Matching Items (18)

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Sequence-based taxonomic framework for the classification of uncultured single-stranded DNA viruses of the family Genomoviridae

Description

With the advent of metagenomics approaches, a large diversity of known and unknown viruses has been identified in various types of environmental, plant, and animal samples. One such widespread virus

With the advent of metagenomics approaches, a large diversity of known and unknown viruses has been identified in various types of environmental, plant, and animal samples. One such widespread virus group is the recently established family Genomoviridae which includes viruses with small (∼2–2.4 kb), circular ssDNA genomes encoding rolling-circle replication initiation proteins (Rep) and unique capsid proteins. Here, we propose a sequence-based taxonomic framework for classification of 121 new virus genomes within this family. Genomoviruses display ∼47% sequence diversity, which is very similar to that within the well-established and extensively studied family Geminiviridae (46% diversity). Based on our analysis, we establish a 78% genome-wide pairwise identity as a species demarcation threshold. Furthermore, using a Rep sequence phylogeny-based analysis coupled with the current knowledge on the classification of geminiviruses, we establish nine genera within the Genomoviridae family. These are Gemycircularvirus (n = 73), Gemyduguivirus (n = 1), Gemygorvirus (n = 9), Gemykibivirus (n = 29), Gemykolovirus (n = 3), Gemykrogvirus (n = 3), Gemykroznavirus (n = 1), Gemytondvirus (n = 1), Gemyvongvirus (n = 1). The presented taxonomic framework offers rational classification of genomoviruses based on the sequence information alone and sets an example for future classification of other groups of uncultured viruses discovered using metagenomics approaches.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2017-02-02

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Genomovirus Genomes Recovered from Echinothrips americanus Sampled in Florida, USA

Description

Four genomovirus genomes were recovered from thrips (Echinothrips americanus) collected in Florida, USA. These represent four new species which are members of the Gemycircularvirus (n = 2), Gemyduguivirus (n =

Four genomovirus genomes were recovered from thrips (Echinothrips americanus) collected in Florida, USA. These represent four new species which are members of the Gemycircularvirus (n = 2), Gemyduguivirus (n = 1), and Gemykibivirus (n = 1) genera. This is the first record, to our knowledge, of genomoviruses associated with a phytophagous insect.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2017-05-25

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Novel Single-Stranded DNA Virus Genomes Recovered from Chimpanzee Feces Sampled from the Mambilla Plateau in Nigeria

Description

Metagenomic approaches are rapidly expanding our knowledge of the diversity of viruses. In the fecal matter of Nigerian chimpanzees we recovered three gokushovirus genomes, one circular replication-associated protein encoding single-stranded DNA virus (CRESS), and a CRESS DNA molecule.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2017-03-02

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Genome Sequences of Beet curly top Iran virus, Oat dwarf virus, Turnip curly top virus, and Wheat dwarf virus Identified in Leafhoppers

Description

Implementation of a vector-enabled metagenomics approach resulted in the identification of various geminiviruses. We identified the genome sequences of Beet curly top Iran virus, Turnip curly top viruses, Oat dwarf

Implementation of a vector-enabled metagenomics approach resulted in the identification of various geminiviruses. We identified the genome sequences of Beet curly top Iran virus, Turnip curly top viruses, Oat dwarf viruses, the first from Iran, and Wheat dwarf virus from leafhoppers feeding on beet, parsley, pumpkin, and turnip plants.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2017-02-23

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Genome Sequence of Cauliflower Mosaic Virus Identified in Earwigs (Doru luteipes) through a Metagenomic Approach

Description

Here we report the first complete genome sequence of a cauliflower mosaic virus from Brazil, obtained from the gut content of the predator earwig (Doru luteipes). This virus has a

Here we report the first complete genome sequence of a cauliflower mosaic virus from Brazil, obtained from the gut content of the predator earwig (Doru luteipes). This virus has a genome of 8,030 nucleotides (nt) and shares 97% genome-wide identity with an isolate from Argentina.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2017-03-16

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Occurrence of a novel mastrevirus in sugarcane germplasm collections in Florida, Guadeloupe and Réunion

Description

Background
In Africa and Asia, sugarcane is the host of at least seven different virus species in the genus Mastrevirus of the family Geminiviridae. However, with the exception of Sugarcane

Background
In Africa and Asia, sugarcane is the host of at least seven different virus species in the genus Mastrevirus of the family Geminiviridae. However, with the exception of Sugarcane white streak virus in Barbados, no other sugarcane-infecting mastrevirus has been reported in the New World. Conservation and exchange of sugarcane germplasm using stalk cuttings facilitates the spread of sugarcane-infecting viruses.
Methods
A virion-associated nucleic acids (VANA)-based metagenomics approach was used to detect mastrevirus sequences in 717 sugarcane samples from Florida (USA), Guadeloupe (French West Indies), and Réunion (Mascarene Islands). Contig assembly was performed using CAP3 and sequence searches using BLASTn and BLASTx. Mastrevirus full genomes were enriched from total DNA by rolling circle amplification, cloned and sequenced. Nucleotide and amino acid sequence identities were determined using SDT v1.2. Phylogenetic analyses were conducted using MEGA6 and PHYML3.
Results
We identified a new sugarcane-infecting mastrevirus in six plants sampled from germplasm collections in Florida and Guadeloupe. Full genome sequences were determined and analyzed for three virus isolates from Florida, and three from Guadeloupe. These six genomes share >88% genome-wide pairwise identity with one another and between 89 and 97% identity with a recently identified mastrevirus (KR150789) from a sugarcane plant sampled in China. Sequences similar to these were also identified in sugarcane plants in Réunion.
Conclusions
As these virus isolates share <64% genome-wide identity with all other known mastreviruses, we propose classifying them within a new mastrevirus species named Sugarcane striate virus. This is the first report of sugarcane striate virus (SCStV) in the Western Hemisphere, a virus that most likely originated in Asia. The distribution, vector, and impact of SCStV on sugarcane production remains to be determined.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2017-07-28

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Genome Sequence of a Podovirus (AAPEc6) Isolated from Wastewater in New Zealand That Infects Escherichia coli O45: H10

Description

Bacteriophages are ideal candidates for pathogen biocontrol to mitigate outbreaks of prevalent foodborne pathogens, such as Escherichia coli. We identified a bacteriophage (AAPEc6) from wastewater that infects E. coli O45:H10.

Bacteriophages are ideal candidates for pathogen biocontrol to mitigate outbreaks of prevalent foodborne pathogens, such as Escherichia coli. We identified a bacteriophage (AAPEc6) from wastewater that infects E. coli O45:H10. The AAPEc6 genome sequence shares 93% identity (with 92% coverage) to enterobacterial phage K1E (Sp6likevirus) in the Autographivirinae subfamily (Podoviridae).

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Created

Date Created
  • 2017-08-03

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Surveilling United States Sewage Sludge for Genetic Evidence of Genomoviridae & Microviridae Populations

Description

Following the journey through the sewerage system, wastewater is subject to a series of purification procedures, prior to water reuse and disposal of the resultant sewage sludge. Biosolids, also

Following the journey through the sewerage system, wastewater is subject to a series of purification procedures, prior to water reuse and disposal of the resultant sewage sludge. Biosolids, also known as treated sewage sludge, deemed fit for application on land, is a nutrient-rich, semisolid byproduct of biological wastewater treatment. Technological progression in metagenomics has allowed for large-scale analysis of complex viral communities in a number of samples, including wastewater. Members of the Microviridae family are non-enveloped, ssDNA bacteriophages, and are known to infect enterobacteria. Members of the Genomoviridae family similarly are non-enveloped, ssDNA viruses, but are presumed to infect fungi rather than eubacteria. As these two families of viruses are not relatively documented and their diversity poorly classified, this study aimed to analyze the presence of genomoviruses and the diversity of microviruses in nine samples representative of wastewater in Arizona and other regions of the United States. Using a metagenomic approach, the nucleic acids of genomoviruses and microviruses were isolated, assembled into complete genomes, and characterized through visual analysis: a heat chart showing percent coverage for genomoviruses and a circular phylogenetic tree showing diversity of microviruses. The heat map results for the genomoviruses showed a large presence of 99 novel sequences in all nine wastewater samples. Additionally, the 535 novel microviruses displayed great diversity in the cladogram, both in terms of sub-family and isolation source. Further research should be conducted in order to classify the taxonomy of microviruses and the diversity of genomoviruses. Finally, this study suggests future exploration of the viral host, prior to entering the wastewater system.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2020-05

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Phage Therapy: Saguaro Cactus Soft Rot Treatment

Description

Phage therapy has been around for more than a century, but has regained interest in the field of medicine and holds significant potential to act as a treatment against a

Phage therapy has been around for more than a century, but has regained interest in the field of medicine and holds significant potential to act as a treatment against a deadly bacterial infection in various cactus species. It was discovered that bacteriophages isolated from soil samples of potato plants were able to suppress Pectobacterium carotovorum, ‘Pectobacterium’ being within the family Pectobacteriaceae which contains the ‘Erwinia’ genus that causes soft rot diseases in various plants (Jones, 2012). The two scientists had co-inoculated “... the phage with the phytobacterium” (Jones, 2012) in order to suppress the growth and prevent the infection from occurring.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2020-05

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Towards understanding ssDNA viral dynamics in Marmota flaviventris (yellow-bellied marmots)

Description

Yellow-bellied marmots (Marmota flavivent) are semi-fossorial ground-dwelling sciurid rodents native to the western United States. They are facultatively social and live in colonies that may contain over 50 individuals. Marmot

Yellow-bellied marmots (Marmota flavivent) are semi-fossorial ground-dwelling sciurid rodents native to the western United States. They are facultatively social and live in colonies that may contain over 50 individuals. Marmot populations are well studied in terms of their diet, life cycle, distribution, and behavior, however, knowledge about viruses associated with marmots is very limited. In this study we aim to identify DNA viruses by non-invasive sampling of their feces. Viral DNA was extracted from fecal material of 35 individual marmots collected in Colorado and subsequently submitted to rolling circle amplification for circular molecule enrichment. Using a viral metagenomics approach which included high-throughput sequencing and verification of viral genomes using PCR, cloning and sequencing, a diverse group of single-stranded (ss) DNA viruses were identified. Diverse ssDNA viruses were identified that belong to two established families, Genomoviridae (n=7) and Anelloviridae (n=1) and several others that belong to unclassified circular replication associated encoding single-stranded (CRESS) DNA virus groups (n=19). There were also circular DNA molecules extracted (n=4) that appear to encode one viral-like gene and are composed of <1545 nt. The viruses that belonged to the family Genomoviridae clustered with those in the Gemycircularvirus genus. The genomoviruses were extracted from 6 samples. These clustered with gemycircularvirus extracted from arachnids and feces. The anellovirus, extracted from one sample, identified here has a genome sequence that is most similar to those from other rodent species, lagomorphs, and mosquitos. The CRESS viruses identified here were extracted from 9 samples and are novel and cluster with others identified from avian species. This study gives a snapshot of viruses associated with marmots based on fecal sampling.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2020-05