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The Water Loss and Solar Panel Operating Condition Effects of Using Solar Photovoltaic Panels to Shade a Body of Water

Description

Ensuring that people across the globe have enough water and electricity are two large issues that continue to grow. This study performs a test on whether using solar photovoltaic modules to shade water can potentially help diminish the issues

Ensuring that people across the globe have enough water and electricity are two large issues that continue to grow. This study performs a test on whether using solar photovoltaic modules to shade water can potentially help diminish the issues of water and power. Using the setup of a PV module shading water, a stand-alone PV module, and unshaded water, it was found that shading water can reduce evaporation and lower PV module operating temperature at the same time. Using averaged data from two days of testing, the volume per unit surface area of water that evaporated per hour was 0.319 cm3/cm2 less for the shaded water compared to the unshaded water. The evaporation rates found in the experiment are compared to those of Lake Mead to see the amount of water lost on a large scale. For the operating temperature of the PV module, the module used for shading had a consistently lower temperature than the stand-alone module. On the first day, the shading module had an average temperature 5.1 C lower than the stand-alone module average temperature. On day two, the shading module had an average temperature 3.4 C lower than the stand-alone module average temperature. Using average temperatures between the two days from 10:30am and 4:45pm, the average daily temperature of the panel used for shading was 4.5C less than the temperature of the stand-alone panel. These results prove water shading by solar PV modules to be effective in reducing evaporation and lowering module operating temperature. Last, suggestions for future studies are discussed, such as performance analysis of the PV modules in this setting, economic analysis of using PV modules as shading, and the isolation of the different factors of evaporation (temperature, wind speed, and humidity).

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2019-05

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Lightning Audio: Plasma Arc Speaker Technology and Marketability

Description

The Lightning Audio capstone group, consisting of Brian Boerhinger, Rahul Nandan, Jaime Ramirez, and Niccolo Magnotto (myself), united in the effort to prove the feasibility of a consumer grade plasma arc speaker. This was achieved in group's prototype design, which

The Lightning Audio capstone group, consisting of Brian Boerhinger, Rahul Nandan, Jaime Ramirez, and Niccolo Magnotto (myself), united in the effort to prove the feasibility of a consumer grade plasma arc speaker. This was achieved in group's prototype design, which demonstrates the potential for a refined product in its conventional interfacing, casing, size, safety, and aesthetics. If the potential for an excellent ionization-based loudspeaker product were realized, it would be highly profitable in its reasonable cost of production, novelty, and place in a large and fitting market.

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2014-05

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Lightning Audio Plasma Arc Speakers: Transformer Operation

Description

Lighting Audio is a team of senior electrical engineering students at the Arizona State University mentored by Director Emeritus Professor Ronald Roedel and 2nd Committee Member George Karady attempting to prove the feasibility of a consumer grade plasma arc speaker.

Lighting Audio is a team of senior electrical engineering students at the Arizona State University mentored by Director Emeritus Professor Ronald Roedel and 2nd Committee Member George Karady attempting to prove the feasibility of a consumer grade plasma arc speaker. The plasma arc speaker is a project that explores the use of high voltage arcs to produce audible sound amplification. The goal of the project is to prove feasibility that a consumer grade plasma arc speaker could exist in the marketplace. The inherent challenge was producing audio amplification that could compete with current loudspeakers all while ensuring user safety from the hazards of high voltage and current shock, electromagnetic damage, and ozone from the plasma arc. The project has thus far covered the process of design conception to realization of a prototype device. The operation of the plasma arc speaker is based on the high voltage plasma arc created between two electrodes. The plasma arc rapidly heats and cools the surrounding air creating changes in air pressure which vibrate the air. These pockets of pressurized air are heard as sound. The circuit incorporates a flyback transformer responsible for creating the high voltage necessary for arcing.

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2014-05

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Lightning Audio Plasma Arc Speakers: Transformer Operation

Description

Lighting Audio is a team of senior electrical engineering students at the Arizona State University mentored by Director Emeritus Professor Ronald Roedel and 2nd Committee Member George Karady attempting to prove the feasibility of a consumer grade plasma arc speaker.

Lighting Audio is a team of senior electrical engineering students at the Arizona State University mentored by Director Emeritus Professor Ronald Roedel and 2nd Committee Member George Karady attempting to prove the feasibility of a consumer grade plasma arc speaker. The plasma arc speaker is a project that explores the use of high voltage arcs to produce audible sound amplification. The goal of the project is to prove feasibility that a consumer grade plasma arc speaker could exist in the marketplace. The inherent challenge was producing audio amplification that could compete with current loudspeakers all while ensuring user safety from the hazards of high voltage and current shock, electromagnetic damage, and ozone from the plasma arc. The project has thus far covered the process of design conception to realization of a prototype device. The operation of the plasma arc speaker is based on the high voltage plasma arc created between two electrodes. The plasma arc rapidly heats and cools the surrounding air creating changes in air pressure which vibrate the air. These pockets of pressurized air are heard as sound. The circuit incorporates a flyback transformer responsible for creating the high voltage necessary for arcing.

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Date Created
2014-05

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Signal Modulation in a High Voltage Plasma

Description

A high voltage plasma arc can be created and sustained in air by subjecting the gases to an electric field with high voltage potential, causing ionization. The internal energy of the ionized gases can be transferred to corresponding pressure waves

A high voltage plasma arc can be created and sustained in air by subjecting the gases to an electric field with high voltage potential, causing ionization. The internal energy of the ionized gases can be transferred to corresponding pressure waves when the matter involved switches between the gaseous and plasma states. By pulse-width modulating a transformer driving signal, the transfer of internal electrical energy to resonating pressure waves may be controlled. Audio wave input to the driver signal can then be modulated into the carrier wave and be used to determine the width of each pulse in the plasma, thus reconstructing the audio signal as pressure, or sound waves, as the plasma arc switches on and off. The result will be the audio waveform resonating out of the plasma arc as audible sound, and thus creating a plasma loudspeaker. Theory of operation was tested through construction of a plasma arc speaker, and resultant audio playback was analyzed. This analysis confirmed accurate reproduction of audio signal in audible sound.

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Date Created
2014-05

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An Economic Perspective -- Hybrid Solar Modules: Harnessing Solar Energy for Electrical and Thermal Applications

Description

A hybrid PV/T module was built, consisting of a thermal liquid heating system and a photovoltaic module system that combine in a hybrid format. This report will discuss the work on the project from Fall 2012 to Spring 2013 and

A hybrid PV/T module was built, consisting of a thermal liquid heating system and a photovoltaic module system that combine in a hybrid format. This report will discuss the work on the project from Fall 2012 to Spring 2013 and the extended section on the economics for the Honors Thesis. Three stages of experiments were completed. Stage 1 showed our project was functional as we were able to verify our panel produced electricity and increased the temperature of water flowing in the system by 0.65°C. Stage 2 testing included “gluing” the flow system to the back of the panel resulting in an average increase of 4.76°C in the temperature of the water in the system. Stage 3 testing included adding insulating foam to the module which resulted in increasing the average temperature of the water in our flow system by 6.95°C. The economic calculations show the expected energy cost savings for Arizona residents.

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2013-05

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Dendritic Electrodes as an Alternative Model for Current Collection in Solar Cells

Description

Exploring solar cell model alternatives using electrochemically deposited dendrites as a form of current collection to increase efficiency and top electrode transparency.

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Date Created
2013-05

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Study of charges present in silicon nitride thin films and their effect on silicon solar cell efficiencies

Description

As crystalline silicon solar cells continue to get thinner, the recombination of carriers at the surfaces of the cell plays an ever-important role in controlling the cell efficiency. One tool to minimize surface recombination is field effect passivation from the

As crystalline silicon solar cells continue to get thinner, the recombination of carriers at the surfaces of the cell plays an ever-important role in controlling the cell efficiency. One tool to minimize surface recombination is field effect passivation from the charges present in the thin films applied on the cell surfaces. The focus of this work is to understand the properties of charges present in the SiNx films and then to develop a mechanism to manipulate the polarity of charges to either negative or positive based on the end-application. Specific silicon-nitrogen dangling bonds (·Si-N), known as K center defects, are the primary charge trapping defects present in the SiNx films. A custom built corona charging tool was used to externally inject positive or negative charges in the SiNx film. Detailed Capacitance-Voltage (C-V) measurements taken on corona charged SiNx samples confirmed the presence of a net positive or negative charge density, as high as +/- 8 x 1012 cm-2, present in the SiNx film. High-energy (~ 4.9 eV) UV radiation was used to control and neutralize the charges in the SiNx films. Electron-Spin-Resonance (ESR) technique was used to detect and quantify the density of neutral K0 defects that are paramagnetically active. The density of the neutral K0 defects increased after UV treatment and decreased after high temperature annealing and charging treatments. Etch-back C-V measurements on SiNx films showed that the K centers are spread throughout the bulk of the SiNx film and not just near the SiNx-Si interface. It was also shown that the negative injected charges in the SiNx film were stable and present even after 1 year under indoor room-temperature conditions. Lastly, a stack of SiO2/SiNx dielectric layers applicable to standard commercial solar cells was developed using a low temperature (< 400 °C) PECVD process. Excellent surface passivation on FZ and CZ Si substrates for both n- and p-type samples was achieved by manipulating and controlling the charge in SiNx films.

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2013

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Solar Powered Intrusion Detector

Description

The project described here is a solar powered intrusion detection system consisting of three modules: a battery recharging circuit, a laser emitter and photodetector pair, and a Wi- Fi connectivity board. Over the preceding seven months, great care has been

The project described here is a solar powered intrusion detection system consisting of three modules: a battery recharging circuit, a laser emitter and photodetector pair, and a Wi- Fi connectivity board. Over the preceding seven months, great care has been taken for the design and construction of this system. The first three months were spent researching and selecting suitable IC's and external components (e.g. solar panel, batteries, etc.). Then, the next couple of months were spent ordering specific materials and equipment for the construction of our prototype. Finally, the last two months were used to build a working prototype, with a substantial amount of time used for perfecting our system's packaging and operation. This report will consist of a detailed discussion of our team's research, design activities, prototype implementation, final budget, and final schedule. Technical discussion of the concepts behind our design will assist with understanding the design activities and prototype implementation sections that will follow. Due to the generous funding of the group from the Barrett Honors College, our overall budget available for the project was $1600. Of that amount, only $334.51 was spent on the actual system components, with $829.42 being spent on the equipment and materials needed for the testing and construction of the prototype. As far as the schedule goes, we are essentially done with the project. The only tasks left to finish are a successful defense of the project at the oral presentation on Friday, 29 March 2013, followed by a successful demo on 26 April 2013.

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2013-05

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High-quality extended-wavelength materials for optoelectronic applications

Description

Photodetectors in the 1.7 to 4.0 μm range are being commercially developed on InP substrates to meet the needs of longer wavelength applications such as thermal and medical sensing. Currently, these devices utilize high indium content metamorphic Ga1-xInxAs (x >

Photodetectors in the 1.7 to 4.0 μm range are being commercially developed on InP substrates to meet the needs of longer wavelength applications such as thermal and medical sensing. Currently, these devices utilize high indium content metamorphic Ga1-xInxAs (x > 0.53) layers to extend the wavelength range beyond the 1.7 μm achievable using lattice matched GaInAs. The large lattice mismatch required to reach the extended wavelengths results in photodetector materials that contain a large number of misfit dislocations. The low quality of these materials results in a large nonradiative Shockley Read Hall generation/recombination rate that is manifested as an undesirable large thermal noise level in these photodetectors. This work focuses on utilizing the different band structure engineering methods to design more efficient devices on InP substrates. One prospective way to improve photodetector performance at the extended wavelengths is to utilize lattice matched GaInAs/GaAsSb structures that have a type-II band alignment, where the ground state transition energy of the superlattice is smaller than the bandgap of either constituent material. Over the extended wavelength range of 2 to 3 μm this superlattice structure has an optimal period thickness of 3.4 to 5.2 nm and a wavefunction overlap of 0.8 to 0.4, respectively. In using a type-II superlattice to extend the cutoff wavelength there is a tradeoff between the wavelength reached and the electron-hole wavefunction overlap realized, and hence absorption coefficient achieved. This tradeoff and the subsequent reduction in performance can be overcome by two methods: adding bismuth to this type-II material system; applying strain on both layers in the system to attain strain-balanced condition. These allow the valance band alignment and hence the wavefunction overlap to be tuned independently of the wavelength cutoff. Adding 3% bismuth to the GaInAs constituent material, the resulting lattice matched Ga0.516In0.484As0.970Bi0.030/GaAs0.511Sb0.489superlattice realizes a 50% larger absorption coefficient. While as, similar results can be achieved with strain-balanced condition with strain limited to 1.9% on either layer. The optimal design rules derived from the different possibilities make it feasible to extract superlattice period thickness with the best absorption coefficient for any cutoff wavelength in the range.  

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Date Created
2013