Matching Items (22)

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Control and Estimation Theory in Ranging Applications

Description

For the last 50 years, oscillator modeling in ranging systems has received considerable

attention. Many components in a navigation system, such as the master oscillator

driving the receiver system, as well the

For the last 50 years, oscillator modeling in ranging systems has received considerable

attention. Many components in a navigation system, such as the master oscillator

driving the receiver system, as well the master oscillator in the transmitting system

contribute significantly to timing errors. Algorithms in the navigation processor must

be able to predict and compensate such errors to achieve a specified accuracy. While

much work has been done on the fundamentals of these problems, the thinking on said

problems has not progressed. On the hardware end, the designers of local oscillators

focus on synthesized frequency and loop noise bandwidth. This does nothing to

mitigate, or reduce frequency stability degradation in band. Similarly, there are not

systematic methods to accommodate phase and frequency anomalies such as clock

jumps. Phase locked loops are fundamentally control systems, and while control

theory has had significant advancement over the last 30 years, the design of timekeeping

sources has not advanced beyond classical control. On the software end,

single or two state oscillator models are typically embedded in a Kalman Filter to

alleviate time errors between the transmitter and receiver clock. Such models are

appropriate for short term time accuracy, but insufficient for long term time accuracy.

Additionally, flicker frequency noise may be present in oscillators, and it presents

mathematical modeling complications. This work proposes novel H∞ control methods

to address the shortcomings in the standard design of time-keeping phase locked loops.

Such methods allow the designer to address frequency stability degradation as well

as high phase/frequency dynamics. Additionally, finite-dimensional approximants of

flicker frequency noise that are more representative of the truth system than the

tradition Gauss Markov approach are derived. Last, to maintain timing accuracy in

a wide variety of operating environments, novel Banks of Adaptive Extended Kalman

Filters are used to address both stochastic and dynamic uncertainty.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2020

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Channel Estimation in Half and Full Duplex Relays

Description

Both two-way relays (TWR) and full-duplex (FD) radios are spectrally efficient, and their integration shows great potential to further improve the spectral efficiency, which offers a solution to the fifth

Both two-way relays (TWR) and full-duplex (FD) radios are spectrally efficient, and their integration shows great potential to further improve the spectral efficiency, which offers a solution to the fifth generation wireless systems. High quality channel state information (CSI) are the key components for the implementation and the performance of the FD TWR system, making channel estimation in FD TWRs crucial.

The impact of channel estimation on spectral efficiency in half-duplex multiple-input-multiple-output (MIMO) TWR systems is investigated. The trade-off between training and data energy is proposed. In the case that two sources are symmetric in power and number of antennas, a closed-form for the optimal ratio of data energy to total energy is derived. It can be shown that the achievable rate is a monotonically increasing function of the data length. The asymmetric case is discussed as well.

Efficient and accurate training schemes for FD TWRs are essential for profiting from the inherent spectrally efficient structures of both FD and TWRs. A novel one-block training scheme with a maximum likelihood (ML) estimator is proposed to estimate the channels between the nodes and the residual self-interference (RSI) channel simultaneously. Baseline training schemes are also considered to compare with the one-block scheme. The Cramer-Rao bounds (CRBs) of the training schemes are derived and analyzed by using the asymptotic properties of Toeplitz matrices. The benefit of estimating the RSI channel is shown analytically in terms of Fisher information.

To obtain fundamental and analytic results of how the RSI affects the spectral efficiency, one-way FD relay systems are studied. Optimal training design and ML channel estimation are proposed to estimate the RSI channel. The CRBs are derived and analyzed in closed-form so that the optimal training sequence can be found via minimizing the CRB. Extensions of the training scheme to frequency-selective channels and multiple relays are also presented.

Simultaneously sensing and transmission in an FD cognitive radio system with MIMO is considered. The trade-off between the transmission rate and the detection accuracy is characterized by the sum-rate of the primary and the secondary users. Different beamforming and combining schemes are proposed and compared.

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Date Created
  • 2018

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Simultaneous Positioning and Communications: Hybrid Radio Architecture, Estimation Techniques, and Experimental Validation

Description

Limited spectral access motivates technologies that adapt to diminishing resources and increasingly cluttered environments. A joint positioning-communications system is designed and implemented on \acf{COTS} hardware. This system enables simultaneous

Limited spectral access motivates technologies that adapt to diminishing resources and increasingly cluttered environments. A joint positioning-communications system is designed and implemented on \acf{COTS} hardware. This system enables simultaneous positioning of, and communications between, nodes in a distributed network of base-stations and unmanned aerial systems (UASs). This technology offers extreme ranging precision ($<$ 5 cm) with minimal bandwidth (10 MHz), a secure communications link to protect against cyberattacks, a small form factor that enables integration into numerous platforms, and minimal resource consumption which supports high-density networks. The positioning and communications tasks are performed simultaneously with a single, co-use waveform, which efficiently utilizes limited resources and supports higher user densities. The positioning task uses a cooperative, point-to-point synchronization protocol to estimate the relative position and orientation of all users within the network. The communications task distributes positioning information between users and secures the positioning task against cyberattacks. This high-performance system is enabled by advanced time-of-arrival estimation techniques and a modern phase-accurate distributed coherence synchronization algorithm. This technology may be installed in ground-stations, ground vehicles, unmanned aerial systems, and airborne vehicles, enabling a highly-mobile, re-configurable network with numerous applications.

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Date Created
  • 2019

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Remote Sensing For Vital Signs Monitoring Using Advanced Radar Signal Processing Techniques

Description

In the past half century, low-power wireless signals from portable radar sensors, initially continuous-wave (CW) radars and more recently ultra-wideband (UWB) radar systems, have been successfully used to detect

In the past half century, low-power wireless signals from portable radar sensors, initially continuous-wave (CW) radars and more recently ultra-wideband (UWB) radar systems, have been successfully used to detect physiological movements of stationary human beings.

The thesis starts with a careful review of existing signal processing techniques and state of the art methods possible for vital signs monitoring using UWB impulse systems. Then an in-depth analysis of various approaches is presented.

Robust heart-rate monitoring methods are proposed based on a novel result: spectrally the fundamental heartbeat frequency is respiration-interference-limited while its higher-order harmonics are noise-limited. The higher-order statistics related to heartbeat can be a robust indication when the fundamental heartbeat is masked by the strong lower-order harmonics of respiration or when phase calibration is not accurate if phase-based method is used. Analytical spectral analysis is performed to validate that the higher-order harmonics of heartbeat is almost respiration-interference free. Extensive experiments have been conducted to justify an adaptive heart-rate monitoring algorithm. The scenarios of interest are, 1) single subject, 2) multiple subjects at different ranges, 3) multiple subjects at same range, and 4) through wall monitoring.

A remote sensing radar system implemented using the proposed adaptive heart-rate estimation algorithm is compared to the competing remote sensing technology, a remote imaging photoplethysmography system, showing promising results.

State of the art methods for vital signs monitoring are fundamentally related to process the phase variation due to vital signs motions. Their performance are determined by a phase calibration procedure. Existing methods fail to consider the time-varying nature of phase noise. There is no prior knowledge about which of the corrupted complex signals, in-phase component (I) and quadrature component (Q), need to be corrected. A precise phase calibration routine is proposed based on the respiration pattern. The I/Q samples from every breath are more likely to experience similar motion noise and therefore they should be corrected independently. High slow-time sampling rate is used to ensure phase calibration accuracy. Occasionally, a 180-degree phase shift error occurs after the initial calibration step and should be corrected as well. All phase trajectories in the I/Q plot are only allowed in certain angular spaces. This precise phase calibration routine is validated through computer simulations incorporating a time-varying phase noise model, controlled mechanic system, and human subject experiment.

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Date Created
  • 2018

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Anticipating Postoperative Delirium During Cardiac Surgeries Involving Deep Hypothermia Circulatory Arrest

Description

Aortic aneurysms and dissections are life threatening conditions addressed by replacing damaged sections of the aorta. Blood circulation must be halted to facilitate repairs. Ischemia places the body, especially the

Aortic aneurysms and dissections are life threatening conditions addressed by replacing damaged sections of the aorta. Blood circulation must be halted to facilitate repairs. Ischemia places the body, especially the brain, at risk of damage. Deep hypothermia circulatory arrest (DHCA) is employed to protect patients and provide time for surgeons to complete repairs on the basis that reducing body temperature suppresses the metabolic rate. Supplementary surgical techniques can be employed to reinforce the brain's protection and increase the duration circulation can be suspended. Even then, protection is not completely guaranteed though. A medical condition that can arise early in recovery is postoperative delirium, which is correlated with poor long term outcome. This study develops a methodology to intraoperatively monitor neurophysiology through electroencephalography (EEG) and anticipate postoperative delirium. The earliest opportunity to detect occurrences of complications through EEG is immediately following DHCA during warming. The first observable electrophysiological activity after being completely suppressed is a phenomenon known as burst suppression, which is related to the brain's metabolic state and recovery of nominal neurological function. A metric termed burst suppression duty cycle (BSDC) is developed to characterize the changing electrophysiological dynamics. Predictions of postoperative delirium incidences are made by identifying deviations in the way these dynamics evolve. Sixteen cases are examined in this study. Accurate predictions can be made, where on average 89.74% of cases are correctly classified when burst suppression concludes and 78.10% when burst suppression begins. The best case receiver operating characteristic curve has an area under its convex hull of 0.8988, whereas the worst case area under the hull is 0.7889. These results demonstrate the feasibility of monitoring BSDC to anticipate postoperative delirium during burst suppression. They also motivate a further analysis on identifying footprints of causal mechanisms of neural injury within BSDC. Being able to raise warning signs of postoperative delirium early provides an opportunity to intervene and potentially avert neurological complications. Doing so would improve the success rate and quality of life after surgery.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2020

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Software defined pulse-doppler radar for over-the-air applications: the joint radar-communications experiment

Description

In this paper, the Software Defined Radio (SDR) platform is considered for building a pseudo-monostatic, 100MHz Pulse-Doppler radar. The SDR platform has many benefits for experimental communications systems as it

In this paper, the Software Defined Radio (SDR) platform is considered for building a pseudo-monostatic, 100MHz Pulse-Doppler radar. The SDR platform has many benefits for experimental communications systems as it offers relatively cheap, parametrically dynamic, off-the-shelf access to the Radiofrequency (RF) spectrum. For this application, the Universal Software Radio Peripheral (USRP) X310 hardware package is utilized with GNURadio for interfacing to the device and Matlab for signal post- processing. Pulse doppler radar processing is used to ascertain the range and velocity of a target considered in simulation and in real, over-the-air (OTA) experiments. The USRP platform offers a scalable and dynamic hardware package that can, with relatively low overhead, be incorporated into other experimental systems. This radar system will be considered for implementation into existing over-the-air Joint Radar- Communications (JRC) spectrum sharing experiments. The JRC system considers a co-designed architecture in which a communications user and a radar user share the same spectral allocation. Where the two systems would traditionally consider one another a source of interference, the receiver is able to decode communications information and discern target information via pulse-doppler radar simultaneously.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2019

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Simultaneous signaling and channel estimation for in-band full-duplex communications employing adaptive spatial protection

Description

In-band full-duplex relays are envisioned as promising solution to increase the throughput of next generation wireless communications. Full-duplex relays, being able to transmit and receive at same carrier frequency, offers

In-band full-duplex relays are envisioned as promising solution to increase the throughput of next generation wireless communications. Full-duplex relays, being able to transmit and receive at same carrier frequency, offers increased spectral efficiency compared to half-duplex relays that transmit and receive at different frequencies or times. The practical implementation of full-duplex relays is limited by the strong self-interference caused by the coupling of relay's own transit signals to its desired received signals. Several techniques have been proposed in literature to mitigate the relay self-interference. In this thesis, the performance of in-band full-duplex multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) relays is considered in the context of simultaneous communications and channel estimation. In particular, adaptive spatial transmit techniques is considered to protect the full-duplex radio's receive array. It is assumed that relay's transmit and receive antenna phase centers are physically distinct. This allows the radio to employ adaptive spatial transmit and receive processing to mitigate self-interference.

The performance of this protection is dependent upon numerous factors, including channel estimation accuracy, which is the focus of this thesis. In particular, the concentration is on estimating the self-interference channel. A novel approach of simultaneous signaling to estimate the self-interference channel in MIMO full-duplex relays is proposed. To achieve this simultaneous communications

and channel estimation, a full-rank pilot signal at a reduced relative power is transmitted simultaneously with a low rank communication waveform. The self-interference mitigation is investigated in the context of eigenvalue spread of spatial relay receive co-variance matrix. Performance is demonstrated by using simulations,

in which orthogonal-frequency division-multiplexing communications and pilot sequences are employed.

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Date Created
  • 2014

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Theoretical Receiver Operating Characteristics of Two-Stage Change Detector for Synthetic Aperture Radar Images

Description

Detecting areas of change between two synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images of the same scene, taken at different times is generally performed using two approaches. Non-coherent change detection is performed

Detecting areas of change between two synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images of the same scene, taken at different times is generally performed using two approaches. Non-coherent change detection is performed using the sample variance ratio detector, and displays a good performance in detecting areas of significant changes. Coherent change detection can be implemented using the classical coherence estimator, which does better at detecting subtle changes, like vehicle tracks. A two-stage detector was proposed by Cha et al., where the sample variance ratio forms the first stage, and the second stage comprises of Berger's alternative coherence estimator.

A modification to the first stage of the two-stage detector is proposed in this study, which significantly simplifies the analysis of the this detector. Cha et al. have used a heuristic approach to determine the thresholds for this two-stage detector. In this study, the probability density function for the modified two-stage detector is derived, and using this probability density function, an approach for determining the thresholds for this two-dimensional detection problem has been proposed. The proposed method of threshold selection reveals an interesting behavior shown by the two-stage detector. With the help of theoretical receiver operating characteristic analysis, it is shown that the two-stage detector gives a better detection performance as compared to the other three detectors. However, the Berger's estimator proves to be a simpler alternative, since it gives only a slightly poorer performance as compared to the two-stage detector. All the four detectors have also been implemented on a SAR data set, and it is shown that the two-stage detector and the Berger's estimator generate images where the areas showing change are easily visible.

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Date Created
  • 2020

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Development of Multiple Protocols in Novel Simulation Environment

Description

When one considers the current state of wireless communications, it becomes clear that it is both absolutely amazing and something of a mess. Present communications standards are the result of

When one considers the current state of wireless communications, it becomes clear that it is both absolutely amazing and something of a mess. Present communications standards are the result of local optimizations over time that led to a confusing set of suboptimal and fragile wireless standards. Starting from a clean sheet of paper, Bliss Laboratory for Information, Signals, and Systems (BLISS) is considering a fluid set of communications standards co-optimized with flexible but power-efficient computational implementations that will enable the next revolution of wireless communications. The main aim is to enable much higher data rates and much lower data rates with corresponding lower power consumption as the needs of the users vary.

The thesis mainly looks at the different sections of the work done, to prime the development of the protocol development engine. It discusses channel modeling, and system integration of receiver and channel noise. It also proposes a Carrier-Sense Multiple Access (CSMA) Media Access Control (MAC) layer protocol implementation for (Wireless Fidelity) Wi-Fi protocol. This work also talks about the Graphical User Interface (GUI), which is a part of Protocol Development Kit (PDK) - a combination of the Protocol Recommendation Engine (PRE) and simulation package to aid the development of protocols. It also sheds light on the Automatic Dependent Surveillance - Broadcast (ADS-B) radio protocol, that will eventually replace radar as Air Traffic Control's (ATC) primary tool for separating aircraft.

All the algorithms used in this thesis, to define radio operation were in principle defined by mathematical descriptions; however, to test and implement these algorithms they had to be converted to a computer language. There were multiple phases of this conversion. In the first phase, the implementation of these algorithms was done in Matrix Laboratory (MATLAB). To aid this development, basic radio finite state machines and radio algorithmic tools were provided.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2017

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An Analysis of the Unmanned Aerial Systems-to-Ground Channel and Joint Sensing and Communications Systems Using Software Defined Radio

Description

Software-defined radio provides users with a low-cost and flexible platform for implementing and studying advanced communications and remote sensing applications. Two such applications include unmanned aerial system-to-ground communications channel and

Software-defined radio provides users with a low-cost and flexible platform for implementing and studying advanced communications and remote sensing applications. Two such applications include unmanned aerial system-to-ground communications channel and joint sensing and communication systems. In this work, these applications are studied.

In the first part, unmanned aerial system-to-ground communications channel models are derived from empirical data collected from software-defined radio transceivers in residential and mountainous desert environments using a small (< 20 kg) unmanned aerial system during low-altitude flight (< 130 m). The Kullback-Leibler divergence measure was employed to characterize model mismatch from the empirical data. Using this measure the derived models accurately describe the underlying data.

In the second part, an experimental joint sensing and communications system is implemented using a network of software-defined radio transceivers. A novel co-design receiver architecture is presented and demonstrated within a three-node joint multiple access system topology consisting of an independent radar and communications transmitter along with a joint radar and communications receiver. The receiver tracks an emulated target moving along a predefined path and simultaneously decodes a communications message. Experimental system performance bounds are characterized jointly using the communications channel capacity and novel estimation information rate.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2018