Matching Items (13)

151135-Thumbnail Image.png

Second language proficiency in sequential bilingual Children with and without primary language impairment

Description

Identification of primary language impairment (PLI) in sequential bilingual children is challenging because of the interaction between PLI and second language (L2) proficiency. An important step in improving the accurate diagnosis of PLI in bilingual children is to investigate how

Identification of primary language impairment (PLI) in sequential bilingual children is challenging because of the interaction between PLI and second language (L2) proficiency. An important step in improving the accurate diagnosis of PLI in bilingual children is to investigate how differences in L2 performance are affected by a length of L2 exposure and how L2 assessment contributes to differentiation between children with and without PLI at different L2 proficiency levels. Sixty one children with typical language development (TD) ages 5;3-8 years and 12 children with PLI ages 5;5-7;8 years participated. Results revealed that bilingual children with and without PLI, who had between 1 and 3 years of L2 exposure, did not differ in mean length of utterance (MLU), number of different words, percent of maze words, and performance on expressive and receptive grammatical tasks in L2. Performance on a grammaticality judgment task by children with and without PLI demonstrated the largest effect size, indicating that it may potentially contribute to identification of PLI in bilingual populations. In addition, children with PLI did not demonstrate any association between the length of exposure and L2 proficiency, suggesting that they do not develop their L2 proficiency in relation to length of exposure in the same manner as children with TD. Results also indicated that comprehension of grammatical structures and expressive grammatical task in L2 may contribute to differentiation between the language ability groups at the low and intermediate-high proficiency levels. The discriminant analysis with the entire sample of bilingual children with and without PLI revealed that among L2 measures, only MLU contributed to the discrimination between the language ability groups. However, poor classification accuracy suggested that MLU alone is not a sufficient predictor of PLI. There were significant differences among L2 proficiency levels in children with TD in MLU, number of different words, and performance on the expressive and receptive grammatical tasks in L2, indicating that L2 proficiency level may potentially impact the differentiation between language difficulties due to typical L2 acquisition processes and PLI.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
2012

151206-Thumbnail Image.png

Effects of different types of play on preschoolers' vocabulary learning

Description

This study investigated the effects of different types of play-embedded instruction on preschoolers' vocabulary learning during a vocabulary intervention known as Say-Tell-Do-Play (STDP). The goal of this study was to determine whether or not two types of play - Story

This study investigated the effects of different types of play-embedded instruction on preschoolers' vocabulary learning during a vocabulary intervention known as Say-Tell-Do-Play (STDP). The goal of this study was to determine whether or not two types of play - Story Drama and a Vocabulary Matching Game - enhanced the effectiveness of the STDP strategy. To investigate this goal, the researcher implemented the STDP instructional routine for 17 children with three different picture books and their corresponding play activities and a control condition (Drawing) in a counterbalanced order. Descriptive statistics were utilized to understand the effects of these different play activities on the children's receptive and expressive vocabulary learning. Findings showed that the STDP vocabulary instructional strategy had a much larger impact on children's receptive vocabulary than on expressive vocabulary learning. The play activities did not seem to make much difference in the learning of receptive and expressive vocabulary. The results indicated that the STDP strategy is an effective way to teach receptive vocabulary. There was a lack of evidence that the different types of play significantly affected children's vocabulary learning.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
2012

151761-Thumbnail Image.png

The accuracy of accuracy estimates for single form dichotomous classification exams

Description

The use of exams for classification purposes has become prevalent across many fields including professional assessment for employment screening and standards based testing in educational settings. Classification exams assign individuals to performance groups based on the comparison of their observed

The use of exams for classification purposes has become prevalent across many fields including professional assessment for employment screening and standards based testing in educational settings. Classification exams assign individuals to performance groups based on the comparison of their observed test scores to a pre-selected criterion (e.g. masters vs. nonmasters in dichotomous classification scenarios). The successful use of exams for classification purposes assumes at least minimal levels of accuracy of these classifications. Classification accuracy is an index that reflects the rate of correct classification of individuals into the same category which contains their true ability score. Traditional methods estimate classification accuracy via methods which assume that true scores follow a four-parameter beta-binomial distribution. Recent research suggests that Item Response Theory may be a preferable alternative framework for estimating examinees' true scores and may return more accurate classifications based on these scores. Researchers hypothesized that test length, the location of the cut score, the distribution of items, and the distribution of examinee ability would impact the recovery of accurate estimates of classification accuracy. The current simulation study manipulated these factors to assess their potential influence on classification accuracy. Observed classification as masters vs. nonmasters, true classification accuracy, estimated classification accuracy, BIAS, and RMSE were analyzed. In addition, Analysis of Variance tests were conducted to determine whether an interrelationship existed between levels of the four manipulated factors. Results showed small values of estimated classification accuracy and increased BIAS in accuracy estimates with few items, mismatched distributions of item difficulty and examinee ability, and extreme cut scores. A significant four-way interaction between manipulated variables was observed. In additional to interpretations of these findings and explanation of potential causes for the recovered values, recommendations that inform practice and avenues of future research are provided.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
2013

150008-Thumbnail Image.png

Teacher collaboration in context: professional learning communities in an era of standardization and accountability

Description

Proponents of current educational reform initiatives emphasize strict accountability, the standardization of curriculum and pedagogy and the use of standardized tests to measure student learning and indicate teacher, administrator and school performance. As a result, professional learning communities have emerged

Proponents of current educational reform initiatives emphasize strict accountability, the standardization of curriculum and pedagogy and the use of standardized tests to measure student learning and indicate teacher, administrator and school performance. As a result, professional learning communities have emerged as a platform for teachers to collaborate with one another in order to improve their teaching practices, increase student achievement and promote continuous school improvement. The primary purpose of this inquiry was to investigate how teachers respond to working in professional learning communities in which the discourses privilege the practice of regularly comparing evidence of students' learning and results. A second purpose was to raise questions about how the current focus on standardization, assessment and accountability impacts teachers, their interactions and relationships with one another, their teaching practices, and school culture. Participants in this qualitative, ethnographic inquiry included fifteen teachers working within Green School District (a pseudonym). Initial interviews were conducted with all teachers, and responses were categorized in a typology borrowed from Barone (2008). Data analysis involved attending to the behaviors and experiences of these teachers, and the meanings these teachers associated with those behaviors and events. Teachers of GSD responded differently to the various layers of expectations and pressures inherent in the policies and practices in education today. The experiences of the teachers from GSD confirm the body of research that illuminates the challenges and complexity of working in collaborative forms of professional development, situated within the present era of accountability. Looking through lenses privileged by critical theorists, this study examined important intended and unintended consequences inherent in the educational practices of standardization and accountability. The inquiry revealed that a focus on certain "results" and the demand to achieve short terms gains may impede the creation of successful, collaborative, professional learning communities.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
2011

150186-Thumbnail Image.png

The ability of oral fluency to predict reading comprehension among ELL children learning to read

Description

The current study analyzed existing data, collected under a previous U.S. Department of Education Reading First grant, to investigate the strength of the relationship between scores on the first- through third-grade Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skills - Oral

The current study analyzed existing data, collected under a previous U.S. Department of Education Reading First grant, to investigate the strength of the relationship between scores on the first- through third-grade Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skills - Oral Reading Fluency (DIBELS-ORF) test and scores on a reading comprehension test (TerraNova-Reading) administered at the conclusion of second- and third-grade. Participants were sixty-five English Language Learners (ELLs) learning to read in a school district adjacent to the U.S.-Mexico border. DIBELS-ORF and TerraNova-Reading scores were provided by the school district, which administers the assessments in accordance with state and federal mandates to monitor early literacy skill development. Bivariate correlation results indicate moderate-to-strong positive correlations between DIBELS-ORF scores and TerraNova-Reading performance that strengthened between grades one and three. Results suggest that the concurrent relationship between oral reading fluency scores and performance on standardized and high-stakes measures of reading comprehension may be different among ELLs as compared to non-ELLs during first- and second-grade. However, by third-grade the correlations approximate those reported in previous non-ELL studies. This study also examined whether the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT), a receptive vocabulary measure, could explain any additional variance on second- and third-grade TerraNova-Reading performance beyond that explained by the DIBELS-ORF. The PPVT was individually administered by researchers collecting data under a Reading First research grant prior to the current study. Receptive vocabulary was found to be a strong predictor of reading comprehension among ELLs, and largely overshadowed the predictive ability of the DIBELS-ORF during first-grade. Results suggest that receptive vocabulary scores, used in conjunction with the DIBELS-ORF, may be useful for identifying beginning ELL readers who are at risk for third-grade reading failure as early as first-grade.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
2011

150518-Thumbnail Image.png

Assessment of item parameter drift of known items in a university placement exam

Description

ABSTRACT This study investigated the possibility of item parameter drift (IPD) in a calculus placement examination administered to approximately 3,000 students at a large university in the United States. A single form of the exam was administered continuously for a

ABSTRACT This study investigated the possibility of item parameter drift (IPD) in a calculus placement examination administered to approximately 3,000 students at a large university in the United States. A single form of the exam was administered continuously for a period of two years, possibly allowing later examinees to have prior knowledge of specific items on the exam. An analysis of IPD was conducted to explore evidence of possible item exposure. Two assumptions concerning items exposure were made: 1) item recall and item exposure are positively correlated, and 2) item exposure results in the items becoming easier over time. Special consideration was given to two contextual item characteristics: 1) item location within the test, specifically items at the beginning and end of the exam, and 2) the use of an associated diagram. The hypotheses stated that these item characteristics would make the items easier to recall and, therefore, more likely to be exposed, resulting in item drift. BILOG-MG 3 was used to calibrate the items and assess for IPD. No evidence was found to support the hypotheses that the items located at the beginning of the test or with an associated diagram drifted as a result of item exposure. Three items among the last ten on the exam drifted significantly and became easier, consistent with item exposure. However, in this study, the possible effects of item exposure could not be separated from the effects of other potential factors such as speededness, curriculum changes, better test preparation on the part of subsequent examinees, or guessing.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
2012

149423-Thumbnail Image.png

Lost in transition: the effect of split student teaching experience on beginning early childhood teachers' practices

Description

Arizona State University's (ASU) teacher education program has been restructured several times in the last two decades to train teachers to teach children more effectively by responding to their individual needs and learning demands. One of the reasons for

Arizona State University's (ASU) teacher education program has been restructured several times in the last two decades to train teachers to teach children more effectively by responding to their individual needs and learning demands. One of the reasons for restructuring was to respond to new licensing requirements by the State. To serve young children's needs, the state of Arizona required individuals working with young children to obtain either early childhood licensing or endorsement by January, 2009. Responding to these new requirements, ASU now requires student teaching in a preschool setting in addition to the existing Kindergarten to third grade student teaching and internship requirements. This study addressed the question of teacher preparation and self-efficacy based on this newly restructured teaching model used in the ASU Tempe teacher education program. The following questions guided this study: 1) What effects do beginning teachers perceive that their split-student teaching experiences have on their experience as a new teacher; 2) How do beginning teachers' prior schooling, educational, and personal background influence their current teaching; and 3) What role does home, family, and collegial support play as beginning teachers start their teaching career? A qualitative case study research method was utilized in this study. Two face-to-face, in-depth individual interviews and one focus group interview with three second-year and two third-year beginning teachers were utilized to understand their experiences in the program and in their beginning years of teaching. An analysis of interview data revealed beginning teachers' student teaching experiences partially fulfilled their need of having adequate in-classroom experience before starting their teaching careers; yet they highlighted some suggestions for student teaching assignments to better prepare prospective teacher candidates in the program. Moreover, they expressed both satisfaction and dissatisfaction toward courses taken in the program. Their statements also emphasized the importance of having effective mentorship in their student teaching and first year of teaching. Support from administration, experienced colleagues, friends, and family members were also acknowledged as highly valuable as they struggled with issues in their beginning career.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
2010

149453-Thumbnail Image.png

An investigation of academic achievement and achievement motivation in children with cystic fibrosis

Description

Cystic Fibrosis, one of the most severe childhood life-shortening illnesses, places demands on a child's life conceivably interfering with his or her academic success. It is possible that the medically related activities in which individuals with CF partake interfere with

Cystic Fibrosis, one of the most severe childhood life-shortening illnesses, places demands on a child's life conceivably interfering with his or her academic success. It is possible that the medically related activities in which individuals with CF partake interfere with academic activities and the motivation, specifically beliefs, expectancies, and values held, toward those activities. These issues encouraged the investigation of academic achievement and achievement motivation in children with CF through exploration of three research questions. Question one concerns differences in academic achievement between children with CF and a healthy comparison group for 1) reading and 2) math. Question two explored differences in aspects of motivation including ability beliefs, outcome expectancies, and task values between the groups for the two academic subjects. Finally, question three examined the relationship between motivational components and academic achievement. Evidence is provided for differences in math achievement between the two groups. Differences in motivation between children with CF and healthy children remain unsubstantiated.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
2010

149959-Thumbnail Image.png

Parent-teacher communication concerning epilepsy: to disclose or not to disclose

Description

ABSTRACT Epilepsy is a neurological condition that sometimes pervades all domains of an affected child's life. At school, three specific threats to the wellbeing of children with epilepsy exist: (1) seizure-related injuries, (2) academic problems, and (3) stigmatization.

ABSTRACT Epilepsy is a neurological condition that sometimes pervades all domains of an affected child's life. At school, three specific threats to the wellbeing of children with epilepsy exist: (1) seizure-related injuries, (2) academic problems, and (3) stigmatization. Unfortunately, educators frequently fail to take into account educationally-relevant epilepsy information when making important decisions. One possible explanation for this is that parents are not sharing such information with teachers. This study surveyed 16 parents of children with epilepsy in order to determine the rate at which they disclosed the epilepsy diagnoses to their children's teachers, as well as the difficulty with which they made the decision to disclose or withhold such information. In addition, the relationships between such disclosure and parent-participants' perceptions of the risks of epilepsy-related injuries, academic struggles, and stigmatization at school were examined. Results indicate that all participants disclosed their children's epilepsy diagnoses to their children's teachers, and most (69%) reported that making this decision was "very easy." There were no statistically significant associations between disclosure and any of three parental perception variables (perceptions of the threats of injury, academic problems, and stigmatization at school). Limitations, implications, and directions for future research are discussed.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
2011

150357-Thumbnail Image.png

Nonword item generation: predicting item difficulty in nonword repetition

Description

The current study employs item difficulty modeling procedures to evaluate the feasibility of potential generative item features for nonword repetition. Specifically, the extent to which the manipulated item features affect the theoretical mechanisms that underlie nonword repetition accuracy was estimated.

The current study employs item difficulty modeling procedures to evaluate the feasibility of potential generative item features for nonword repetition. Specifically, the extent to which the manipulated item features affect the theoretical mechanisms that underlie nonword repetition accuracy was estimated. Generative item features were based on the phonological loop component of Baddelely's model of working memory which addresses phonological short-term memory (Baddeley, 2000, 2003; Baddeley & Hitch, 1974). Using researcher developed software, nonwords were generated to adhere to the phonological constraints of Spanish. Thirty-six nonwords were chosen based on the set item features identified by the proposed cognitive processing model. Using a planned missing data design, two-hundred fifteen Spanish-English bilingual children were administered 24 of the 36 generated nonwords. Multiple regression and explanatory item response modeling techniques (e.g., linear logistic test model, LLTM; Fischer, 1973) were used to estimate the impact of item features on item difficulty. The final LLTM included three item radicals and two item incidentals. Results indicated that the LLTM predicted item difficulties were highly correlated with the Rasch item difficulties (r = .89) and accounted for a substantial amount of the variance in item difficulty (R2 = .79). The findings are discussed in terms of validity evidence in support of using the phonological loop component of Baddeley's model (2000) as a cognitive processing model for nonword repetition items and the feasibility of using the proposed radical structure as an item blueprint for the future generation of nonword repetition items.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
2011