Matching Items (23)

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FPGA-based implementation of QR decomposition

Description

This thesis report aims at introducing the background of QR decomposition and its application. QR decomposition using Givens rotations is a efficient method to prevent directly matrix inverse in solving least square minimization problem, which is a typical approach for

This thesis report aims at introducing the background of QR decomposition and its application. QR decomposition using Givens rotations is a efficient method to prevent directly matrix inverse in solving least square minimization problem, which is a typical approach for weight calculation in adaptive beamforming. Furthermore, this thesis introduces Givens rotations algorithm and two general VLSI (very large scale integrated circuit) architectures namely triangular systolic array and linear systolic array for numerically QR decomposition. To fulfill the goal, a 4 input channels triangular systolic array with 16 bits fixed-point format and a 5 input channels linear systolic array are implemented on FPGA (Field programmable gate array). The final result shows that the estimated clock frequencies of 65 MHz and 135 MHz on post-place and route static timing report could be achieved using Xilinx Virtex 6 xc6vlx240t chip. Meanwhile, this report proposes a new method to test the dynamic range of QR-D. The dynamic range of the both architectures can be achieved around 110dB.

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Date Created
2014

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Simultaneous signaling and channel estimation for in-band full-duplex communications employing adaptive spatial protection

Description

In-band full-duplex relays are envisioned as promising solution to increase the throughput of next generation wireless communications. Full-duplex relays, being able to transmit and receive at same carrier frequency, offers increased spectral efficiency compared to half-duplex relays that transmit and

In-band full-duplex relays are envisioned as promising solution to increase the throughput of next generation wireless communications. Full-duplex relays, being able to transmit and receive at same carrier frequency, offers increased spectral efficiency compared to half-duplex relays that transmit and receive at different frequencies or times. The practical implementation of full-duplex relays is limited by the strong self-interference caused by the coupling of relay's own transit signals to its desired received signals. Several techniques have been proposed in literature to mitigate the relay self-interference. In this thesis, the performance of in-band full-duplex multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) relays is considered in the context of simultaneous communications and channel estimation. In particular, adaptive spatial transmit techniques is considered to protect the full-duplex radio's receive array. It is assumed that relay's transmit and receive antenna phase centers are physically distinct. This allows the radio to employ adaptive spatial transmit and receive processing to mitigate self-interference.

The performance of this protection is dependent upon numerous factors, including channel estimation accuracy, which is the focus of this thesis. In particular, the concentration is on estimating the self-interference channel. A novel approach of simultaneous signaling to estimate the self-interference channel in MIMO full-duplex relays is proposed. To achieve this simultaneous communications

and channel estimation, a full-rank pilot signal at a reduced relative power is transmitted simultaneously with a low rank communication waveform. The self-interference mitigation is investigated in the context of eigenvalue spread of spatial relay receive co-variance matrix. Performance is demonstrated by using simulations,

in which orthogonal-frequency division-multiplexing communications and pilot sequences are employed.

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Date Created
2014

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Joint radar-communications performance bounds: data versus estimation information rates

Description

The problem of cooperative radar and communications signaling is investigated. Each system typically considers the other system a source of interference. Consequently, the tradition is to have them operate in orthogonal frequency bands. By considering the radar and communications operations

The problem of cooperative radar and communications signaling is investigated. Each system typically considers the other system a source of interference. Consequently, the tradition is to have them operate in orthogonal frequency bands. By considering the radar and communications operations to be a single joint system, performance bounds on a receiver that observes communications and radar return in the same frequency allocation are derived. Bounds in performance of the joint system is measured in terms of data information rate for communications and radar estimation information rate for the radar. Inner bounds on performance are constructed.

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Date Created
2014

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Radar tracking waveform design in continuous space and optimization selection using differential evolution

Description

Waveform design that allows for a wide variety of frequency-modulation (FM) has proven benefits. However, dictionary based optimization is limited and gradient search methods are often intractable. A new method is proposed using differential evolution to design waveforms with instantaneous

Waveform design that allows for a wide variety of frequency-modulation (FM) has proven benefits. However, dictionary based optimization is limited and gradient search methods are often intractable. A new method is proposed using differential evolution to design waveforms with instantaneous frequencies (IFs) with cubic FM functions whose coefficients are constrained to the surface of the three dimensional unit sphere. Cubic IF functions subsume well-known IF functions such as linear, quadratic monomial, and cubic monomial IF functions. In addition, all nonlinear IF functions sufficiently approximated by a third order Taylor series over the unit time sequence can be represented in this space. Analog methods for generating polynomial IF waveforms are well established allowing for practical implementation in real world systems. By sufficiently constraining the search space to these waveforms of interest, alternative optimization methods such as differential evolution can be used to optimize tracking performance in a variety of radar environments. While simplified tracking models and finite waveform dictionaries have information theoretic results, continuous waveform design in high SNR, narrowband, cluttered environments is explored.

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Date Created
2014

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Spectral efficiency of MIMO ad hoc networks with partial channel state information

Description

As the number of devices with wireless capabilities and the proximity of these devices to each other increases, better ways to handle the interference they cause need to be explored. Also important is for these devices to keep u

As the number of devices with wireless capabilities and the proximity of these devices to each other increases, better ways to handle the interference they cause need to be explored. Also important is for these devices to keep up with the demand for data rates while not compromising on industry established expectations of power consumption and mobility. Current methods of distributing the spectrum among all participants are expected to not cope with the demand in a very near future. In this thesis, the effect of employing sophisticated multiple-input, multiple-output (MIMO) systems in this regard is explored. The efficacy of systems which can make intelligent decisions on the transmission mode usage and power allocation to these modes becomes relevant in the current scenario, where the need for performance far exceeds the cost expendable on hardware. The effect of adding multiple antennas at either ends will be examined, the capacity of such systems and of networks comprised of many such participants will be evaluated. Methods of simulating said networks, and ways to achieve better performance by making intelligent transmission decisions will be proposed. Finally, a way of access control closer to the physical layer (a 'statistical MAC') and a possible metric to be used for such a MAC is suggested.

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Date Created
2014

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Target tracking in environments of rapidly changing clutter

Description

Tracking targets in the presence of clutter is inevitable, and presents many challenges. Additionally, rapid, drastic changes in clutter density between different environments or scenarios can make it even more difficult for tracking algorithms to adapt. A novel approach to

Tracking targets in the presence of clutter is inevitable, and presents many challenges. Additionally, rapid, drastic changes in clutter density between different environments or scenarios can make it even more difficult for tracking algorithms to adapt. A novel approach to target tracking in such dynamic clutter environments is proposed using a particle filter (PF) integrated with Interacting Multiple Models (IMMs) to compensate and adapt to the transition between different clutter densities. This model was implemented for the case of a monostatic sensor tracking a single target moving with constant velocity along a two-dimensional trajectory, which crossed between regions of drastically different clutter densities. Multiple combinations of clutter density transitions were considered, using up to three different clutter densities. It was shown that the integrated IMM PF algorithm outperforms traditional approaches such as the PF in terms of tracking results and performance. The minimal additional computational expense of including the IMM more than warrants the benefits of having it supplement and amplify the advantages of the PF.

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Date Created
2015

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Distributed Reception in the Presence of Gaussian Interference

Description

An analysis is presented of a network of distributed receivers encumbered by strong in-band interference. The structure of information present across such receivers and how they might collaborate to recover a signal of interest is studied. Unstructured (random coding) and

An analysis is presented of a network of distributed receivers encumbered by strong in-band interference. The structure of information present across such receivers and how they might collaborate to recover a signal of interest is studied. Unstructured (random coding) and structured (lattice coding) strategies are studied towards this purpose for a certain adaptable system model. Asymptotic performances of these strategies and algorithms to compute them are developed. A jointly-compressed lattice code with proper configuration performs best of all strategies investigated.

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Date Created
2019

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EEG-Based Estimation of Human Reaction Time Corresponding to Change of Visual Event.

Description

The human brain controls a person's actions and reactions. In this study, the main objective is to quantify reaction time towards a change of visual event and figuring out the inherent relationship between response time and corresponding brain activities. Furthermore,

The human brain controls a person's actions and reactions. In this study, the main objective is to quantify reaction time towards a change of visual event and figuring out the inherent relationship between response time and corresponding brain activities. Furthermore, which parts of the human brain are responsible for the reaction time is also of interest. As electroencephalogram (EEG) signals are proportional to the change of brain functionalities with time, EEG signals from different locations of the brain are used as indicators of brain activities. As the different channels are from different parts of our brain, identifying most relevant channels can provide the idea of responsible brain locations. In this study, response time is estimated using EEG signal features from time, frequency and time-frequency domain. Regression-based estimation using the full data-set results in RMSE (Root Mean Square Error) of 99.5 milliseconds and a correlation value of 0.57. However, the addition of non-EEG features with the existing features gives RMSE of 101.7 ms and a correlation value of 0.58. Using the same analysis with a custom data-set provides RMSE of 135.7 milliseconds and a correlation value of 0.69. Classification-based estimation provides 79% & 72% of accuracy for binary and 3-class classication respectively. Classification of extremes (high-low) results in 95% of accuracy. Combining recursive feature elimination, tree-based feature importance, and mutual feature information method, important channels, and features are isolated based on the best result. As human response time is not solely dependent on brain activities, it requires additional information about the subject to improve the reaction time estimation.

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Date Created
2019

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Control and Estimation Theory in Ranging Applications

Description

For the last 50 years, oscillator modeling in ranging systems has received considerable

attention. Many components in a navigation system, such as the master oscillator

driving the receiver system, as well the master oscillator in the transmitting system

contribute significantly to timing errors.

For the last 50 years, oscillator modeling in ranging systems has received considerable

attention. Many components in a navigation system, such as the master oscillator

driving the receiver system, as well the master oscillator in the transmitting system

contribute significantly to timing errors. Algorithms in the navigation processor must

be able to predict and compensate such errors to achieve a specified accuracy. While

much work has been done on the fundamentals of these problems, the thinking on said

problems has not progressed. On the hardware end, the designers of local oscillators

focus on synthesized frequency and loop noise bandwidth. This does nothing to

mitigate, or reduce frequency stability degradation in band. Similarly, there are not

systematic methods to accommodate phase and frequency anomalies such as clock

jumps. Phase locked loops are fundamentally control systems, and while control

theory has had significant advancement over the last 30 years, the design of timekeeping

sources has not advanced beyond classical control. On the software end,

single or two state oscillator models are typically embedded in a Kalman Filter to

alleviate time errors between the transmitter and receiver clock. Such models are

appropriate for short term time accuracy, but insufficient for long term time accuracy.

Additionally, flicker frequency noise may be present in oscillators, and it presents

mathematical modeling complications. This work proposes novel H∞ control methods

to address the shortcomings in the standard design of time-keeping phase locked loops.

Such methods allow the designer to address frequency stability degradation as well

as high phase/frequency dynamics. Additionally, finite-dimensional approximants of

flicker frequency noise that are more representative of the truth system than the

tradition Gauss Markov approach are derived. Last, to maintain timing accuracy in

a wide variety of operating environments, novel Banks of Adaptive Extended Kalman

Filters are used to address both stochastic and dynamic uncertainty.

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Date Created
2020

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An Analysis of the Unmanned Aerial Systems-to-Ground Channel and Joint Sensing and Communications Systems Using Software Defined Radio

Description

Software-defined radio provides users with a low-cost and flexible platform for implementing and studying advanced communications and remote sensing applications. Two such applications include unmanned aerial system-to-ground communications channel and joint sensing and communication systems. In this work, these applications

Software-defined radio provides users with a low-cost and flexible platform for implementing and studying advanced communications and remote sensing applications. Two such applications include unmanned aerial system-to-ground communications channel and joint sensing and communication systems. In this work, these applications are studied.

In the first part, unmanned aerial system-to-ground communications channel models are derived from empirical data collected from software-defined radio transceivers in residential and mountainous desert environments using a small (< 20 kg) unmanned aerial system during low-altitude flight (< 130 m). The Kullback-Leibler divergence measure was employed to characterize model mismatch from the empirical data. Using this measure the derived models accurately describe the underlying data.

In the second part, an experimental joint sensing and communications system is implemented using a network of software-defined radio transceivers. A novel co-design receiver architecture is presented and demonstrated within a three-node joint multiple access system topology consisting of an independent radar and communications transmitter along with a joint radar and communications receiver. The receiver tracks an emulated target moving along a predefined path and simultaneously decodes a communications message. Experimental system performance bounds are characterized jointly using the communications channel capacity and novel estimation information rate.

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Date Created
2018