Matching Items (8)

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Is estrogen receptor negative breast cancer risk associated with a fast life history strategy?

Description

Risk factors for breast cancer are often confusing and contradictory. Discrepancies are likely due to different subtypes having divergent risk factors. An important distinction between breast cancer subtypes is hormone-receptor

Risk factors for breast cancer are often confusing and contradictory. Discrepancies are likely due to different subtypes having divergent risk factors. An important distinction between breast cancer subtypes is hormone-receptor status. Compared to women diagnosed with estrogen receptor positive (ER+) breast cancer, those with estrogen receptor negative (ER−) tumors are usually diagnosed at a younger age and have a higher mortality [1]. Few studies have attempted to explain ‘why’ breast cancer subtypes have different risk factors.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2016-01-18

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Peto’s Paradox: how has evolution solved the problem of cancer prevention?

Description

The risk of developing cancer should theoretically increase with both the number of cells and the lifespan of an organism. However, gigantic animals do not get more cancer than humans,

The risk of developing cancer should theoretically increase with both the number of cells and the lifespan of an organism. However, gigantic animals do not get more cancer than humans, suggesting that super-human cancer suppression has evolved numerous times across the tree of life. This is the essence and promise of Peto’s Paradox. We discuss what is known about Peto’s Paradox and provide hints of what is yet to be discovered.

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  • 2017-07-13

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A Life History Model of Mammary Neoplasia Across Mammals

Description

Cancer rates vary significantly across tissue type and location in humans, driven by clinically relevant distinctions in the risk factors that lead to different cancer types. Despite the importance of

Cancer rates vary significantly across tissue type and location in humans, driven by clinically relevant distinctions in the risk factors that lead to different cancer types. Despite the importance of cancer location in human health, little is known about tissue-specific cancers in non-human animals. A comparison of cancer prevalence across the tree of life can give insight into how evolutionary history has shaped various mechanisms of cancer suppression. Here, we explore whether species-level life history strategies are associated with differences in mammary neoplasia rates across mammals. We propose that the same patterns of cancer prevalence that have been reported across species will be maintained at the tissue-specific level. We used a phylogenetic regression on 15 life history traits across 112 mammalian species to determine the correlation between a life history trait and how it relates to mammary neoplasia prevalence. A greater risk of mammary neoplasia was found in the characteristics associated with fast life history organisms and a lower risk of mammary neoplasia was found in the characteristics associated with slow life history organisms. With this analysis, a framework is provided for how different life history modalities can influence cancer vulnerability.

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Date Created
  • 2020-05

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Body Size Evolution and Cancer Defenses Across Ruminants

Description

Cancer is a disease acquired through mutations which leads to uncontrolled cell division and destruction of normal tissue within the body. Recent increases in available cross-species data of cancer in

Cancer is a disease acquired through mutations which leads to uncontrolled cell division and destruction of normal tissue within the body. Recent increases in available cross-species data of cancer in mammals, reptiles, birds, and other vertebrates has revealed that the prevalence of cancers varies widely across species. Life-history theory suggests that there could be traits that potentially explain some of that variation. We are particularly interested in species that get very little cancer. How are they preventing cancer and can we learn from them how to prevent cancer in humans? Comparative oncology focuses on the analysis of cancer prevalence and traits in different non-human species and allows researchers to apply their findings to humans with the goal of improving and advancing cancer treatment. We incorporate the predictions that animals with larger bodies have evolved better cancer suppression mechanisms than animals with small bodies. Ruminants in the past were larger in size than modern day ruminants and they may have retained cancer defenses from their large ancestors. The strong cancer defenses and small body size combined may explain the low prevalence of cancer in Ruminants. This paper aims to evaluate the presence of benign and malignant neoplasia prevalence across multiple ruminant species following a time of dramatic decrease in body size across the clade. Our aim is to illuminate the potential impact that these shifts in body size had on their cancer prevalence as well as test the statistical power of other key life history variables to predict cancer prevalence.

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Date Created
  • 2021-05

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A Multivariate Analysis of Life History Traits Across Species and Their Statistical Power to Predict Cancer Prevalence

Description

Cancer rates vary between people, between cultures, and between tissue types, driven by clinically relevant distinctions in the risk factors that lead to different cancer types. Despite the importance of

Cancer rates vary between people, between cultures, and between tissue types, driven by clinically relevant distinctions in the risk factors that lead to different cancer types. Despite the importance of cancer location in human health, little is known about tissue-specific cancers in non-human animals. We can gain significant insight into how evolutionary history has shaped mechanisms of cancer suppression by examining how life history traits impact cancer susceptibility across species. Here, we perform multi-level analysis to test how species-level life history strategies are associated with differences in neoplasia prevalence, and apply this to mammary neoplasia within mammals. We propose that the same patterns of cancer prevalence that have been reported across species will be maintained at the tissue-specific level. We used a combination of factor analysis and phylogenetic regression on 13 life history traits across 90 mammalian species to determine the correlation between a life history trait and how it relates to mammary neoplasia prevalence. The factor analysis presented ways to calculate quantifiable underlying factors that contribute to covariance of entangled life history variables. A greater risk of mammary neoplasia was found to be correlated most significantly with shorter gestation length. With this analysis, a framework is provided for how different life history modalities can influence cancer vulnerability. Additionally, statistical methods developed for this project present a framework for future comparative oncology studies and have the potential for many diverse applications.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2021-05

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Life History, Cancer Incidence, and Cancer Mortality in Non-Human Primates

Description

Cancer rates in our nearest relatives are largely unknown. Comparison of human cancer rates with other primates should help us to understand the nature of our susceptibilities to cancer. Data

Cancer rates in our nearest relatives are largely unknown. Comparison of human cancer rates with other primates should help us to understand the nature of our susceptibilities to cancer. Data from deceased primates was gathered from 3 institutions, the Duke Lemur Center, San Diego Zoo, and Jungle Friends primate sanctuary. This data contained over 400 unique individuals across 45 species with information on cancer incidence and mortality. Cancer incidence ranged from 0-71% and cancer mortality ranged from 0-67%. We used weighted phylogenetic regressions to test for an association between life history variables (specifically body mass and lifespan) and cancer incidence as well as mortality. Cancer incidence did not correlate with both body mass and lifespan (p>.05) however, cancer mortality did (p<.05). However, it is uncertain if the variables can be used as reliable predictors of cancer, because the data come from different organizations. This analysis presents cancer incidence rates and cancer mortality rates in species where it was previously unknown, and in some primate species, is surprisingly high. Microcebus murinus(grey mouse lemur) appear to be particularly vulnerable to cancer, mostly lymphomas. Further studies will be required to determine the causes of these vulnerabilities.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2017-05

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When (distant) relatives stay too long: implications for cancer medicine

Description

Whole-genome analyses of human medulloblastomas show that the dominant clone at relapse is present as a rare subclone at primary diagnosis.

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Date Created
  • 2016-02-24

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A survey of cancer prevalence within birds (the clave Aves).

Description

Cancer is a disease that occurs in many and perhaps all multicellular organisms. Current research is looking at how different life history characteristics among species could influence cancer rates. Because

Cancer is a disease that occurs in many and perhaps all multicellular organisms. Current research is looking at how different life history characteristics among species could influence cancer rates. Because somatic maintenance is an important component of a species' life history, we hypothesize the same ecological forces shaping the life history of a species should also determine its cancer susceptibility. By looking at varying life histories, potential evolutionary trends could be used to explain differing cancer rates. Life history theory could be an important framework for understanding cancer vulnerabilities with different trade-offs between life history traits and cancer defenses. Birds have diverse life history strategies that could explain differences in cancer suppression. Peto's paradox is the observation that cancer rates do not typically increase with body size and longevity despite an increased number of cell divisions over the animal's lifetime that ought to be carcinogenic. Here we show how Peto’s paradox is negatively correlated for cancer within the clade, Aves. That is, larger, long-lived birds get more cancer than smaller, short-lived birds (p=0.0001; r2= 0.024). Sexual dimorphism in both plumage color and size differ among Aves species. We hypothesized that this could lead to a difference in cancer rates due to the amount of time and energy sexual dimorphism takes away from somatic maintenance. We tested for an association between a variety of life history traits and cancer, including reproductive potential, growth rate, incubation, mating systems, and sexual dimorphism in both color and size. We found male birds get less cancer than female birds (9.8% vs. 11.1%, p=0.0058).

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Created

Date Created
  • 2019-05