states. However, its molecular heterogeneity has not been previously investigated in biological samples. Mass Spectrometric Immunoassay (MSIA) may help elucidate MIF post-translational modifications existing in vivo and provide additional clarity regarding its relationship to diverse pathologies.

Results: In this work, we have developed and validated a fully quantitative MSIA assay for MIF, and used it in the discovery and quantification of different proteoforms of MIF in serum samples, including cysteinylated and glycated MIF. The MSIA assay had a linear range of 1.56-50 ng/mL, and exhibited good precision, linearity, and recovery characteristics. The new assay was applied to a small cohort of human serum samples, and benchmarked against an MIF ELISA assay.

Conclusions: The quantitative MIF MSIA assay provides a sensitive, precise and high throughput method to delineate and quantify MIF proteoforms in biological samples.

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Date Created
2014-10-14

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Elevated Plasma Albumin and Apolipoprotein A-I Oxidation Under Suboptimal Specimen Storage Conditions

Description

S-cysteinylated albumin and methionine-oxidized apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) have been posed as candidate markers of diseases associated with oxidative stress. Here, a dilute-and-shoot form of LC–electrospray ionization–MS requiring half a microliter of blood plasma was employed to simultaneously quantify the relative

S-cysteinylated albumin and methionine-oxidized apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) have been posed as candidate markers of diseases associated with oxidative stress. Here, a dilute-and-shoot form of LC–electrospray ionization–MS requiring half a microliter of blood plasma was employed to simultaneously quantify the relative abundance of these oxidized proteoforms in samples stored at −80 °C, −20 °C, and room temperature and exposed to multiple freeze-thaw cycles and other adverse conditions in order to assess the possibility that protein oxidation may occur as a result of poor sample storage or handling. Samples from a healthy donor and a participant with poorly controlled type 2 diabetes started at the same low level of protein oxidation and behaved similarly; significant increases in albumin oxidation via S-cysteinylation were found to occur within hours at room temperature and days at −20 °C. Methionine oxidation of apoA-I took place on a longer time scale, setting in after albumin oxidation reached a plateau. Freeze–thaw cycles had a minimal effect on protein oxidation. In matched collections, protein oxidation in serum was the same as that in plasma. Albumin and apoA-I oxidation were not affected by sample headspace or the degree to which vials were sealed. ApoA-I, however, was unexpectedly found to oxidize faster in samples with lower surface-area-to-volume ratios. An initial survey of samples from patients with inflammatory conditions normally associated with elevated oxidative stress-including acute myocardial infarction and prostate cancer—demonstrated a lack of detectable apoA-I oxidation. Albumin S-cysteinylation in these samples was consistent with known but relatively brief exposures to temperatures above −30 °C (the freezing point of blood plasma). Given their properties and ease of analysis, these oxidized proteoforms, once fully validated, may represent the first markers of blood plasma specimen integrity based on direct measurement of oxidative molecular damage that can occur under suboptimal storage conditions.

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Date Created
2014-07-01

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Ebselen Inhibits QSOX1 Enzymatic Activity and Suppresses Invasion of Pancreatic and Renal Cancer Cell Lines

Description

Quiescin sulfhydryl oxidase 1 (QSOX1) is a highly conserved disulfide bond-generating enzyme that is overexpressed in diverse tumor types. Its enzymatic activity promotes the growth and invasion of tumor cells and alters extracellular matrix composition. In a nude mouse-human tumor

Quiescin sulfhydryl oxidase 1 (QSOX1) is a highly conserved disulfide bond-generating enzyme that is overexpressed in diverse tumor types. Its enzymatic activity promotes the growth and invasion of tumor cells and alters extracellular matrix composition. In a nude mouse-human tumor xenograft model, tumors containing shRNA for QSOX1 grew significantly more slowly than controls, suggesting that QSOX1 supports a proliferative phenotype in vivo. High throughput screening experiments identified ebselen as an in vitro inhibitor of QSOX1 enzymatic activity. Ebselen treatment of pancreatic and renal cancer cell lines stalled tumor growth and inhibited invasion through Matrigel in vitro. Daily oral treatment with ebselen resulted in a 58% reduction in tumor growth in mice bearing human pancreatic tumor xenografts compared to controls. Mass spectrometric analysis of ebselen-treated QSOX1 mechanistically revealed that C165 and C237 of QSOX1 covalently bound to ebselen. This report details the anti-neoplastic properties of ebselen in pancreatic and renal cancer cell lines. The results here offer a “proof-of-principle” that enzymatic inhibition of QSOX1 may have clinical relevancy.

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2015-06-01

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The Application of Multiple Reaction Monitoring and Multi-Analyte Profiling to HDL Proteins

Description

Background: HDL carries a rich protein cargo and examining HDL protein composition promises to improve our understanding of its functions. Conventional mass spectrometry methods can be lengthy and difficult to extend to large populations. In addition, without prior enrichment of the

Background: HDL carries a rich protein cargo and examining HDL protein composition promises to improve our understanding of its functions. Conventional mass spectrometry methods can be lengthy and difficult to extend to large populations. In addition, without prior enrichment of the sample, the ability of these methods to detect low abundance proteins is limited. Our objective was to develop a high-throughput approach to examine HDL protein composition applicable to diabetes and cardiovascular disease (CVD).

Methods: We optimized two multiplexed assays to examine HDL proteins using a quantitative immunoassay (Multi-Analyte Profiling- MAP) and mass spectrometric-based quantitative proteomics (Multiple Reaction Monitoring-MRM). We screened HDL proteins using human xMAP (90 protein panel) and MRM (56 protein panel). We extended the application of these two methods to HDL isolated from a group of participants with diabetes and prior cardiovascular events and a group of non-diabetic controls.

Results: We were able to quantitate 69 HDL proteins using MAP and 32 proteins using MRM. For several common proteins, the use of MRM and MAP was highly correlated (p < 0.01). Using MAP, several low abundance proteins implicated in atherosclerosis and inflammation were found on HDL. On the other hand, MRM allowed the examination of several HDL proteins not available by MAP.

Conclusions: MAP and MRM offer a sensitive and high-throughput approach to examine changes in HDL proteins in diabetes and CVD. This approach can be used to measure the presented HDL proteins in large clinical studies.

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Date Created
2014-01-08

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Possibilities and Pitfalls in Quantifying the Extent of Cysteine Sulfenic Acid Modification of Specific Proteins Within Complex Biofluids

Description

Background: Cysteine sulfenic acid (Cys-SOH) plays important roles in the redox regulation of numerous proteins. As a relatively unstable posttranslational protein modification it is difficult to quantify the degree to which any particular protein is modified by Cys-SOH within a complex

Background: Cysteine sulfenic acid (Cys-SOH) plays important roles in the redox regulation of numerous proteins. As a relatively unstable posttranslational protein modification it is difficult to quantify the degree to which any particular protein is modified by Cys-SOH within a complex biological environment. The goal of these studies was to move a step beyond detection and into the relative quantification of Cys-SOH within specific proteins found in a complex biological setting--namely, human plasma.

Results: This report describes the possibilities and limitations of performing such analyses based on the use of thionitrobenzoic acid and dimedone-based probes which are commonly employed to trap Cys-SOH. Results obtained by electrospray ionization-based mass spectrometric immunoassay reveal the optimal type of probe for such analyses as well as the reproducible relative quantification of Cys-SOH within albumin and transthyretin extracted from human plasma--the latter as a protein previously unknown to be modified by Cys-SOH.

Conclusions: The relative quantification of Cys-SOH within specific proteins in a complex biological setting can be accomplished, but several analytical precautions related to trapping, detecting, and quantifying Cys-SOH must be taken into account prior to pursuing its study in such matrices.

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Date Created
2010-07-01