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Aedes aegypti Thermal Choice Experiment

Description

The non-native mosquito Aedes aegypti has become a common nuisance in Maricopa county. Associated with human settlement, Ae. aegypti is known to reproduce in standing water sources both indoors and outdoors, within vessels such as tires, flowerpots, and neglected swimming

The non-native mosquito Aedes aegypti has become a common nuisance in Maricopa county. Associated with human settlement, Ae. aegypti is known to reproduce in standing water sources both indoors and outdoors, within vessels such as tires, flowerpots, and neglected swimming pools (Jansen & Beebe, 2010). Ae. aegypti and the related Ae. albopictus are the primary vectors of the arboviral diseases chikungunya, Zika, yellow fever and dengue. Ae. aegypti tends to blood feed multiple times per gonotrophic cycle (cycle of feeding and egg laying) which, alongside a preference for human blood and close association with human habitation, contributes to an increased risk of Ae. aegypti borne virus transmission (Scott & Takken, 2012). Between 2010-2017, 153 travel-associated cases of dengue were reported in the whole of Arizona (Rivera et al., 2020); while there have been no documented locally transmitted cases of Aedes borne diseases in Maricopa county, there are no apparent reasons why local transmission can’t occur in the future via local Aedes aegypti mosquitoes infected after feeding from travelling viremic hosts. Incidents of local dengue transmission in New York (Rivera et al., 2020) and Barcelona (European Center for Disease Control [ECDC], 2019) suggest that outbreaks of Aedes borne arbovirus’ can occur in regions more temperate than the current endemic range of Aedes borne diseases. Further, while the fact that Ae. aegypti eggs have a high mortality rate when exposed to cold temperatures limits the ability for Ae aegypti to establish stable breeding populations in temperate climates (Thomas, Obermayr, Fischer, Kreyling, & Beierkuhnlein, 2012), global increases in temperature will expand the possible ranges of Ae aegypti and Aedes borne diseases.

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Date Created
2020-05

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The Effect of Maternity Leave Policy on the Health of New Mothers: An Examination of Switzerland

Description

After giving birth, protections are essential to provide a mother with the time and ability to support her new child. There are several considerations for policy makers when they establish a maternity leave policy that best facilitates bonding, wellbeing, and

After giving birth, protections are essential to provide a mother with the time and ability to support her new child. There are several considerations for policy makers when they establish a maternity leave policy that best facilitates bonding, wellbeing, and the health of the mother-infant dyad. Within Switzerland, maternity leave policy permits fourteen-weeks of paid leave, including an optional two week unpaid extension. To understand how Swiss women are experiencing the current maternity leave policy, a scholarly database search was conducted and six interviews were held with stakeholders in Switzerland. Several themes emerged through the interviews, particularly, the mother-infant dyad, and the mental & physical health of the new mother. Stakeholders found the current leave policy within Switzerland may be sufficient, on average, to support women’s physical healing post-birth. However, it may act as a barrier for mental health interventions, and achieving breastfeeding goals which benefit both mother and child. Several stakeholders suggested lengthening maternity leave to remove these barriers. This study emphasizes the need for policy makers to consider the complex impacts of maternity leave policy on not only the health of the child, but also the mother.

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Date Created
2020-05