Matching Items (53)

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Design and Simulation of Controllers for Multi-Robot Transport over Inclines

Description

The goal of this thesis is designing controllers for swarm robots transport a payload over inclines. Several fields of study are related to this study, including control theory, dynamic modeling

The goal of this thesis is designing controllers for swarm robots transport a payload over inclines. Several fields of study are related to this study, including control theory, dynamic modeling and programming. MATLAB, a tool of design controller and simulation, is used in this thesis.

To achieve this goal, a model of swarm robots transportation should be designed, which is cruise control for this scenario. Secondly, based on free body diagram, force equilibrium equation can be deduced. Then, the function of plant can be deduced based on cruise control and force equilibrium equations. Thirdly, list potential controllers, which may implement desired controls of swarm robots, and test their performance. Modify value of gains and do simulations of these controller. After analyzing results of simulation, the best controller can be selected.

In the last section, there is conclusion of entire thesis project and pointing out future work. The section of future work will mention potential difficulties of building entire control system, which allow swarm robots transport over inclines in real environment.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2019-05

A Concept for Using Superformula and Information Theory to Identify and Prioritize Interesting Objects in Autonomous Exploration

Description

In order to refine autonomous exploratory movement planning schemes, an approach must be developed that accounts for valuable information other than that gained from map filling. To this end, the

In order to refine autonomous exploratory movement planning schemes, an approach must be developed that accounts for valuable information other than that gained from map filling. To this end, the goal of this thesis is divided into two parts. The first is to develop a technique for categorizing objects detected by an autonomous exploratory robot and assigning them a score based on their interest value. The second is an attempt to develop a method of integrating this technique into a navigation algorithm in order to refine the movements of a robot or robots to maximize the efficiency of information gain. The intention of both of these components is to provide a method of refining the navigation scheme applied to autonomous exploring robots and maximize the amount of information they can gather in deployments where they face significant resource or functionality constraints. To this end this project is divided into two main sections: a shape-matching technique and a simulation in in which to implement this technique. The first section was accomplished by combining concepts from information theory, principal component analysis, and the eigenfaces algorithm to create an effective matching technique. The second was created with inspiration from existing navigation algorithms. Once these components were determined to be functional, a testing regime was applied to determine their capabilities. The testing regime was also divided into two parts. The tests applied to the matching technique were first to demonstrate that it functions under ideal conditions. After testing was conducted under ideal conditions, the technique was tested under non-ideal conditions. Additional tests were run to determine how the system responded to changes in the coefficients and equations that govern its operation. Similarly, the simulation component was initially tested under normal conditions to determine the base effectiveness of the approach. After these tests were conducted, alternative conditions were tested to evaluate the effects of modifying the implementation technique. The results of these tests indicated a few things. The first series of tests confirmed that the matching technique functions as expected under ideal conditions. The second series of tests determined that the matching element is effective for a reasonable range of variations and non-ideal conditions. The third series of tests showed that changing the functional coefficients of the matching technique can help tune the technique to different conditions. The fourth series of tests demonstrated that the basic concept of the implementation technique makes sense. The final series of tests demonstrated that modifying the implementation method is at least somewhat effective and that modifications to it can be used to specifically tailor the implementation to a method. Overall the results indicate that the stated goals of the project were accomplished successfully.

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Date Created
  • 2016-12

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Design and Testing of a Low-Cost Force Sensor for a Small Robotic Manipulator

Description

This thesis details the process of developing a force feedback system for a small robotic manipulator in order to prevent damage to manipulators and the objects they are grasping, which

This thesis details the process of developing a force feedback system for a small robotic manipulator in order to prevent damage to manipulators and the objects they are grasping, which is a desired feature in many autonomous robots. This includes the research, design, fabrication, and testing of a custom force-sensing resistor and a custom set of jaws to implement the feedback system on. In order to complete this project, extensive research went to designing and building test beds for the commercial and custom force sensors to determine if force values could even be obtained. Then the sensors were implemented on a manipulator and were evaluated for ease of use during assembly and testing, accuracy, and repeatability of results using a test bed designed during the course of this research. Afterwards the custom jaws were designed and fabricated based on problems encountered during testing with the initial set of jaws. The new jaws were then tested on the test bed with the sensors and the force feedback system was implemented on it. The overall system was then evaluated for any current limitations and improvements that could be made in the future to further develop this research and assist with its implementation on other robots. The results of this experiment show that a low-cost force sensor that is easy to mass produce can be implemented on an autonomous robot to add force feedback capabilities to it. It is hopeful that the results from the experiments conducted are implemented on robotic manipulators so the area of force sensing technologies research can be expanded upon and improved.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2017-12

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Autonomous Racing: An Exploration of Localization, Waypoint Following, and Actuation for High-Speed Autonomous Vehicles

Description

The objective of this project was to research and experimentally test methods of localization, waypoint following, and actuation for high-speed driving by an autonomous vehicle. This thesis describes the implementation

The objective of this project was to research and experimentally test methods of localization, waypoint following, and actuation for high-speed driving by an autonomous vehicle. This thesis describes the implementation of LiDAR localization techniques, Model Predictive Control waypoint following, and communication for actuation on a 2016 Chevrolet Camaro, Arizona State University’s former EcoCAR. The LiDAR localization techniques include the NDT Mapping and Matching algorithms from the open-source autonomous vehicle platform, Autoware. The mapping algorithm was supplemented by that of Google Cartographer due to the limitations of map size in Autoware’s algorithms. The Model Predictive Control for waypoint following and the computer-microcontroller-actuator communication line are described. In addition to this experimental work, the thesis discusses an investigation of alternative approaches for each problem.

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Date Created
  • 2020-05

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RFID Assisted Traffic Sign Recognition System for Autonomous Vehicles

Description

This research report investigates the feasibility of using RFID in Traffic Sign Recognition (TSR) Systems for autonomous vehicles, specifically driver-less cars. Driver-less cars are becoming more prominent in society but

This research report investigates the feasibility of using RFID in Traffic Sign Recognition (TSR) Systems for autonomous vehicles, specifically driver-less cars. Driver-less cars are becoming more prominent in society but must be designed to integrate with the current transportation infrastructure. Current research in TSR systems use image processing as well as LIDAR to identify traffic signs, yet these are highly dependent on lighting conditions, camera quality and sign visibility. The read rates of current TSR systems in literature are approximately 96 percent. The usage of RFID in TSR systems can improve the performance of traditional TSR systems. An RFID TSR was designed for the Autonomous Pheeno Test-bed at the Arizona State University (ASU) Autonomous Collective Systems (ACS) Laboratory. The system was tested with varying parameters to see the effect of the parameters on the read rate. It was found that high reader strength and low tag distance had a maximum read rate of 96.3 percent, which is comparable to existing literature. It was proven that an RFID TSR can perform as well as traditional TSR systems, and has the capacity to improve accuracy when used alongside RGB cameras and LIDAR.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2018-05

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Attitudes Towards Autonomous Vehicles (AVs): Insights Gained through Surveys and Proposed Experiments on a Small-Scale Traffic Testbed

Description

In the next decade or so, there will be a shift in the industry of transportation across the world. Already today we have autonomous vehicles (AVs) tested in the Greater

In the next decade or so, there will be a shift in the industry of transportation across the world. Already today we have autonomous vehicles (AVs) tested in the Greater Phoenix area showing that the technology has improved to a level available to the public eye. Although this technology is not yet released commercially (for the most part), it is being used and will continue to be used to develop a safer future. With a high incidence of human error causing accidents, many expect that autonomous vehicles will be safer than human drivers. They do still require driver attention and sometimes intervention to ensure safety, but for the most part are much safer. In just the United States alone, there were 40,000 deaths due to car accidents last year [1]. If traffic fatalities were considered a disease, this would be an epidemic. The technology behind autonomous vehicles will allow for a much safer environment and increased mobility and independence for people who cannot drive and struggle with public transport. There are many opportunities for autonomous vehicles in the transportation industry. Companies can save a lot more money on shipping by cutting the costs of human drivers and trucks on the road, even allowing for simpler drop shipments should the necessary AI be developed.Research is even being done by several labs at Arizona State University. For example, Dr. Spring Berman’s Autonomous Collective Systems Lab has been collaborating with Dr. Nancy Cooke of Human Systems Engineering to develop a traffic testbed, CHARTopolis, to study the risks of driver-AV interactions and the psychological effects of AVs on human drivers on a small scale. This testbed will be used by researchers from their labs and others to develop testing on reaction, trust, and user experience with AVs in a safe environment that simulates conditions similar to those experienced by full-size AVs. Using a new type of small robot that emulates an AV, developed in Dr. Berman’s lab, participants will be able to remotely drive around a model city environment and interact with other AV-like robots using the cameras and LiDAR sensors on the remotely driven robot to guide them.
Although these commercial and research systems are still in testing, it is important to understand how AVs are being marketed to the general public and how they are perceived, so that one day they may be effectively adopted into everyday life. People do not want to see a car they do not trust on the same roads as them, so the questions are: why don’t people trust them, and how can companies and researchers improve the trustworthiness of the vehicles?

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Created

Date Created
  • 2019-05

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Image Processing for an Autonomous Throwing Arm and Smart Catching System

Description

In this paper, we propose an autonomous throwing and catching system to be developed as a preliminary step towards the refinement of a robotic arm capable of improving strength and

In this paper, we propose an autonomous throwing and catching system to be developed as a preliminary step towards the refinement of a robotic arm capable of improving strength and motor function in the limb. This will be accomplished by first autonomizing simpler movements, such as throwing a ball. In this system, an autonomous thrower will detect a desired target through the use of image processing. The launch angle and direction necessary to hit the target will then be calculated, followed by the launching of the ball. The smart catcher will then detect the ball as it is in the air, calculate its expected landing location based on its initial trajectory, and adjust its position so that the ball lands in the center of the target. The thrower will then proceed to compare the actual landing position with the position where it expected the ball to land, and adjust its calculations accordingly for the next throw. By utilizing this method of feedback, the throwing arm will be able to automatically correct itself. This means that the thrower will ideally be able to hit the target exactly in the center within a few throws, regardless of any additional uncertainty in the system. This project will focus of the controller and image processing components necessary for the autonomous throwing arm to be able to detect the position of the target at which it will be aiming, and for the smart catcher to be able to detect the position of the projectile and estimate its final landing position by tracking its current trajectory.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2018-05

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Development of Graphical User Interfaces and Algorithms for Controlling a Robotic Swarm

Description

The aim of this project was to develop user-friendly methods for programming and controlling a new type of small robot platform, called Pheeno, both individually and as part of a

The aim of this project was to develop user-friendly methods for programming and controlling a new type of small robot platform, called Pheeno, both individually and as part of a group. Two literature reviews are presented to justify the need for these robots and to discuss what other platforms have been developed for similar applications. In order to accomplish control of multiple robots work was done on controlling a single robot first. The response of a gripper arm attachment for the robot was smoothed, graphical user interfaces were developed, and commands were sent to a single robot using a video game controller. For command of multiple robots a class was developed in Python to make it simpler to send commands and keep track of different characteristics of each individual robot. A simple script was also created as a proof of concept to show how threading could be used to send different commands simultaneously to multiple robots in order to test algorithms on a group of robots. The class and two other scripts necessary for implementing the class are also presented to make it possible for future use of the given work.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2016-05

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An Adaptive Boundary Coverage Control Strategy for Swarm Robotic Systems

Description

This thesis presents an approach to design and implementation of an adaptive boundary coverage control strategy for a swarm robotic system. Several fields of study are relevant to this project,

This thesis presents an approach to design and implementation of an adaptive boundary coverage control strategy for a swarm robotic system. Several fields of study are relevant to this project, including; dynamic modeling, control theory, programming, and robotic design. Tools and techniques from these fields were used to design and implement a model simulation and an experimental testbed. To achieve this goal, a simulation of the boundary coverage control strategy was first developed. This simulated model allowed for concept verification for different robot groups and boundary designs. The simulation consisted of a single, constantly expanding circular boundary with a modeled swarm of robots that autonomously allocate themselves around the boundary. Ultimately, this simulation was implemented in an experimental testbed consisting of mobile robots and a moving boundary wall to exhibit the behaviors of the simulated robots. The conclusions from this experiment are hoped to help make further advancements to swarm robotic technology. The results presented show promise for future progress in adaptive control strategies for robotic swarms.

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Date Created
  • 2017-05

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Modeling, Analysis, Control and Design of Highly Maneuverable Quadcopters

Description

With the revolution of low-cost microelectronics, rotary-wing vehicles have grown increasingly popular and important in the past two decades. With increased interest in quadcopters comes the need to for a

With the revolution of low-cost microelectronics, rotary-wing vehicles have grown increasingly popular and important in the past two decades. With increased interest in quadcopters comes the need to for a systematic and rigorous framework to model, analyze, control, and design them. This thesis presents the beginning of such a framework.

The work presents the nonlinear equations of motion of a quadcopter. This includes the translational and rotational equations of motion, as well as an analysis of the nonlinear actuator dynamics. The work then analyzes the static properties of a quadcopter in forward flight equilibrium and shows how static properties change as physical properties of the vehicle are varied. Next, the dynamics of forward flight are linearized, and a dynamic analysis is provided.

After dynamic analysis, the work shows detailed hierarchical control system design trade studies, which includes attitude and translational inner-outer loop control. Among other designs, the following are presented: PD control, proportional control, pole-placement control. Each of these control architectures are employed for the inner loops and outer loops. The work also analyzes linear versus nonlinear simulation performance of a quadcopter, specifically for a step x-axis reference command. It is found that the nonlinear dynamics of the actuator cause significant discrepancy between linear and nonlinear simulation.

Finally, this thesis establishes directions for future graduate research. This includes hardware design, as well as moving toward design of a highly-maneuverable thrust-vectoring quadrotor which will be the focus of the proposed graduate PhD research. In summary, this thesis provides the beginning of a cohesive framework to model, analyze, control, and design quadcopters. It also lays the groundwork for graduate research and beyond.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2019-12