Matching Items (19)

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Measuring the Index of Refraction of a Medium through the use of a Michelson Interferometer

Description

In this experiment, an attempt was made to measure the index of refraction of a thin glass microscope slide, with a known thickness of 1.01 mm. A monochromatic laser with

In this experiment, an attempt was made to measure the index of refraction of a thin glass microscope slide, with a known thickness of 1.01 mm. A monochromatic laser with wavelength of 532nm was employed to generate the interference pattern through the use of a Michelson interferometer. The slide was placed in the path of one of the beams. The slide could then be rotated through a series of angles, and, from the resulting changes in the interference pattern, the index of refraction of the slide could be extracted. The index of refraction was found to be 1.5±0.02.

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  • 2014-05

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Ferroelectric lithium niobate surfaces for depositions of metallic nanostructure and ZnO semiconducting thin film

Description

A distinct characteristic of ferroelectric materials is the existence of a reversible spontaneous polarization with the application of an electric field. The relevant properties ferroelectric lithium niobate surfaces include a

A distinct characteristic of ferroelectric materials is the existence of a reversible spontaneous polarization with the application of an electric field. The relevant properties ferroelectric lithium niobate surfaces include a low density of defects and external screening of the bound polarization charge. These properties result in unique surface electric field distribution with a strong electric field in the vicinity of domain boundaries, while away from the boundaries, the field decreases rapidly. In this work, ferroelectric lithium niobate (LN) is used as a template to direct the assembly of metallic nanostructures via photo-induced reduction and a substrate for deposition of ZnO semiconducting thin films via plasma enhanced atomic layer deposition (PE-ALD). To understand the mechanism the photo-induced deposition process the following effects were considered: the illumination photon energy and intensity, the polarization screening mechanism of the lithium niobate template and the chemical concentration. Depending on the UV wavelength, variation of Ag deposition rate and boundary nanowire formation are observed and attributed to the unique surface electric field distribution of the polarity patterned template and the penetration depth of UV light. Oxygen implantation is employed to transition the surface from external screening to internal screening, which results in depressed boundary nanowire formation. The ratio of the photon flux and Ag ion flux to the surface determine the deposition pattern. Domain boundary deposition is enhanced with a high photon/Ag ion flux ratio while domain boundary deposition is depressed with a low photon/Ag ion flux ratio. These results also support the photo-induced deposition model where the process is limited by carrier generation, and the cation reduction occurs at the surface. These findings will provide a foundational understanding to employ ferroelectric templates for assembly and patterning of inorganic, organic, biological, and integrated structures. ZnO films deposited on positive and negative domain surfaces of LN demonstrate different I-V curve behavior at different temperatures. At room temperature, ZnO deposited on positive domains exhibits almost two orders of magnitude greater conductance than on negative domains. The conductance of ZnO on positive domains decreases with increasing temperature while the conductance of ZnO on negative domains increases with increasing temperature. The observations are interpreted in terms of the downward or upward band bending at the ZnO/LN interface which is induced by the ferroelectric polarization charge. Possible application of this effect in non-volatile memory devices is proposed for future work.

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Date Created
  • 2011

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Zeolites: structural properties and benchmarks of feasibility

Description

Zeolites are a class of microporous materials that are immensely useful as molecular sieves and catalysts. While there exist millions of hypothetical zeolite topologies, only 206 have been recognized to

Zeolites are a class of microporous materials that are immensely useful as molecular sieves and catalysts. While there exist millions of hypothetical zeolite topologies, only 206 have been recognized to exist in nature, and the question remains: What distinguishes known zeolite topologies from their hypothetical counterparts? It has been found that all 206 of the known zeolites can be represented as networks of rigid perfect tetrahedra that hinge freely at the connected corners. The range of configurations over which the corresponding geometric constraints can be met has been termed the "flexibility window". Only a small percentage of hypothetical types exhibit a flexibility window, and it is thus proposed that this simple geometric property, the existence of a flexibility window, provides a reliable benchmark for distinguishing potentially realizable hypothetical structures from their infeasible counterparts. As a first approximation of the behavior of real zeolite materials, the flexibility window provides additional useful insights into structure and composition. In this thesis, various methods for locating and exploring the flexibility window are discussed. Also examined is the assumption that the tetrahedral corners are force-free. This is a reasonable approximation in silicates for Si-O-Si angles above ~135°. However, the approximation is poor for germanates, where Ge-O-Ge angles are constrained to the range ~120°-145°. Lastly, a class of interesting low-density hypothetical zeolites is evaluated based on the feasibility criteria introduced.

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Date Created
  • 2013

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Femtosecond x-ray protein nanocrystallography and correlated fluctuation small-angle x-ray scattering

Description

With the advent of the X-ray free-electron laser (XFEL), an opportunity has arisen to break the nexus between radiation dose and spatial resolution in diffractive imaging, by outrunning radiation damage

With the advent of the X-ray free-electron laser (XFEL), an opportunity has arisen to break the nexus between radiation dose and spatial resolution in diffractive imaging, by outrunning radiation damage altogether when using single X-ray pulses so brief that they terminate before atomic motion commences. This dissertation concerns the application of XFELs to biomolecular imaging in an effort to overcome the severe challenges associated with radiation damage and macroscopic protein crystal growth. The method of femtosecond protein nanocrystallography (fsPNX) is investigated, and a new method for extracting crystallographic structure factors is demonstrated on simulated data and on the first experimental fsPNX data obtained at an XFEL. Errors are assessed based on standard metrics familiar to the crystallography community. It is shown that resulting structure factors match the quality of those measured conventionally, at least to 9 angstrom resolution. A new method for ab-initio phasing of coherently-illuminated nanocrystals is then demonstrated on simulated data. The method of correlated fluctuation small-angle X-ray scattering (CFSAXS) is also investigated as an alternative route to biomolecular structure determination, without the use of crystals. It is demonstrated that, for a constrained two-dimensional geometry, a projection image of a single particle can be formed, ab-initio and without modeling parameters, from measured diffracted intensity correlations arising from disordered ensembles of identical particles illuminated simultaneously. The method is demonstrated experimentally, based on soft X-ray diffraction from disordered but identical nanoparticles, providing the first experimental proof-of-principle result. Finally, the fundamental limitations of CFSAXS is investigated through both theory and simulations. It is found that the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) for CFSAXS data is essentially independent of the number of particles exposed in each diffraction pattern. The dependence of SNR on particle size and resolution is considered, and realistic estimates are made (with the inclusion of solvent scatter) of the SNR for protein solution scattering experiments utilizing an XFEL source.

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Date Created
  • 2011

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Oxygen nanodistributions in cobalt-iron electrodeposited thin films: some effect on magnetic properties, high resolution analytical electron microscopy

Description

Soft magnetic alloys play a significant role for magnetic recording applications and highly sensitivity magnetic field sensors. In order to sustain the magnetic areal density growth, development of new synthesis

Soft magnetic alloys play a significant role for magnetic recording applications and highly sensitivity magnetic field sensors. In order to sustain the magnetic areal density growth, development of new synthesis techniques and materials is necessary. In this work, the effect of oxygen incorporation during electrodeposition of CoFe alloys on magnetic properties, magnetoresistance and structural properties has been studied. Understanding the magnetic properties often required knowledge of oxygen distribution and structural properties of the grown films. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was a powerful tool in this study to correlate the oxygen-distribution nanostructure to the magnetic properties of deposited films. Off-axis electron holography in TEM was used to measure magnetic domain wall width in the deposited films. Elemental depth profiles of Fe, Co, O were investigated by secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS). Magnetic properties have been determined by superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) measurements. Oxygen content in the CoFe deposited films was controlled by electrolyte composition. Films were deposited on Si 100 substrates and on other substrates such as Cu and Al. However, a good film quality was achieved on Si substrate. Electron energy loss and x-ray spectroscopies showed that the low oxygen films contained intragranular Fe2+ oxide (FeO) particles and that the high oxygen films contained intergranular Fe3+ (Fe2O3) along grain boundaries. The films with oxide present at the grain boundary had significantly increased coercivity, magnetoresistance and reduced saturation magnetization relative to the lower oxygen content films with intragranular oxide. The differences in magnetic properties between low oxygen and high oxygen concentration films were attributed to stronger mobile domain wall interactions with the grain boundary oxide layers. The very high magnetoresistance values were achieved for magnetic devices with nanocontact dimension < 100 nm and oxide incorporation in this nanoconfined geometry. The content of oxide phase in nanocontact was controlled by concentration of the Fe3+ ions in the electrodeposition solution. Magnetic device integrity was improved by varying amount of additive into plating solution. These results indicated that electrodeposited CoFe nanocontact is a novel class of materials with large application for magnetic field sensors.

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  • 2012

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Tuning anomalous Hall effect and spin polarized current in magnetic ultrathin films

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In this dissertation I studied the anomalous Hall effect in MgO/Permalloy/Nonmagnetic Metal(NM) based structure, spin polarized current in YIG/Pt based thin films and the origin of the perpendicular magnetic anisotropy(PMA)

In this dissertation I studied the anomalous Hall effect in MgO/Permalloy/Nonmagnetic Metal(NM) based structure, spin polarized current in YIG/Pt based thin films and the origin of the perpendicular magnetic anisotropy(PMA) in the Ru/Co/Ru based structures.

The anomalous Hall effect is the observation of a nonzero voltage difference across a magnetic material transverse to the current that flows through the material and the external magnetic field. Unlike the ordinary Hall effect which is observed in nonmagnetic metals, the anomalous Hall effect is only observed in magnetic materials and is orders of magnitude larger than the ordinary Hall effect. Unlike quantum anomalous Hall effect which only works in low temperature and extremely large magnetic field, anomalous Hall effect can be measured at room temperature under a relatively small magnetic field. This allows the anomalous Hall effect to have great potential applications in spintronics and be a good characterization tool for ferromagnetic materials especially materials that have perpendicular magnetic anisotropy(PMA).

In my research, it is observed that a polarity change of the Hall resistance in the MgO/Permalloy/NM structure can be obtained when certain nonmagnetic metal is used as the capping layer while no polarity change is observed when some other metal is used as the capping layer. This allows us to tune the polarity of the anomalous Hall effect by changing the thickness of a component of the structure. My conclusion is that an intrinsic mechanism from Berry curvature plays an important role in the sign of anomalous Hall resistivity in the MgO/Py/HM structures. Surface and interfacial scattering also make substantial contribution to the measured Hall resistivity.

Spin polarization(P) is one of the key concepts in spintronics and is defined as the difference in the spin up and spin down electron population near the Fermi level of a conductor. It has great applications in the spintronics field such as the creation of spin transfer torques, magnetic tunnel junction(MTJ), spintronic logic devices.

In my research, spin polarization is measured on platinum layers grown on a YIG layer. Platinum is a nonmagnetic metal with strong spin orbit coupling which intrinsically has zero spin polarization. Nontrivial spin polarization measured by ARS is observed in the Pt layer when it is grown on YIG ferromagnetic insulator. This result is contrary to the zero spin polarization in the Pt layer when it is grown directly on SiO2 substrate. Magnetic proximity effect and spin current pumping from YIG into Pt is proposed as the reason of the nontrivial spin polarization induced in Pt. An even higher spin polarization in the Pt layer is observed when an ultrathin NiO layer or Cu layer is inserted between Pt and YIG which blocks the proximity effect. The spin polarization in the NiO inserted sample shows temperature dependence. This demonstrates that the spin current transmission is further enhanced in ultrathin NiO layers through magnon and spin fluctuations.

Perpendicular Magnetic Anisotropy(PMA) has important applications in spintronics and magnetic storage. In the last chapter, I study the origin of PMA in one of the structures that shows PMA: Ru/Co/Ru. By measuring the ARS curve while changing the magnetic field orientation, the origin of the PMA in this structure is determined to be the strain induced by lattice mismatch.

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Date Created
  • 2018

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Electron Microscopy Study of the Phase Transformation and Metal Functionalization of Titanium Oxide Nanotubes

Description

Titanium oxide (TiO2), an abundant material with high photocatalytic activity and chemical stability is an important candidate for photocatalytic applications. The photocatalytic activity of the TiO2 varies with its phase.

Titanium oxide (TiO2), an abundant material with high photocatalytic activity and chemical stability is an important candidate for photocatalytic applications. The photocatalytic activity of the TiO2 varies with its phase. In the current project, phase and morphology changes in TiO2 nanotubes were studied using ex-situ and in-situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM). X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy studies were also performed to understand the phase and morphology of the nanotubes. As prepared TiO2 nanotubes supported on Ti metal substrate were amorphous, during the heat treatment in the ex-situ furnace nanotubes transform to anatase at 450 oC and transformed to rutile when heated to 800 oC. TiO2 nanotubes that were heat treated in an in-situ environmental TEM, transformed to anatase at 400 oC and remain anatase even up to 800 oC. In both ex-situ an in-situ case, the morphology of the nanotubes drastically changed from a continuous tubular structure to aggregates of individual nanoparticles. The difference between the ex-situ an in-situ treatments and their effect on the phase transformation is discussed. Metal doping is one of the effective ways to improve the photocatalytic performance. Several approaches were performed to get metal loading on to the TiO2 nanotubes. Mono-dispersed platinum nanoparticles were deposited on the TiO2 nanopowder and nanotubes using photoreduction method. Photo reduction for Ag and Pt bimetallic nanoparticles were also performed on the TiO2 powders.

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Date Created
  • 2014

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Growth and characterization of chalcogenide alloy nanowires with controlled spatial composition variation for optoelectronic applications

Description

The energy band gap of a semiconductor material critically influences the operating wavelength of an optoelectronic device. Realization of any desired band gap, or even spatially graded band gaps, is

The energy band gap of a semiconductor material critically influences the operating wavelength of an optoelectronic device. Realization of any desired band gap, or even spatially graded band gaps, is important for applications such as lasers, light-emitting diodes (LEDs), solar cells, and detectors. Compared to thin films, nanowires offer greater flexibility for achieving a variety of alloy compositions. Furthermore, the nanowire geometry permits simultaneous incorporation of a wide range of compositions on a single substrate. Such controllable alloy composition variation can be realized either within an individual nanowire or between distinct nanowires across a substrate. This dissertation explores the control of spatial composition variation in ternary alloy nanowires. Nanowires were grown by the vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) mechanism using chemical vapor deposition (CVD). The gas-phase supersaturation was considered in order to optimize the deposition morphology. Composition and structure were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS), and x-ray diffraction (XRD). Optical properties were investigated through photoluminescence (PL) measurements. The chalcogenides selected as alloy endpoints were lead sulfide (PbS), cadmium sulfide (CdS), and cadmium selenide (CdSe). Three growth modes of PbS were identified, which included contributions from spontaneously generated catalyst. The resulting wires were found capable of lasing with wavelengths over 4000 nm, representing the longest known wavelength from a sub-wavelength wire. For CdxPb1-xS nanowires, it was established that the cooling process significantly affects the alloy composition and structure. Quenching was critical to retain metastable alloys with x up to 0.14, representing a new composition in nanowire form. Alternatively, gradual cooling caused phase segregation, which created heterostructures with light emission in both the visible and mid-infrared regimes. The CdSSe alloy system was fully explored for spatial composition variation. CdSxSe1-x nanowires were grown with composition variation across the substrate. Subsequent contact printing preserved the designed composition gradient and led to the demonstration of a variable wavelength photodetector device. CdSSe axial heterostructure nanowires were also achieved. The growth process involved many variables, including a deliberate and controllable change in substrate temperature. As a result, both red and green light emission was detected from single nanowires.

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Date Created
  • 2012

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Andreev reflection spectroscopy: theory and experiment

Description

A theoretical study of a three-dimensional (3D) N/S interface with arbitrary spin

polarization and interface geometry is presented. The 3D model gives the same intrinsic

spin polarization and superconducting gap dependence as

A theoretical study of a three-dimensional (3D) N/S interface with arbitrary spin

polarization and interface geometry is presented. The 3D model gives the same intrinsic

spin polarization and superconducting gap dependence as the 1D model. This

demonstrates that the 1D model can be use to t 3D data.

Using this model, a Heusler alloy is investigated. Andreev reflection measurements

show that the spin polarization is 80% in samples sputtered on unheated MgO(100)

substrates and annealed at high temperatures. However, the spin polarization is

considerably smaller in samples deposited on heated substrates.

Ferromagnetic FexSi􀀀x alloys have been proposed as potential spin injectors into

silicon with a substantial spin polarization. Andreev Reflection Spectroscopy (ARS) is

utilized to determine the spin polarization of both amorphous and crystalline Fe65Si35

alloys. The amorphous phase has a significantly higher spin polarization than that of

the crystalline phase.

In this thesis, (1111) Fe SmO0:82F0:18FeAs and Pb superconductors are used to

measure the spin polarization of a highly spin-polarized material, La0:67Sr0:33MnO3.

Both materials yield the same intrinsic spin polarization, therefore, Fe-superconductors

can be used in ARS. Based on the behavior of the differential conductance for highly

spin polarized LSMO and small polarization of Au, it can be concluded that the Fe-Sc

is not a triplet superconductor.

Zero bias anomaly (ZBA), in point contact Andreev reflection (PCAR), has been

utilized as a characteristic feature to reveal many novel physics. Complexities at a

normal metal/superconducting interface often cause nonessential ZBA-like features,

which may be mistaken as ZBA. In this work, it is shown that an extrinsic ZBA,

which is due to the contact resistance, cannot be suppressed by a highly spin-polarized

current while a nonessential ZBA cannot be affected the contact resistance.

Finally, Cu/Cu multilayer GMR structures were fabricated and the GMR% measured

at 300 K and 4.5 K gave responses of 63% and 115% respectively. Not only

do the GMR structures have a large enhancement of resistance, but by applying an

external magnetic eld it is shown that, unlike most materials, the spin polarization

can be tuned to values of 0.386 to 0.415 from H = 0 kOe to H = 15 kOe.

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  • 2015

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Stress and structure evolution during Cu/Au(111) -(22 x [square root of three]) heteroepitaxy: an in-situ study with UHV-STM (ultra high vacuum scanning tunneling microscopy)

Description

This research focuses on the stress and structure evolution observed in-situ during the earliest stages of thin film growth in Cu on Au(111)-reconstruction. For the research, an ultra high vacuum-scanning

This research focuses on the stress and structure evolution observed in-situ during the earliest stages of thin film growth in Cu on Au(111)-reconstruction. For the research, an ultra high vacuum-scanning tunneling microscopy (UHV-STM) system was modified to have the additional capabilities of in-situ deposition and in-situ stress evolution monitoring. The design and fabrication processes for the modifications are explained in detail. The deposition source enabled imaging during the deposition of Cu thin films, while also being columnar enough to avoid negatively impacting the function of the microscope. It was found that the stress-induced changes in piezo voltage occurred over a substantially longer time scale and larger piezo scale than used during imaging, allowing for the deconvolution of the two sources of piezo voltage change. The intrinsic stress evolution observed at the onset of Cu growth was tensile in character and reached a maximum of 0.19 N/m at approximately 0.8ML, with an average tensile slope of 1.0GPa. As the film thickness increased beyond 0.8 ML, the stress became less tensile as the observation of disordered stripe and trigon patterns of misfit dislocations began to appear. The transport of atoms from the surface of enlarged Cu islands into the strained layer played an important role in this stage, because they effectively reduce the activation barrier for the formation of the observed surface structures. A rich array of structures were observed in the work presented here including stripe, disordered stripe and trigon patterns co-existing in a single Cu layer. Heteroepitaxial systems in existing literature showed a uniform structure in the single layer. The non-uniform structures in the single layer of this work may be attributed to the room temperature Cu growth, which can kinetically limit uniform pattern formation. The development of the UHV-STM system with additional capabilities for this work is expected to contribute to research for the stress and structure relationships of many other heteroepitaxial systems.

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Date Created
  • 2012