Matching Items (24)

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Measuring the Index of Refraction of a Medium through the use of a Michelson Interferometer

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In this experiment, an attempt was made to measure the index of refraction of a thin glass microscope slide, with a known thickness of 1.01 mm. A monochromatic laser with

In this experiment, an attempt was made to measure the index of refraction of a thin glass microscope slide, with a known thickness of 1.01 mm. A monochromatic laser with wavelength of 532nm was employed to generate the interference pattern through the use of a Michelson interferometer. The slide was placed in the path of one of the beams. The slide could then be rotated through a series of angles, and, from the resulting changes in the interference pattern, the index of refraction of the slide could be extracted. The index of refraction was found to be 1.5±0.02.

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  • 2014-05

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Synthesis and Characterization of Laser Plasma that Produces Pseudocarbyne Using Laser Pulses

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Carbon allotropes are the basis for many exciting advancements in technology. While sp² and sp³ hybridizations are well understood, the sp¹ hybridized carbon has been elusive. However, with recent advances

Carbon allotropes are the basis for many exciting advancements in technology. While sp² and sp³ hybridizations are well understood, the sp¹ hybridized carbon has been elusive. However, with recent advances made using a pulsed laser ablation in liquid technique, sp¹ hybridized carbon allotropes have been created. The fabricated carbon chain is composed of sp¹ and sp³ hybridized bonds, but it also incorporates nanoparticles such as gold or possibly silver to stabilize the chain. The polyyne generated in this process is called pseudocarbyne due to its striking resemblance to the theoretical carbyne. The formation of these carbon chains is yet to be fully understood, but significant progress has been made in determining the temperature of the plasma in which the pseudocarbyne is formed. When a 532 nm pulsed laser with a pulsed energy of 250 mJ and pulse length of 10ns is used to ablate a gold target, a peak temperature of 13400 K is measured. When measured using Laser-Induced Breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) the average temperature of the neutral carbon plasma over one second was 4590±172 K. This temperature strongly suggests that the current theoretical model used to describe the temperature at which pseudocarbyne generates is accurate.

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  • 2019-05

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Determination of electrostatic potential and charge distribution of semiconductor nanostructures using off-axis electron holography

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The research of this dissertation involved quantitative characterization of electrostatic potential and charge distribution of semiconductor nanostructures using off-axis electron holography, as well as other electron microscopy techniques. The investigated

The research of this dissertation involved quantitative characterization of electrostatic potential and charge distribution of semiconductor nanostructures using off-axis electron holography, as well as other electron microscopy techniques. The investigated nanostructures included Ge quantum dots, Ge/Si core/shell nanowires, and polytype heterostructures in ZnSe nanobelts. Hole densities were calculated for the first two systems, and the spontaneous polarization for wurtzite ZnSe was determined. Epitaxial Ge quantum dots (QDs) embedded in boron-doped silicon were studied. Reconstructed phase images showed extra phase shifts near the base of the QDs, which was attributed to hole accumulation in these regions. The resulting charge density was (0.03±0.003) holes
m3, which corresponded to about 30 holes localized to a pyramidal, 25-nm-wide Ge QD. This value was in reasonable agreement with the average number of holes confined to each Ge dot determined using a capacitance-voltage measurement. Hole accumulation in Ge/Si core/shell nanowires was observed and quantified using off-axis electron holography and other electron microscopy techniques. High-angle annular-dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy images and electron holograms were obtained from specific nanowires. The intensities of the former were utilized to calculate the projected thicknesses for both the Ge core and the Si shell. The excess phase shifts measured by electron holography across the nanowires indicated the presence of holes inside the Ge cores. The hole density in the core regions was calculated to be (0.4±0.2)
m3 based on a simplified coaxial cylindrical model. Homogeneous zincblende/wurtzite heterostructure junctions in ZnSe nanobelts were studied. The observed electrostatic fields and charge accumulation were attributed to spontaneous polarization present in the wurtzite regions since the contributions from piezoelectric polarization were shown to be insignificant based on geometric phase analysis. The spontaneous polarization for the wurtzite ZnSe was calculated to be psp = -(0.0029±0.00013) C/m2, whereas a first principles' calculation gave psp = -0.0063 C/m2. The atomic arrangements and polarity continuity at the zincblende/wurtzite interface were determined through aberration-corrected high-angle annular-dark-field imaging, which revealed no polarity reversal across the interface. Overall, the successful outcomes of these studies confirmed the capability of off-axis electron holography to provide quantitative electrostatic information for nanostructured materials.

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  • 2011

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Ferroelectric lithium niobate surfaces for depositions of metallic nanostructure and ZnO semiconducting thin film

Description

A distinct characteristic of ferroelectric materials is the existence of a reversible spontaneous polarization with the application of an electric field. The relevant properties ferroelectric lithium niobate surfaces include a

A distinct characteristic of ferroelectric materials is the existence of a reversible spontaneous polarization with the application of an electric field. The relevant properties ferroelectric lithium niobate surfaces include a low density of defects and external screening of the bound polarization charge. These properties result in unique surface electric field distribution with a strong electric field in the vicinity of domain boundaries, while away from the boundaries, the field decreases rapidly. In this work, ferroelectric lithium niobate (LN) is used as a template to direct the assembly of metallic nanostructures via photo-induced reduction and a substrate for deposition of ZnO semiconducting thin films via plasma enhanced atomic layer deposition (PE-ALD). To understand the mechanism the photo-induced deposition process the following effects were considered: the illumination photon energy and intensity, the polarization screening mechanism of the lithium niobate template and the chemical concentration. Depending on the UV wavelength, variation of Ag deposition rate and boundary nanowire formation are observed and attributed to the unique surface electric field distribution of the polarity patterned template and the penetration depth of UV light. Oxygen implantation is employed to transition the surface from external screening to internal screening, which results in depressed boundary nanowire formation. The ratio of the photon flux and Ag ion flux to the surface determine the deposition pattern. Domain boundary deposition is enhanced with a high photon/Ag ion flux ratio while domain boundary deposition is depressed with a low photon/Ag ion flux ratio. These results also support the photo-induced deposition model where the process is limited by carrier generation, and the cation reduction occurs at the surface. These findings will provide a foundational understanding to employ ferroelectric templates for assembly and patterning of inorganic, organic, biological, and integrated structures. ZnO films deposited on positive and negative domain surfaces of LN demonstrate different I-V curve behavior at different temperatures. At room temperature, ZnO deposited on positive domains exhibits almost two orders of magnitude greater conductance than on negative domains. The conductance of ZnO on positive domains decreases with increasing temperature while the conductance of ZnO on negative domains increases with increasing temperature. The observations are interpreted in terms of the downward or upward band bending at the ZnO/LN interface which is induced by the ferroelectric polarization charge. Possible application of this effect in non-volatile memory devices is proposed for future work.

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Date Created
  • 2011

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Investigation of light absorption and emission in Ge and GeSn films grown on Si substrates

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Ge1-ySny alloys represent a new class of photonic materials for integrated optoelectronics on Si. In this work, the electrical and optical properties of Ge1-ySny alloy films grown on Si, with

Ge1-ySny alloys represent a new class of photonic materials for integrated optoelectronics on Si. In this work, the electrical and optical properties of Ge1-ySny alloy films grown on Si, with concentrations in the range 0 ≤ y ≤ 0.04, are studied via a variety of methods. The first microelectronic devices from GeSn films were fabricated using newly developed CMOS-compatible protocols, and the devices were characterized with respect to their electrical properties and optical response. The detectors were found to have a detection range that extends into the near-IR, and the detection edge is found to shift to longer wavelengths with increasing Sn content, mainly due to the compositional dependence of the direct band gap E0. With only 2 % Sn, all of the telecommunication bands are covered by a single detector. Room temperature photoluminescence was observed from GeSn films with Sn content up to 4 %. The peak wavelength of the emission was found to shift to lower energies with increasing Sn content, corresponding to the decrease in the direct band gap E0 of the material. An additional peak in the spectrum was assigned to the indirect band gap. The separation between the direct and indirect peaks was found to decrease with increasing Sn concentration, as expected. Electroluminescence was also observed from Ge/Si and Ge0.98Sn0.02 photodiodes under forward bias, and the luminescence spectra were found to match well with the observed photoluminescence spectra. A theoretical expression was developed for the luminescence due to the direct band gap and fit to the data.

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  • 2011

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Zeolites: structural properties and benchmarks of feasibility

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Zeolites are a class of microporous materials that are immensely useful as molecular sieves and catalysts. While there exist millions of hypothetical zeolite topologies, only 206 have been recognized to

Zeolites are a class of microporous materials that are immensely useful as molecular sieves and catalysts. While there exist millions of hypothetical zeolite topologies, only 206 have been recognized to exist in nature, and the question remains: What distinguishes known zeolite topologies from their hypothetical counterparts? It has been found that all 206 of the known zeolites can be represented as networks of rigid perfect tetrahedra that hinge freely at the connected corners. The range of configurations over which the corresponding geometric constraints can be met has been termed the "flexibility window". Only a small percentage of hypothetical types exhibit a flexibility window, and it is thus proposed that this simple geometric property, the existence of a flexibility window, provides a reliable benchmark for distinguishing potentially realizable hypothetical structures from their infeasible counterparts. As a first approximation of the behavior of real zeolite materials, the flexibility window provides additional useful insights into structure and composition. In this thesis, various methods for locating and exploring the flexibility window are discussed. Also examined is the assumption that the tetrahedral corners are force-free. This is a reasonable approximation in silicates for Si-O-Si angles above ~135°. However, the approximation is poor for germanates, where Ge-O-Ge angles are constrained to the range ~120°-145°. Lastly, a class of interesting low-density hypothetical zeolites is evaluated based on the feasibility criteria introduced.

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Date Created
  • 2013

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Femtosecond x-ray protein nanocrystallography and correlated fluctuation small-angle x-ray scattering

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With the advent of the X-ray free-electron laser (XFEL), an opportunity has arisen to break the nexus between radiation dose and spatial resolution in diffractive imaging, by outrunning radiation damage

With the advent of the X-ray free-electron laser (XFEL), an opportunity has arisen to break the nexus between radiation dose and spatial resolution in diffractive imaging, by outrunning radiation damage altogether when using single X-ray pulses so brief that they terminate before atomic motion commences. This dissertation concerns the application of XFELs to biomolecular imaging in an effort to overcome the severe challenges associated with radiation damage and macroscopic protein crystal growth. The method of femtosecond protein nanocrystallography (fsPNX) is investigated, and a new method for extracting crystallographic structure factors is demonstrated on simulated data and on the first experimental fsPNX data obtained at an XFEL. Errors are assessed based on standard metrics familiar to the crystallography community. It is shown that resulting structure factors match the quality of those measured conventionally, at least to 9 angstrom resolution. A new method for ab-initio phasing of coherently-illuminated nanocrystals is then demonstrated on simulated data. The method of correlated fluctuation small-angle X-ray scattering (CFSAXS) is also investigated as an alternative route to biomolecular structure determination, without the use of crystals. It is demonstrated that, for a constrained two-dimensional geometry, a projection image of a single particle can be formed, ab-initio and without modeling parameters, from measured diffracted intensity correlations arising from disordered ensembles of identical particles illuminated simultaneously. The method is demonstrated experimentally, based on soft X-ray diffraction from disordered but identical nanoparticles, providing the first experimental proof-of-principle result. Finally, the fundamental limitations of CFSAXS is investigated through both theory and simulations. It is found that the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) for CFSAXS data is essentially independent of the number of particles exposed in each diffraction pattern. The dependence of SNR on particle size and resolution is considered, and realistic estimates are made (with the inclusion of solvent scatter) of the SNR for protein solution scattering experiments utilizing an XFEL source.

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  • 2011

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Precision measurement of the radiative decay mode of the free neutron

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The theory of quantum electrodynamics predicts that beta decay of the neutron into a proton, electron, and anti-neutrino should be accompanied by a continuous spectrum of photons. A recent experiment,

The theory of quantum electrodynamics predicts that beta decay of the neutron into a proton, electron, and anti-neutrino should be accompanied by a continuous spectrum of photons. A recent experiment, RDK I, reported the first detection of radiative decay photons from neutron beta decay with a branching ratio of (3.09 ± 0.32) × 10-3 in the energy range of 15 keV to 340 keV. This was achieved by prompt coincident detection of an electron and photon, in delayed coincidence with a proton. The photons were detected by using a single bar of bismuth germanate scintillating crystal coupled to an avalanche photodiode. This thesis deals with the follow-up experiment, RDK II, to measure the branching ratio at the level of approximately 1% and the energy spectrum at the level of a few percent. The most significant improvement of RDK II is the use of a photon detector with about an order of magnitude greater solid angle coverage than RDK I. In addition, the detectable energy range has been extended down to approximately 250 eV and up to the endpoint energy of 782 keV. This dissertation presents an overview of the apparatus, development of a new data analysis technique for radiative decay, and results for the ratio of electron-proton-photon coincident Repg to electron-proton coincident Rep events.

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  • 2012

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Investigating Optoelectronic and Electronic Materials for Next Generation Semiconductor Devices

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This dissertation describes the characterization of optoelectronic and electronic materials being considered for next generation semiconductor devices, primarily using electron microscopy techniques. The research included refinement of growth parameters for

This dissertation describes the characterization of optoelectronic and electronic materials being considered for next generation semiconductor devices, primarily using electron microscopy techniques. The research included refinement of growth parameters for optimizing material quality, and investigation of heterostructured interfaces. The results provide better understanding of the fundamental materials science and should lead to future improvements in device applications.

A microstructural study of tin selenide and tin manganese selenide thin films grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) on GaAs (111)B substrates with different Se:Sn flux ratios and Mn concentrations was carried out. Low flux ratios lead to highly defective films, mostly consisting of SnSe, whereas higher flux ratios gave higher quality, single-phase SnSe2. The ternary (Sn,Mn)Se films evolved quasi-coherently, as the Mn concentration increased, from SnSe2 into a complex lattice, and then into MnSe with 3D rock-salt structure. These structural transformations should underlie the evolution of magnetic properties of this ternary system reported earlier in the literature.

II-VI/III-V compound semiconductor heterostructures have been characterized for growth in both single- and dual-chamber MBE systems. Three groups of lattice-matched materials have been investigated: i) 5.65Å materials based on GaAs, ii) 6.1Å materials based on InAs or GaSb, and iii) 6.5Å materials based on InSb. High quality II-VI materials grown on III-V substrates were demonstrated for ZnTe/GaSb and CdTe/InSb. III-V materials grown on II-VI buffer layers present additional challenges and were grown with varying degrees of success. InAsSb quantum wells in between ZnTe barriers were nearly defect-free, but showed 3D island growth. All other materials demonstrated flat interfaces, despite low growth temperature, but with stacking faults in the II-VI materials.

Femtosecond laser-induced defects (LIDs) in silicon solar cells were characterized using a variety of electron microscopy techniques. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) images showed that the intersections of laser lines, finger and busbar intersections, exhibited LIDs with the potential to shunt the contacts. SEM and transmission electron microscope (TEM) images correlated these LIDs with ablated c-Si and showed these defects to come in two sizes ~40nm and ~.5µm. The elemental profiles across defective and non-defective regions were found using energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy.

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Date Created
  • 2018

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Photoluminescence enhancement of Ge quantum dots by exploiting the localized surface plasmon of epitaxial Ag islands

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This dissertation presents research findings regarding the exploitation of localized surface plasmon (LSP) of epitaxial Ag islands as a means to enhance the photoluminescence (PL) of Germanium (Ge) quantum dots

This dissertation presents research findings regarding the exploitation of localized surface plasmon (LSP) of epitaxial Ag islands as a means to enhance the photoluminescence (PL) of Germanium (Ge) quantum dots (QDs). The first step of this project was to investigate the growth of Ag islands on Si(100). Two distinct families of Ag islands have been observed. “Big islands” are clearly faceted and have basal dimensions in the few hundred nm to μm range with a variety of basal shapes. “Small islands” are not clearly faceted and have basal diameters in the 10s of nm range. Big islands form via a nucleation and growth mechanism, and small islands form via precipitation of Ag contained in a planar layer between the big islands that is thicker than the Stranski-Krastanov layer existing at room-temperature.

The pseudodielectric functions of epitaxial Ag islands on Si(100) substrates were investigated with spectroscopic ellipsometry. Comparing the experimental pseudodielectric functions obtained for Si with and without Ag islands clearly identifies a plasmon mode with its dipole moment perpendicular to the surface. This observation is confirmed using a simulation based on the thin island film (TIF) theory. Another mode parallel to the surface may be identified by comparing the experimental pseudodielectric functions with the simulated ones from TIF theory. Additional results suggest that the LSP energy of Ag islands can be tuned from the ultra-violet to the infrared range by an amorphous Si (α-Si) cap layer.

Heterostructures were grown that incorporated Ge QDs, an epitaxial Si cap layer and Ag islands grown atop the Si cap layer. Optimum growth conditions for distinct Ge dot ensembles and Si cap layers were obtained. The density of Ag islands grown on the Si cap layer depends on its thickness. Factors contributing to this effect may include the average strain and Ge concentration on the surface of the Si cap layer.

The effects of the Ag LSP on the PL of Ge coherent domes were investigated for both α-Si capped and bare Ag islands. For samples with low-doped substrates, the LSPs reduce the Ge dot-related PL when the Si cap layer is below some critical thickness and have no effect on the PL when the Si cap layer is above the critical thickness. For samples grown on highly-doped wafers, the LSP of bare Ag islands enhanced the PL of Ge QDs by ~ 40%.

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Date Created
  • 2015