Matching Items (11)

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Impact of Family Support on Early Childhood Dysregulation in the Context of Maternal Depression

Description

The ability to regulate emotions, attention, and behavior develops early in life and impacts future academic success, social competency, behavioral problems, and psychopathology. An impairment in regulation is known as

The ability to regulate emotions, attention, and behavior develops early in life and impacts future academic success, social competency, behavioral problems, and psychopathology. An impairment in regulation is known as dysregulation. Past research shows that children of mothers with postpartum depression are more likely to show impairment in regulatory abilities. There is an established link in the literature between family support and maternal depression, which in turn can impact child behavior. However, further research is needed to explore the impact of family support on early childhood dysregulation in the context of maternal depression. Using a sample of 322 Mexican-American, mother-child dyads, two models were examined. Model one hypothesized family support would buffer the effects of maternal depression on child dysregulation at 24 months. Model 2 hypothesized that family support is related to child dysregulation through its effect on maternal depression. Results showed that increased family support was related to more child dysregulation when there were high levels of maternal depression. There was no evidence to support the hypothesis that maternal depression mediated the relationship between family support and child dysregulation.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2017-12

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Comparing Adult and Children’s Statistical Learning of Multiple Words for a Referent

Description

Cross-situational word learning (CSWL) is a method of learning new words where an individual
is exposed to the word’s meaning in an ambiguous fashion throughout different contexts. Many
studies have

Cross-situational word learning (CSWL) is a method of learning new words where an individual
is exposed to the word’s meaning in an ambiguous fashion throughout different contexts. Many
studies have been conducted using CSWL tasks on both children and adults. Most of these
studies look at single-label pairings, which is when one object is paired with one word. More
recently, research has also started to look at double-label pairings. Double-label pairings consist
of one object being paired with two words. No study to date has compared adult and children’s
performance in a double-label design. This study’s aim was to better understand how adults and
children compare in these tasks. The current study conducted two experiments to compare adult
and children’s performance in a CSWL task in either a single-label and double-label design.
Results showed that adults were successful in both conditions but performed better in the
single-label condition than the double-label condition. Children on the other hand were
unsuccessful in both conditions and did not demonstrate learning. Several reasons for these
findings are discussed. These results highlight the need for further research that directly
compares age groups in CSWL tasks and for further research into the area of multiple-label
pairings.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2020-05

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The Role of Interruption on Infant's Fast Mapping Abilities

Description

Fast mapping is the initial link infants make between a word and its referent, and it is crucial to later processes of learning the meanings of words. Despite the importance

Fast mapping is the initial link infants make between a word and its referent, and it is crucial to later processes of learning the meanings of words. Despite the importance of fast mapping, previous research has suggested that fast mapping is fragile, with infants being unable to retain words learned through fast mapping longer than five minutes. The current study tested the robustness of fast mapping by imposing task irrelevant interruptions on a fast mapping task. Forty-seven infants (14.7 \u2014 17.4 months old) were assigned to a No Interruption condition, a Posture Interruption condition, or a Visual Interruption condition, and they performed a fast mapping task in which a novel object was named in one trial. Videos of the infants were coded for accuracy of fast mapping and for attentional behaviors (looking behavior) during the task. We found that infants did not learn novel word-object pairings when interrupted, demonstrating that infants' fast mapping abilities are easily disrupted. Overall, there was no evidence that looking behaviors were affected by interruptions, or that they were correlated with accuracy. These findings suggest that fast mapping is fragile in young infants, and further research is required to determine the mechanisms for infant learning, and how infants transition from fast to slow mapping processes.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2018-12

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Replicating the Gleam-Glum Effect: Basic Phonemes Associated with Emotional Valence When Pairing Nonsense Syllables with Pictures

Description

Neuroscientific research has verified that humans have specialized brain areas used in the production and perception of language. It is speculated that these brain areas may also be involved in

Neuroscientific research has verified that humans have specialized brain areas used in the production and perception of language. It is speculated that these brain areas may also be involved in the perception and expression of emotions. A recent study supports the idea of an auditory equivalent to visually recognizable emotions, finding that the words containing the phoneme /i:/ as in “beat” were rated more positively and those with the phoneme /^/ as in “but” were rated more negatively. It was theorized that these results support that the same facial musculature used in producing visually recognizable expressions also favors specific phonemic sounds. The present study replicates this prior research using a new methodology in which participants matched verbalized monosyllabic nonsense pseudo-words to positive or negative cartoon pictures. We hypothesized that pseudo-words containing the sounds /i:/ would be matched with pictures that are more emotionally positive and ones containing the sounds /^/ would be matched with pictures that are more negative. Data collected from 119 undergraduate student volunteers from a Southwestern public university confirmed our hypotheses and exhibit the same pattern found in previous research supporting that specific vowel phonemes are matched with emotional valence. Our findings are the first to confirm this phoneme-emotion relationship with verbalized sounds and pictures. The results support the idea that the musculature associated with positive and negative facial expressions also favors production of specific phonemic sounds that listeners recognize and associate with specific emotions.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2020-12

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Predictable Encoding Aids Memory for Source Information

Description

Source monitoring refers to the ability to discriminate the origins of memories. The source monitoring framework is a theoretical model that describes the various characteristics of memories and judgement processes

Source monitoring refers to the ability to discriminate the origins of memories. The source monitoring framework is a theoretical model that describes the various characteristics of memories and judgement processes necessary for this discrimination process. Little research has analyzed the extent to which predictable encoding contexts influence source monitoring processes. In this study, we found that predictability at encoding aids later source recognition, but only when the test-relevant source dimension was predictable at encoding. The encoding format was either predictable (sequential spatial location) or non-predictable (random spatial location) and the test format was either color or location. In Experiment 1, the encoding format was either predictable or non-predictable spatial locations and participants were tested on the location. In this experiment, predictability did aid when the encoding format matched the test format. The average conditionalized source identification measure was statistically higher for those who saw images appear in a predictable pattern at encoding. In Experiment 2, when participants were tested on an orthogonal source dimension, the average conditionalized source identification measure was not statistically significant for those who saw the images appear in either encoding format. In this experiment, the predictability did not have an effect when the encoding format did not match the test format. In Experiment 3, there was a significant interaction of predictability by source dimension showing an improvement to memory for the predictable source condition and a decrement to memory for the unpredictable source dimension. In this experiment, predictability aided when encoding format matched the test format, but not when the encoding and test format did not match.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2019-05

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Going Back in Time: Children’s Word Learning Through Backwards Integration

Description

For many years now, early word learning in children has been an important subject among many researchers. There are many ways in which children learn word-object pairings including using co-occurrences,

For many years now, early word learning in children has been an important subject among many researchers. There are many ways in which children learn word-object pairings including using co-occurrences, forwards integration, and backwards integration. This study primarily focuses on backwards integration. Backwards integration entails using learned information to be able to recall a word-object pairing from a previous time. In this thesis, three different studies were conducted with children aged 3-7 years old. In the general task, children were presented with a computerized word-learning task in which they could track word-referent pairings using co-occurrence statistics, forward integration, and backward integration. The goal of Study 1 and Study 2 was to determine the best task design to study backwards integration. The goal of the final study, Study 3, was to provide preliminary data on backwards integration. The overall results indicate that a between subjects design is the most beneficial way to test backwards integration because as a group, children were learning when compared to chance. In addition, the results from Study 3 showed that children were not learning in the task. In general, this suggests that this task may have been very difficult for children to complete. One limitation of Study 3
was that there was a small sample size of only 29 children. In order to account for this, the sample sizes in Study 2 and Study 3 were combined. This combined data did show that children succeeded at the backwards integration condition. It is noteworthy to mention that backwards integration was above chance in Study 2 and in the Study 2 and 3 combination. Therefore, the overall results suggest that children may possibly be able to backwards integrate; however, no evidence of learning in any of the other conditions were present.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2019-05

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Effects of Phonotactic Probability during Early Novel Word Recognition

Description

The goal of this study was to examine whether there is any effect of phonotactic probability during the early phases of novel word recognition. In order to determine this, I

The goal of this study was to examine whether there is any effect of phonotactic probability during the early phases of novel word recognition. In order to determine this, I performed two experiments. In Experiment 1, 33 adult monolingual English speakers learned 24 novel word-object pairings, half of which were high English phonotactic probability words and the other half were low English phonotactic probability words. I additionally included three conditions that varied the amount of exposures to each novel word-object pairing (i.e. One Exposure Condition, Two Exposures Conditions, and Five Exposures Condition). Experiment 2 was designed to clarify results found in Experiment 1, with improved randomization and fewer conditions (i.e. One Exposure Condition and Five Exposures Condition). The findings from both experiments were statistically significant in accuracy for Training condition, but not statistically significant for phonotactic probability nor for an interaction between phonotactic probability and Training condition. Although participants demonstrated learning across conditions there is no indication of a relationship between high and low phonotactic probability and novel word recognition. Collectively, these findings suggest that future studies will be necessary to determine if there is indeed an effect of phonotactic probability on early novel word recognition.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2019-05

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The need to succeed: pressure and overextension in high achieving schools

Description

Students at High Achieving Schools (HASs) have recently been identified as an at-risk population, and excessive pressure to excel is considered the cause of this maladjustment. However, the specific aspects

Students at High Achieving Schools (HASs) have recently been identified as an at-risk population, and excessive pressure to excel is considered the cause of this maladjustment. However, the specific aspects of pressure that lead to these outcomes have yet to be comprehensively explored. In two schools, one public and one independent, this study examined multiple constructs potentially implicated: feelings of pressure to succeed from different sources (parents, teachers, coaches, the self, and friends) and total felt pressure. Also considered are dimensions of being overextended across commitments, including hours of sleep, homework, and levels of associated strain and enjoyment. These indices were all examined in relation to adolescents’ internalizing and externalizing symptoms, as well as feelings of disengagement with school, after controlling for attachment to both parents. Results showed that total felt pressure, and pressure felt from the self, were most notably related to internalizing symptoms and disengagement with school. Additionally, strain from commitments showed unique links with depression, anxiety, and negative feelings about school. Finally, enjoyment from different commitments showed robust links with feelings about school. Overall, the different pressure predictors showed sporadic links with externalizing behaviors and substance use. Findings are discussed in terms of directions for interventions as well as future research with HAS populations.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2019

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The Influence of Bilingual Ability on Pathways to Academic Achievement in Latino Children

Description

Dual language use is thought to afford certain cognitive advantages to bilingual children and may function as an additional resource to help low-income Mexican-American children achieve academically. Emotion regulation and

Dual language use is thought to afford certain cognitive advantages to bilingual children and may function as an additional resource to help low-income Mexican-American children achieve academically. Emotion regulation and executive functioning (e.g., inhibition) have been found to be particularly important in studies investigating pathways to early academic achievement. Understanding how we can capitalize on children’s bilingual abilities to strengthen their executive functioning and emotion regulation, or to offset problems in these domains, may be important to promote better educational outcomes and inform policy. Thus, the current study investigated the relation between emerging bilingualism, inhibition, emotion regulation, and academic achievement across early childhood in sample of 322 low-income, Mexican-American children. Data were collected in a laboratory space at child ages 36-, 54-, and 72-months. Bilingualism was indexed as the interaction of Spanish and English vocabulary, and a mediated moderation model was examined. Results provided further evidence that inhibition positively predicts academic achievement during early childhood. Greater Spanish language vocabulary indirectly predicted academic achievement while controlling for English language vocabulary, suggesting that children from immigrant families may benefit from maintaining their Spanish language abilities as they begin to immerse themselves in an English-speaking classroom. Advancing our understanding of the development of self-regulatory abilities within bilingual, immigrant populations could have significant implications for educational policy.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2018

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Novel-Word Learning in Bilingual Children with Hearing Loss

Description

Purpose: The goal of this study was to examine how vocabulary size and inhibitory control affect word learning in bilingual (English-Spanish) children with hearing loss. Experiment 1 examined whether children

Purpose: The goal of this study was to examine how vocabulary size and inhibitory control affect word learning in bilingual (English-Spanish) children with hearing loss. Experiment 1 examined whether children with larger vocabularies learn and retain more words than children with smaller vocabularies. Experiment 2 examined whether children with better inhibitory control learn and remember more words than children with poorer inhibitory control. In addition, monolingual and bilingual children with and without hearing loss were compared on word learning and inhibitory control tasks.

Method: Seventy-three children between 8 and 12 years of age participated in the study. Forty children had normal hearing (20 monolingual and 20 bilingual) and 33 had hearing loss (20 monolingual and 13 bilingual). For Experiment 1, children completed a receptive vocabulary test in English and Spanish and three word learning tasks consisting of a training and a retention component in English, Spanish, and Arabic. For Experiment 2, children completed the flanker task for inhibitory control.

Results: In Experiment 1, larger total (English + Spanish) receptive vocabularies were predictive of better word training outcomes in all languages and better Spanish word retention, after controlling for age, degree of hearing loss, and maternal education. Children with hearing loss performed more poorly in Spanish and Arabic word training and retention than children with normal hearing. No differences were observed between children with normal hearing and hearing loss in English word learning. In Experiment 2, inhibitory control only predicted English retention outcomes. Children with hearing loss showed poorer inhibitory control than hearing peers. No differences were observed between monolingual and bilingual children, with and without hearing loss, in word learning or inhibitory control.

Conclusions: Language experience (measured by total vocabulary size) helps children learn new words and therefore children with hearing loss should receive well-fitted hearing aids and school accommodations to provide them with access to spoken language. Bilingual exposure does not impair nor facilitate word learning. Bilingual children showed similar difficulties with word learning and inhibitory control as monolingual peers with hearing loss. Hearing loss, probably via language deprivation, has broad effects on children’s executive function skills.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2019