Matching Items (11)

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Visual analogue scale (VAS) as a monitoring tool for daily changes in asthma symptoms in adolescents: a prospective study

Description

Background
Success in asthma management hinges on patients’ competency to detect and respond to ever-changing symptom severity. Thus, it is crucial to have reliable, simple, and sustainable methods of symptom

Background
Success in asthma management hinges on patients’ competency to detect and respond to ever-changing symptom severity. Thus, it is crucial to have reliable, simple, and sustainable methods of symptom monitoring that can be readily incorporated into daily life. Although visual analogue scale (VAS) has been considered as a simple symptom assessment method, its utility as a daily symptom monitoring tool in adolescents is unknown. This study was to determine the concurrent validity of VAS in capturing diurnal changes in symptoms and to examine the relationships between VAS and asthma control and pulmonary function.
Methods
Forty-two adolescents (12–17 years old) with asthma completed daily assessment of symptoms twice per day, morning and bedtime, for a week using VAS and 6-item symptom diary concurrently. Asthma control was measured at enrollment and 6 month later, and spirometry was conducted at enrollment. Pearson correlations, multilevel modeling and regression were conducted to assess the relationships between VAS and symptom diary, asthma control and FEV1.
Results
Morning and evening VAS was positively associated with symptom diary items of each corresponding time frame of the day (r = 0.41–0.58, p < 0.0001). Morning VAS was significantly predicted by morning diary data reflecting nocturnal wakening (β = 2.13, p = 0.033) and morning symptoms (β = 4.09, p = 0.002), accounting for 57% of the total variance of morning VAS. Similarly, changes in four evening diary items, particularly shortness of breath (β = 2.60, p = 0.028), significantly predicted changes in evening VAS, accounting for 55% of the total variance. Average VAS scores correlated with asthma control (r = 0.65, p < 0.001) and FEV1 (r = −0.38, p = 0.029), and were predictive of asthma control 6 months later (β = 0.085, p = 0.006).
Conclusions
VAS is a valid tool capturing diurnal changes in symptoms reflected in a multi-item symptom diary. Moreover, VAS is a valid measure predicting concurrent and future asthma control. The findings suggest VAS can be a simple alternative to daily dairies for daily symptom monitoring, which can provide invaluable information about current and future asthma control without substantially increasing self-monitoring burdens for adolescent patients.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2017-04-28

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A comparison of a social support physical activity intervention in weight management among post-partum Latinas

Description

Background
Weight gain during the childbearing years and failure to lose pregnancy weight after birth contribute to the development of obesity in postpartum Latinas.
Methods
Madres para la Salud [Mothers

Background
Weight gain during the childbearing years and failure to lose pregnancy weight after birth contribute to the development of obesity in postpartum Latinas.
Methods
Madres para la Salud [Mothers for Health] was a 12-month, randomized controlled trial exploring a social support intervention with moderate-intensity physical activity (PA) seeking to effect changes in body fat, fat tissue inflammation, and depression symptoms in sedentary postpartum Latinas. This report describes the efficacy of the Madres intervention.
Results
The results show that while social support increased during the active intervention delivery, it declined to pre-intervention levels by the end of the intervention. There were significant achievements in aerobic and total steps across the 12 months of the intervention, and declines in body adiposity assessed with bioelectric impedance.
Conclusions
Social support from family and friends mediated increases in aerobic PA resulting in decrease in percent body fat.

Contributors

Created

Date Created
  • 2014-09-19

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Yoga for HEART (Health Empowerment and Realizing Transformation) intervention to enhance motivation for physical activity in older adults

Description

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of mortality in the U.S. While physical activity can reduce CVD risk, most adults do not engage in adequate physical activity to

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of mortality in the U.S. While physical activity can reduce CVD risk, most adults do not engage in adequate physical activity to maintain or improve health. Older adults are less likely to participate in physical activity and experience a greater burden of CVD compared to younger adults. Despite knowledge of motivators and barriers to physical activity, the challenge to reduce cardiovascular risk in the older adult population remains unmet. Older adults face unique and complex barriers to physical activity, including limited social contextual resources and behavioral change processes. Interventions to enhance wellness motivation have demonstrated potential in promoting health behavior change among older adults.

The purpose of this study was to examine the feasibility of the Yoga for HEART (Health Empowerment and Realizing Transformation) Intervention to increase motivation for physical activity and improve cardiovascular health in older adults. A pilot randomized controlled trial design was used. The Intervention group received Yoga for HEART, a 12-week program to foster motivation for health behavior change. The Control group received a 12-week group yoga program that did not contain theory-based components. The intervention was based on Wellness Motivation Theory, conceptualizing health behavior change as dynamic process of intention formation and goal-directed behavior leading to the development of new and positive health patterns. Critical inputs (i.e., empowering education, motivational support, social network support) were designed to promote social contextual resources and behavioral change processes to increase motivation for physical activity and improve cardiovascular health.

Specific Aims were to: (a) examine intervention acceptability, demand, and fidelity, and (b) evaluate intervention efficacy in promoting physical activity and improving cardiovascular health through increased social contextual resources and behavioral change processes. Participants in the Intervention group realized a significant reduction in body mass index (BMI) from baseline to 12 weeks when compared to participants in the Control group. Intervention group participants demonstrated improvement in theoretical mechanisms (i.e., self-knowledge, motivation appraisal, self-regulation, environmental resources) and intended outcomes (i.e., body composition) when compared to Control group participants. Findings from this study support the feasibility of the Yoga for HEART Intervention in older adults.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2018

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The assessment of physical activity and sedentary behaviors

Description

The health benefits of physical activity are widely accepted. Emerging research also indicates that sedentary behaviors can carry negative health consequences regardless of physical activity level. This dissertation explored four

The health benefits of physical activity are widely accepted. Emerging research also indicates that sedentary behaviors can carry negative health consequences regardless of physical activity level. This dissertation explored four projects that examined measurement properties of physical activity and sedentary behavior monitors. Project one identified the oxygen costs of four other care activities in seventeen adults. Pushing a wheelchair and pushing a stroller were identified as moderate-intensity activities. Minutes spent engaged in these activities contribute towards meeting the 2008 Physical Activity Guidelines. Project two identified the oxygen costs of common cleaning activities in sixteen adults. Mopping a floor was identified as moderate-intensity physical activity, while cleaning a kitchen and cleaning a bathtub were identified as light-intensity physical activity. Minutes spent engaged in mopping a floor contributes towards meeting the 2008 Physical Activity Guidelines. Project three evaluated the differences in number of minutes spent in activity levels when utilizing different epoch lengths in accelerometry. A shorter epoch length (1-second, 5-seconds) accumulated significantly more minutes of sedentary behaviors than a longer epoch length (60-seconds). The longer epoch length also identified significantly more time engaged in light-intensity activities than the shorter epoch lengths. Future research needs to account for epoch length selection when conducting physical activity and sedentary behavior assessment. Project four investigated the accuracy of four activity monitors in assessing activities that were either sedentary behaviors or light-intensity physical activities. The ActiGraph GT3X+ assessed the activities least accurately, while the SenseWear Armband and ActivPAL assessed activities equally accurately. The monitor used to assess physical activity and sedentary behaviors may influence the accuracy of the measurement of a construct.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2012

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Associations of depression, sleep, and acculturation on glycemic control in Korean Americans with Type 2 diabetes mellitus

Description

Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a chronic disease affecting more than ten percent of the U.S. adults. Approximately 50 percent of people with diabetes fail to achieve glycemic targets

Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a chronic disease affecting more than ten percent of the U.S. adults. Approximately 50 percent of people with diabetes fail to achieve glycemic targets of A1C levels below seven percent. Poor glycemic control disproportionately affects minority populations such as Korean Americans (KAs). Successful diabetes self-management requires a comprehensive approach that takes into account depression, sleep, and acculturation to achieve good glycemic control. Therefore, the purposes of this study were to: 1) describe the levels of glycemic control, depressive symptoms, sleep quality and duration, and acculturation; 2) examine an association of depressive symptoms with glycemic control; 3) identify mediational roles of sleep quality and sleep duration of less than 6 hours between depressive symptoms and glycemic control; and 4) explore a moderation role of acculturation between depressive symptoms and glycemic control in KAs with T2DM. This is a cross-sectional, descriptive correlational study. A total of 119 first generation KAs with T2DM were recruited from Korean communities in Arizona. A1C levels, the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale, the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, the Suinn-Lew Asian Self-Identity Acculturation scale, the International Physical Activity Questionnaire, and the Berlin Questionnaire were measured. Descriptive statistics, multiple regression analyses, path analyses, and the Sobel tests were conducted for data analyses of this study. Poor glycemic control (A1C ≥ 7 %), high depressive symptoms (CES-D ≥ 16), poor sleep quality (PSQI > 5), and short sleep duration (< 6 hours) were prevalent among KAs with T2DM. The mean score of acculturation (2.18) indicated low acculturation to Western culture. Depressive symptoms were revealed as a significant independent predictor of glycemic control. Physical activity was negatively associated with glycemic control, while cultural identity was positively related to glycemic control. Sleep quality and sleep duration of less than 6 hours did not mediate the relationship between depressive symptoms and glycemic control. Acculturation did not moderate the association between depressive symptoms and glycemic control. Diabetes self-management interventions of a comprehensive approach that considers depressive symptoms, sleep problems, and cultural differences in minority populations with T2DM are needed.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2017

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Factors of overweight/obesity in Taiwanese adolescents

Description

Two studies were conducted to test a model to predict healthy lifestyle behaviors, physical activity, and body mass index (BMI) in Taiwanese adolescents by assessing their physical activity and nutrition

Two studies were conducted to test a model to predict healthy lifestyle behaviors, physical activity, and body mass index (BMI) in Taiwanese adolescents by assessing their physical activity and nutrition knowledge, healthy lifestyle beliefs, and perceived difficulty in performing healthy lifestyle behaviors. The study drew upon cognitive behavioral theory to develop this study. The pilot study aimed to test and evaluate psychometric properties of eight Chinese-version scales. The total sample for the pilot study included 186 participants from two middle schools in Taiwan. The mean age was 13.19 for boys and 13.79 for girls. Most scales including Beck Youth Inventory self-concept, Beck Youth Inventory depression, Beck Youth Inventory anxiety, healthy lifestyle beliefs, perceived difficulty, and healthy lifestyle behaviors scales Cronbach alpha were above .90. The Cronbach alpha for the nutrition knowledge and the activity knowledge scale were .86 and .70, respectively. For the primary study, descriptive statistics were used to describe sample characteristics, and path analysis was used to test a model predicting BMI in Taiwanese adolescents. The total sample included 453 participants from two middle schools in Taiwan. The mean age of sample was 13.42 years; 47.5% (n = 215) were males. The mean BMI was 21.83 for boys and 19.84 for girls. The BMI for both boys and girls was within normal range. For path analysis, the chi-square was 426.82 (df = 22, p < .01). The CFI of .62 and the RMSEA of .20 suggested that the model had less than an adequate fit (Hu & Bentler, 1999). For alternative model, dropping the variable of gender from the model, the results indicated that it in fact was an adequate fit to the data (chi-square (23, 453) =33.75, p> .05; CFI= .98; RMSEA= .03). As expected, the results suggested that adolescents who reported higher healthy lifestyle beliefs had more healthy lifestyle behaviors. Furthermore, adolescents who perceived more difficulty in performing healthy lifestyle behaviors engaged in fewer healthy lifestyle behaviors and less physical activity. The findings suggested that adolescents' higher healthy lifestyle beliefs were positively associated with their healthy lifestyle behaviors.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2012

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Feasibility Study of the Health Empowerment Intervention to Evaluate the Effect on Self-Management, Functional Health, and Well-Being in Older Adults with Heart Failure

Description

ABSTRACT

The population of older adults in the United States is growing disproportionately, with corresponding medical, social and economic implications. The number of Americans 65 years and older constitutes 13.7% of

ABSTRACT

The population of older adults in the United States is growing disproportionately, with corresponding medical, social and economic implications. The number of Americans 65 years and older constitutes 13.7% of the U.S. population, and is expected to grow to 21% by 2040. As the adults age, they are at risk for developing chronic illness and disability. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 5.7 million Americans have heart failure, and almost 80% of these are 65 years and older. The prevalence of heart failure will increase with the increase in aging population, thus increasing the costs associated with heart failure from 34.7 billion dollars in 2010 to 77.7 billion dollars by 2020. Of all cardiovascular hospitalizations, 28.9% are due to heart failure, and almost 60,000 deaths are accounted for heart failure. Marked disparities in heart failure persist within and between population subgroups. Living with heart failure is challenging for older adults, because being a chronic condition, the responsibility of day to day management of heart failure principally rests with patient. Approaches to improve self-management are targeted at adherence, compliance, and physiologic variables, little attention has been paid to personal and social contextual resources of older adults, crucial for decision making, and purposeful participation in goal attainment, representing a critical area for intervention. Several strategies based on empowerment perspective are focused on outcomes; paying less attention to the process. To address these gaps between research and practice, this feasibility study was guided by a tested theory, the Theory of Health Empowerment, to optimize self-management, functional health and well-being in older adults with heart failure. The study sample included older adults with heart failure attending senior centers. Specific aims of this feasibility study were to: (a) examine the feasibility of the Health Empowerment Intervention in older adults with heart failure, (b) evaluate the effect of the health empowerment intervention on self-management, functional health, and well-being among older adults with heart failure. The Health Empowerment Intervention was delivered focusing on strategies to identify and building upon self-capacity, and supportive social network, informed decision making and goal setting, and purposefully participating in the attainment of personal health goals for well-being. Study was feasible and significantly increased personal growth, and purposeful participation in the attainment of personal health goals.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2017

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Preferred physical activity program characteristics by a Latina community

Description

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study was to investigate physical activity (PA) program characteristics preferred by low-income childbearing age Latinas and the relationship with the participants’ personal characteristics, cultural values, and

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study was to investigate physical activity (PA) program characteristics preferred by low-income childbearing age Latinas and the relationship with the participants’ personal characteristics, cultural values, and acculturation. This was an exploratory study guided by the Preferences and Health Behavior Model (PaHBM), developed by this investigator. Recruitment occurred at three sites; two sites were located in Phoenix, AZ and one site was located in Houston, TX. Non pregnant Latinas between 18 to 35 years old were included (N=275). Latinas were excluded if they were pregnant, incarcerated, physically or mentally disabled, or had chronic diseases (e.g. cardiovascular disease). Quantitative data were collected using the Predictors and Preferences of Physical Activity Research Intervention Participation in an Underserved Latina Community Questionnaire, developed by this author, along with the Brief Acculturation Rating Scale for Mexican Americans, and the Mexican American Cultural Values Scale. The hypotheses were tested utilizing Chi-square, Pearson correlation and logistic regression. Annual family income, parity, country of origin, BMI and acculturation were the personal characteristics significantly associated with preferred PA program by this group of Latinas. Latino women were heterogeneous in their preferences. In general, sixty percent endorsed dancing as the type of activity preferred, 20% preferred PA education and 20% preferred walking. Major differences were found between the types of activity the Latino women were currently participating in compared to their preferred type of activity. Of the 124 who reported to be walking/jogging, almost half (49) preferred dancing, 22 preferred PA education and only 12 preferred walking. The study findings add to the existing knowledge by looking at factors that should be considered when developing PA interventions as well as when prescribing or recommending PA to this population. These results demonstrate the need to identify the preferred PA program characteristics of Latinas prior to developing interventions. Failure to know the patient’s preferred PA program characteristics may result in prescribing or recommending an undesired activity and decrease participation in PA interventions.

RESUMEN

El propósito de este estudio fue identificar las características preferidas en un programa de actividad física por una comunidad de mujeres Latinas de bajos recursos económicos y en edad fértil, así como la relación de esas características con sus propias características personales, sus valores culturales y su adaptación a la comunidad Anglosajona. Este fue un estudio exploratorio guiado por el “Modelo Preferencias y Comportamiento Saludables” (PaHBM), por sus siglas en Ingles, desarrollado por esta investigadora. El reclutamiento de las Latinas ocurrió en tres sedes: Una en Houston, TX y dos en Phoenix, AZ. Las mujeres Latinas fueron incluidas si tenían entre 18 y 35 años de edad. Se excluyeron mujeres que estaban embarazadas, estuvieran encarceladas, físicamente o mentalmente incapacitadas o que sufrieran alguna enfermedad crónica. Los datos cuantitativos fueron recolectados a través de una encuesta llamada “Predictores y preferencias de participación en un programa investigativo de actividad física”, desarrollada por la autora de este estudio, además utilizando la escala breve de aculturación para Mejicanos Americanos y la escala de valores culturales en Mejicanos Americanos. Las hipótesis fueron probadas utilizando el Chi-cuadrado, la correlación de Pearson, y la regresión lógica. Las características personales más asociadas con las características del programa preferido fueron el salario anual de la familia, el número de hijos, el país de origen, y el índice de masa corporal. En general, 60% prefirieron bailar, 20% clases de actividad física y 20% caminar. Mayores diferencias se encontraron en el tipo de actividad en las que las mujeres Latinas estaban participando, comparado con lo que ellas preferían. De 124 participantes que estaban caminando o trotando, 49 Latinas (39%) preferían bailar, 22 Latinas (17%) preferían clases de actividad física y solo 12 Latinas (10%) prefirieron caminar. Estos resultados demuestran la necesidad de identificar las características del programa de actividad física antes de crear dicho programa. Estos resultados son una adición a los conocimientos existentes, en los que se identificaron factores que deben ser considerados cuando se planea un programa así como cuando se prescribe o se recomienda actividad física a esta población. Sera un fracaso no conocer las preferencias de una paciente para mantenerse físicamente activa porque puede resultar en la prescripción o recomendación de actividades que la paciente no desea y esto se traducirá en reducción de la participación en programas de actividad física.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2016

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Exploration of the older adult informal caregiver self-care promoting well-being

Description

ABSTRACT

This qualitative descriptive study described caregiver recognition of personal and social contextual resources guiding purposeful participation in self-care and well-being. This research builds on health empowerment theory, which conceptualizes health

ABSTRACT

This qualitative descriptive study described caregiver recognition of personal and social contextual resources guiding purposeful participation in self-care and well-being. This research builds on health empowerment theory, which conceptualizes health empowerment as an inherent, relational and ongoing process, expressive of health patterning of well-being (Shearer, 2009). By 2060, Americans 65 years and older will number nearly 98 million, more than double that in 2013. The number of older adults aged 85 and older will double from 6 million in 2003, to 14.6 million by 2040 (Health & Human Services, 2014). Sixty-five million adults serve as informal caregivers, many themselves suffering from chronic conditions (National Alliance for Caregiving & AARP, 2009). Current research has examined the burden of caregiving, but little is known about caregiver strengths and resources that foster personal self-care and well-being. Twenty-one older adult informal caregivers participated in focus groups or individual interviews. Length of time as caregivers ranged from one year to more than ten years; 24% of the participants were men. Seventy-six percent of the participants reported having one or more chronic condition. Themes generated from qualitative content analysis provided a basis for validating and extending the health empowerment theory among older adult informal caregivers. Across participants, empowerment reflected recognition of strengths and resources, as well as growth consistent with valued goals facilitating new health patterns and well-being. The health empowerment theory perspective provided a relevant basis for theory-based intervention focused on promoting strengths, abilities and potential among older adults, limiting vulnerability to diminished health and well-being.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2018

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Understanding motivation for behavior change to decrease sedentary behavior in midlife women: a qualitative study

Description

Sedentary behavior has recently been recognized as a widespread, independent risk factor for increased morbidity and mortality from chronic conditions including diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and cancer. Midlife women (age

Sedentary behavior has recently been recognized as a widespread, independent risk factor for increased morbidity and mortality from chronic conditions including diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and cancer. Midlife women (age 40-64) are known to have high levels of sedentary behavior and corresponding cardiovascular disease risk. Currently, little is known about mechanisms involved in reducing and maintaining reductions to sedentary behavior in midlife women. Theory-based nursing interventions are needed which reflect process, personal meaning, person-environment interaction, and incorporate a strength-based perspective. Wellness Motivation Theory guided the research, conceptualizing behavioral change processes within culturally and environmentally relevant contexts, while recognizing bidirectional influences of personal and environmental factors on behavioral patterns. The Wellness Motivation Theory addresses social support and norms, community and material resources that influence behavioral choices, individual motivation and goals, and the behavioral change processes of self-knowledge, motivational appraisal, and self-regulation. A qualitative descriptive approach was used to explore social contextual resources and behavior change processes leading to action as decreasing sedentary time in midlife women. The maximum variation sample included 31 midlife women, employees of Arizona State University. Participants attended a one-hour focus group to discuss their experiences with sedentary behavior, and their efforts to sit less and move more. Midlife women characterized social support as: Raising Me Up, Timing Time and Walking and Talking. Support from contextual resources reflected themes of Seeking Place, Stepping Up, and Walking the Talk. Women experienced self-knowledge as Envisioning the Future, Taking Inventory, and Considering Possibles. Motivational appraisal was characterized as Reevaluating Priorities, Wayfinding, and Going All In. Self-regulation was reflected as Recounting Benefits, Keeping On Track, and Creating New Ways. A deeper understanding of motivational processes central to reducing sedentary behavior in midlife women fosters identification of leverage points for future theory-based intervention research which provides primary prevention opportunities to lower cardiovascular disease risk, and promote successful aging.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2018