Matching Items (21)

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Solar Powered Amphibious Transport

Description

The Solar Powered Amphibious Transport (SPAT) is an amphibious hovercraft that uses solar energy as a power source and is fully controlled via iOS application on a phone or tablet. The hovercraft field is relatively unexplored with a solar power

The Solar Powered Amphibious Transport (SPAT) is an amphibious hovercraft that uses solar energy as a power source and is fully controlled via iOS application on a phone or tablet. The hovercraft field is relatively unexplored with a solar power source, and one of the goals of the SPAT was to spark interest in sustainable hovercraft design. By challenging the potential of solar power, the SPAT proves that solar energy can be used in high power transportation applications. The second motive behind the creation a hovercraft was for it to serve as a disaster relief vehicle. A hovercraft can traverse both ground and water, which makes it ideal in flooded areas. With the SPAT being remote controlled it can allow the operator to stay at a safe distance while sending supplies or rescuing a person. The SPAT design covered multiple size options, however a small prototype version was built to serve as a proof of concept that a larger solar hovercraft is possible. Our analysis suggests that a larger craft will be able to carry more weight, and be more power efficient. A larger SPAT could help deliver supplies or rescue stranded people after a flood or hurricane. One issue faced however, was that many hovercrafts are highly expensive. The SPAT prototype was designed on a tight budget that did not exceed $800. The possibility of achieving this cost levels allows hovercraft to be a reasonable option for disaster relief agencies. After many long hours spent the SPAT became a fully operational remote control solar powered hovercraft.

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Date Created
2017-05

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Comparison of Iron-Related Recombination Centers in Boron, Gallium, and Indium Doped Silicon Analyzed by Defect Parameter Contour Mapping

Description

In this work, we are showing that iron (Fe) related defects in mono-silicon have very different recombination characteristics depending on the doping element employed. While the defect characteristics of the Fe in its dissociated state is comparably the same in

In this work, we are showing that iron (Fe) related defects in mono-silicon have very different recombination characteristics depending on the doping element employed. While the defect characteristics of the Fe in its dissociated state is comparably the same in the materials of investigation, the defect characteristics of the associated state vary considerably. By using, defect parameter contour mapping (DPCM), a newly developed method for analyzing temperature and injection dependent lifetime data, we have for the first time, been able to show that in the case of gallium doping it is the orthorhombic state of the Fe-acceptor complex that is dominating the lifetime.

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Date Created
2017-09-21

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Investigation of Amorphous Photocatalysts for Applications in Solar Water Splitting

Description

The purpose of this thesis was to investigate the properties of amorphous and crystalline NaTaO3 to determine what makes amorphous NaTaO3 a suitable photocatalyst for water splitting applications. Amorphous and nanocrystalline NaTaO3 were synthesized and characterized using X-Ray Diffraction (XRD),

The purpose of this thesis was to investigate the properties of amorphous and crystalline NaTaO3 to determine what makes amorphous NaTaO3 a suitable photocatalyst for water splitting applications. Amorphous and nanocrystalline NaTaO3 were synthesized and characterized using X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Raman Spectroscopy, and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR). The photocatalytic activity of the materials was analyzed using methylene blue degradation as an indicator of photocatalytic activity. The amorphous material showed significant photocatalytic activity in methylene blue degradation experiments, removing 100% of a 0.1 mmol methylene blue solution in 20 minutes, compared to the monoclinic crystalline NaTaO3, which showed negligible photocatalytic activity. Additional electrochemical characterization studies were carried out with methyl viologen (MV2+) to determine the band structure of the materials. Performing these synthesis and characterization has provided insight into further investigation of amorphous NaTaO3 and what makes the material an effective and inexpensive photocatalyst.

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Date Created
2014-05

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Electrical and Optical Characterization of Wide Band Gap Materials in the Zinc and Tin Oxynitride Family

Description

The investigation into wide band gap semiconductors for use in tandem solar cells has become an increasingly more researched area with many new absorbers outlining the landscape. Pairing silicon with another cheap wide band gap semiconductor absorber can generate more

The investigation into wide band gap semiconductors for use in tandem solar cells has become an increasingly more researched area with many new absorbers outlining the landscape. Pairing silicon with another cheap wide band gap semiconductor absorber can generate more efficient solar cell, which could continue to drive up the energy output from solar. One such recently researched wide band gap absorber is ZnSnN2. ZnSnN2 proves too difficult to form under most conditions, but has the necessary band gap to make it a potential earth abundant solar absorber. The deposition process for ZnSnN2 is usually conducted with Zn and Sn metal targets while flowing N2 gas. Due to restrictions with chamber depositions, instead ZnO and SnO2 targets were sputtered with N2 gas to attempt to form separate zinc and tin oxynitrides as an initial single target study prior to future combinatorial studies. The electrical and optical properties and crystal structure of these thin films were analyzed to determine the nitrogen incorporation in the thin films through X-ray diffraction, UV-Vis spectrophotometry, and 4-point probe measurements. The SnO2 thin films showed a clear response in the absorption coefficient leading but showed no observable XRD peak shift. Thus, it is unlikely that substantial amounts of nitrogen were incorporated into SnO¬2. ZnO showed a clear response increase in conductivity with N2 with an additional shift in the XRD peak at 300 °C and potential secondary phase peak. Nitrogen incorporation was achieved with fair amounts of certainty for the ZnO thin films.

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2019-05

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Study of photoluminescence from amorphous and crystalline silicon nanoparticles synthesized using a non-thermal plasma

Description

High photoluminescence (PL) quantum yields reported from amorphous (a-Si) and crystalline (c-Si) nanoparticles have opened up lots of possibilities for use of silicon in optical applications such as light emitting diodes (LEDs), photonics and solar cells with added processing and

High photoluminescence (PL) quantum yields reported from amorphous (a-Si) and crystalline (c-Si) nanoparticles have opened up lots of possibilities for use of silicon in optical applications such as light emitting diodes (LEDs), photonics and solar cells with added processing and cost benefits. However, the PL response and the mechanisms behind it are highly dependent on the matrix in which the nanoparticles are grown and on the growth method. While, the bottom-up approach for deposition of free standing nanoparticles seem to be perfectly suited for large area deposition for LED and solar cell applications, the dominant growth techniques (laser ablation and pyrolysis) have been shown to suffer from limitations in control over size distribution of nanoparticles and the requirement of equipment capable of withstanding high temperature. This led to the exploration of plasma based synthesis methods in this work.

Towards this effort, the development and automation of a novel tool “Anny” for synthesis of silicon nanoparticles using non-thermal plasma chamber is reported. These nanoparticles are then accelerated due to choked flow through a nozzle leading to substrate independent deposition. The nanoparticle properties are characterized against precursor gas flow rates and RF power to identify the optimum growth conditions for a stable, continuous deposition. It is found that amorphous nanoparticles offer a wide variety of chamber conditions for growth with a high throughput, stable plasma for continuous, long term operations.

The quantum confinement model for crystalline and spatial confinement models for amorphous nanoparticles in our size regime (6-8nm) are suggested for free standing nanoparticles and we report a high PL output from well passivated amorphous nanoparticles.

The PL output and its dependence on stability of surface hydrogen passivation is explored using Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). It is shown that the amorphous nanoparticles have a better and more stable passivation compared to crystalline nanoparticles grown under similar conditions. Hence, we show a-Si nanoparticles as exciting alternatives for optical applications to c-Si nanoparticles.

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Date Created
2015

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Growth and characterization of pyrite thin films for photovoltaic applications

Description

A series of pyrite thin films were synthesized using a novel sequential evaporation

technique to study the effects of substrate temperature on deposition rate and micro-structure of

the deposited material. Pyrite was deposited in a monolayer-by-monolayer fashion using

sequential evaporation of Fe under

A series of pyrite thin films were synthesized using a novel sequential evaporation

technique to study the effects of substrate temperature on deposition rate and micro-structure of

the deposited material. Pyrite was deposited in a monolayer-by-monolayer fashion using

sequential evaporation of Fe under high vacuum, followed by sulfidation at high S pressures

(typically > 1 mTorr to 1 Torr). Thin films were synthesized using two different growth processes; a

one-step process in which a constant growth temperature is maintained throughout growth, and a

three-step process in which an initial low temperature seed layer is deposited, followed by a high

temperature layer, and then finished with a low temperature capping layer. Analysis methods to

analyze the properties of the films included Glancing Angle X-Ray Diffraction (GAXRD),

Rutherford Back-scattering Spectroscopy (RBS), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM),

Secondary Ion Mass Spectroscopy (SIMS), 2-point IV measurements, and Hall effect

measurements. Our results show that crystallinity of the pyrite thin film improves and grain size

increases with increasing substrate temperature. The sticking coefficient of Fe was found to

increase with increasing growth temperature, indicating that the Fe incorporation into the growing

film is a thermally activated process.

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Created

Date Created
2014

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Carrier lifetime measurement for characterization of ultraclean thin p/p+ silicon epitaxial layers

Description

Carrier lifetime is one of the few parameters which can give information about the low defect densities in today's semiconductors. In principle there is no lower limit to the defect density determined by lifetime measurements. No other technique can easily

Carrier lifetime is one of the few parameters which can give information about the low defect densities in today's semiconductors. In principle there is no lower limit to the defect density determined by lifetime measurements. No other technique can easily detect defect densities as low as 10-9 - 10-10 cm-3 in a simple, contactless room temperature measurement. However in practice, recombination lifetime τr measurements such as photoconductance decay (PCD) and surface photovoltage (SPV) that are widely used for characterization of bulk wafers face serious limitations when applied to thin epitaxial layers, where the layer thickness is smaller than the minority carrier diffusion length Ln. Other methods such as microwave photoconductance decay (µ-PCD), photoluminescence (PL), and frequency-dependent SPV, where the generated excess carriers are confined to the epitaxial layer width by using short excitation wavelengths, require complicated configuration and extensive surface passivation processes that make them time-consuming and not suitable for process screening purposes. Generation lifetime τg, typically measured with pulsed MOS capacitors (MOS-C) as test structures, has been shown to be an eminently suitable technique for characterization of thin epitaxial layers. It is for these reasons that the IC community, largely concerned with unipolar MOS devices, uses lifetime measurements as a "process cleanliness monitor." However when dealing with ultraclean epitaxial wafers, the classic MOS-C technique measures an effective generation lifetime τg eff which is dominated by the surface generation and hence cannot be used for screening impurity densities. I have developed a modified pulsed MOS technique for measuring generation lifetime in ultraclean thin p/p+ epitaxial layers which can be used to detect metallic impurities with densities as low as 10-10 cm-3. The widely used classic version has been shown to be unable to effectively detect such low impurity densities due to the domination of surface generation; whereas, the modified version can be used suitably as a metallic impurity density monitoring tool for such cases.

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Created

Date Created
2013

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Development of a diffused junction silicon solar cell pilot line

Description

In the interest of expediting future pilot line start-ups for solar cell research, the development of Arizona State University's student-led pilot line at the Solar Power Laboratory is discussed extensively within this work. Several experiments and characterization techniques used to

In the interest of expediting future pilot line start-ups for solar cell research, the development of Arizona State University's student-led pilot line at the Solar Power Laboratory is discussed extensively within this work. Several experiments and characterization techniques used to formulate and optimize a series of processes for fabricating diffused-junction, screen-printed silicon solar cells are expounded upon. An experiment is conducted in which the thickness of a PECVD deposited anti-reflection coating (ARC) is varied across several samples and modeled as a function of deposition time. Using this statistical model in tandem with reflectance measurements for each sample, the ARC thickness is optimized to increase light trapping in the solar cells. A response surface model (RSM) experiment is conducted in which 3 process parameters are varied on the PECVD tool for the deposition of the ARCs on several samples. A contactless photoconductance decay (PCD) tool is used to measure the dark saturation currents of these samples. A statistical analysis is performed using JMP in which optimum deposition parameters are found. A separate experiment shows an increase in the passivation quality of the a-SiNx:H ARCs deposited on the solar cells made on the line using these optimum parameters. A RSM experiment is used to optimize the printing process for a particular silver paste in a similar fashion, the results of which are confirmed by analyzing the series resistance of subsequent cells fabricated on the line. An in-depth explanation of a more advanced analysis using JMP and PCD measurements on the passivation quality of 3 aluminum back-surface fields (BSF) is given. From this experiment, a comparison of the means is conducted in order to choose the most effective BSF paste for cells fabricated on the line. An experiment is conducted in parallel which confirms the results via Voc measurements. It is shown that in a period of 11 months, the pilot line went from producing a top cell efficiency of 11.5% to 17.6%. Many of these methods used for the development of this pilot line are equally applicable to other cell structures, and can easily be applied to other solar cell pilot lines.

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Date Created
2014

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Quantifying carrier selective contacts in solar cells

Description

A basic theory and terminology that comprehensively applies to all different types

of contacts in silicon solar cells has, thus far, been elusive. While the well established diode model has been applied to many of the complex contacts, the theory is

A basic theory and terminology that comprehensively applies to all different types

of contacts in silicon solar cells has, thus far, been elusive. While the well established diode model has been applied to many of the complex contacts, the theory is not adequate to intuitively describe the characteristics of novel contacts. This thesis shows that the many desirable characteristics of contacts that are discussed in the literature—carrier selectivity, passivation, and low majority carrier conductance, key among them—originate from the resistance to electrons and holes in the contact. These principles are applied to describe a few popular contact technologies in order to pave the path to envisioning novel contacts. Metrics for contact performance is introduced to quantify each of the above characteristics using the two carrier resistances. The the validity of the proposed metrics is explored using extensive PC-1D simulations.

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Created

Date Created
2016

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Optimization of monocrystalline MgxCd1-xTe/MgyCd1-yTe double-heterostructure solar cells

Description

Polycrystalline CdS/CdTe solar cells continue to dominate the thin-film photovoltaics industry with an achieved record efficiency of over 22% demonstrated by First Solar, yet monocrystalline CdTe devices have received considerably less attention over the years. Monocrystalline CdTe double-heterostructure solar cells

Polycrystalline CdS/CdTe solar cells continue to dominate the thin-film photovoltaics industry with an achieved record efficiency of over 22% demonstrated by First Solar, yet monocrystalline CdTe devices have received considerably less attention over the years. Monocrystalline CdTe double-heterostructure solar cells show great promise with respect to addressing the problem of low Voc with the passing of the 1 V benchmark. Rapid progress has been made in driving the efficiency in these devices ever closer to the record presently held by polycrystalline thin-films. This achievement is primarily due to the utilization of a remote p-n heterojunction in which the heavily doped contact materials, which are so problematic in terms of increasing non-radiative recombination inside the absorber, are moved outside of the CdTe double heterostructure with two MgyCd1-yTe barrier layers to provide confinement and passivation at the CdTe surfaces. Using this design, the pursuit and demonstration of efficiencies beyond 20% in CdTe solar cells is reported through the study and optimization of the structure barriers, contacts layers, and optical design. Further development of a wider bandgap MgxCd1-xTe solar cell based on the same design is included with the intention of applying this knowledge to the development of a tandem solar cell constructed on a silicon subcell. The exploration of different hole-contact materials—ZnTe, CuZnS, and a-Si:H—and their optimization is presented throughout the work. Devices utilizing a-Si:H hole contacts exhibit open-circuit voltages of up to 1.11 V, a maximum total-area efficiency of 18.5% measured under AM1.5G, and an active-area efficiency of 20.3% for CdTe absorber based devices. The achievement of voltages beyond 1.1V while still maintaining relatively high fill factors with no rollover, either before or after open-circuit, is a promising indicator that this approach can result in devices surpassing the 22% record set by polycrystalline designs. MgxCd1-xTe absorber based devices have been demonstrated with open-circuit voltages of up to 1.176 V and a maximum active-area efficiency of 11.2%. A discussion of the various loss mechanisms present within these devices, both optical and electrical, concludes with the presentation of a series of potential design changes meant to address these issues.

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Created

Date Created
2017