Matching Items (18)

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Influence of parental perception of school safety and gender on children’s physical activity in Mexico: A cross sectional study

Description

Objective. This cross sectional study aims to determine the effects of gender and parental perception of safety at school on children’s physical activity (PA) levels. Materials and methods. Parents of

Objective. This cross sectional study aims to determine the effects of gender and parental perception of safety at school on children’s physical activity (PA) levels. Materials and methods. Parents of school aged Mexican children residing in Guadalajara, Mexico City, and Puerto Vallarta, completed surveys about their children’s PA measures. The physical activity indicators were evaluated using linear and logistical regression models. Results. Analysis did not indicate that gender moderated the relationship between parental perception of safety and PA measures, but significant gender issues exist with girls participating less than boys in the three measures of PA in this study (p<0.001). Conclusion. Results suggest the need for additional interventions promoting physical activity in girls in Mexico.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2016-01

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Psychosocial Mechanisms Linking the Social Environment to Mental Health in African Americans

Description

Resource-poor social environments predict poor health, but the mechanisms and processes linking the social environment to psychological health and well-being remain unclear. This study explored psychosocial mediators of the association

Resource-poor social environments predict poor health, but the mechanisms and processes linking the social environment to psychological health and well-being remain unclear. This study explored psychosocial mediators of the association between the social environment and mental health in African American adults. African American men and women (n = 1467) completed questionnaires on the social environment, psychosocial factors (stress, depressive symptoms, and racial discrimination), and mental health. Multiple-mediator models were used to assess direct and indirect effects of the social environment on mental health. Low social status in the community (p < .001) and U.S. (p < .001) and low social support (p < .001) were associated with poor mental health. Psychosocial factors significantly jointly mediated the relationship between the social environment and mental health in multiple-mediator models. Low social status and social support were associated with greater perceived stress, depressive symptoms, and perceived racial discrimination, which were associated with poor mental health. Results suggest the relationship between the social environment and mental health is mediated by psychosocial factors and revealed potential mechanisms through which social status and social support influence the mental health of African American men and women. Findings from this study provide insight into the differential effects of stress, depression and discrimination on mental health. Ecological approaches that aim to improve the social environment and psychosocial mediators may enhance health-related quality of life and reduce health disparities in African Americans.

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Date Created
  • 2016-04-27

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Sustainability via Active Garden Education (SAGE): results from two feasibility pilot studies

Description

Background
Low physical activity (PA) and fruit and vegetable (F&V) consumption in early childhood are continued public health challenges. This manuscript describes outcomes from two pilot studies for Sustainability via

Background
Low physical activity (PA) and fruit and vegetable (F&V) consumption in early childhood are continued public health challenges. This manuscript describes outcomes from two pilot studies for Sustainability via Active Garden Education (SAGE), a program designed to increase PA and F&V consumption among 3 to 5 year old children.
Methods
SAGE was developed using community-based participatory research (CBPR) and delivered to children (N = 89) in early care and education centers (ECEC, N = 6) in two US cities. Children participated in 12 one-hour sessions that included songs, games, and interactive learning activities involving garden maintenance and taste tests. We evaluated reach, efficacy, adoption, implementation, and potential for maintenance of SAGE following the RE-AIM framework. Reach was evaluated by comparing demographic characteristics among SAGE participants and residents of target geographic areas. Efficacy was evaluated with accelerometer-measured PA, F&V consumption, and eating in the absence of hunger among children, parenting practices regarding PA, and home availability of F&V. Adoption was evaluated by the number of ECEC that participated relative to the number of ECEC that were recruited. Implementation was evaluated by completion rates of planned SAGE lessons and activities, and potential for maintenance was evaluated with a parent satisfaction survey.
Results
SAGE reached ECEC in neighborhoods representing a wide range of socioeconomic status, with participants’ sociodemographic characteristics representing those of the intervention areas. Children significantly increased PA during SAGE lessons compared to usual lessons, but they also consumed more calories in the absence of hunger in post- vs. pre-intervention tests (both p < .05). Parent reports did not suggest changes in F&V consumption, parenting PA practices, or home F&V availability, possibly due to low parent engagement. ECEC had moderate-to-high implementation of SAGE lessons and curriculum. Potential for maintenance was strong, with parents rating SAGE favorably and reporting increases in knowledge about PA and nutrition guidelines for young children.
Conclusions
SAGE successfully translated national PA guidelines to practice for young children but was less successful with nutrition guidelines. High adoption and implementation and favorable parent reports suggest high potential for program sustainability. Further work to engage parents and families of young children in ECEC-based PA and nutrition programming is needed.

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  • 2017-03-10

The Acute Impact Of Yogic Ujjayi Pranayama Versus Aerobic Exercise On Cognitive Performance and Short Term Memory

Description

This is the study of Acute Impact of Ujjayi Yogic Pranayama vs Aerobic Exercise on Cognitive Performance and Short Term Memory. The purpose of this research was to compare two

This is the study of Acute Impact of Ujjayi Yogic Pranayama vs Aerobic Exercise on Cognitive Performance and Short Term Memory. The purpose of this research was to compare two forms of exercise and their effects on someone's cognitive performance and short term memory. The research was performed in an acute setting were both exercises was conducted in under 15 minutes of active participation. The research question was; will aerobic exercise or the Pranayama breathing exercise provide better results and demonstrate a more effective way to increase the cognitive performance and short term memory for a college student aged 18-30. This was accomplished by using an aerobic exercise on an elliptical machine and then participating in the breathing exercise for 10 minutes in both scenarios. This study had two scenarios. Each scenario had a preliminary cognitive performance and short-term memory, post-Ujjayi exercise had a cognitive performance and short-term memory and a post-aerobic exercise had a cognitive performance and short-term memory. There was an hour break between Ujjayi exercise and aerobic exercise in both scenarios to prevent any type of bias. Scenario 1 had these three settings but the students were not given a breakfast supplement. In Scenario 2 the students were given a break supplement and followed the same procedures as scenario 1. There were 25 students for scenario 1 and 25 students for scenario 2. The students were allowed to participate in scenario 1 and 2 but it had to be a week after their first participation. All participants were originally signed up for scenario 1 and they could come back to perform scenario 2 a week later. The first scenario was completing the tests in the absence of food. Scenario two was completing the tests after having been given a Clif Bar to consume. The results of both of these scenarios showed that for cognitive performance and short term memory aerobic exercise had a beneficial impact on their performance. However, students who had a breakfast performed better on the preliminary tests and scored better after the yogic Ujjayi Pranayama exercise on their cognitive performance and short term memory tests. There was also a negligible difference between the test results after the preliminary tests and yogic Ujjayi Pranayama. However, in scenario one the overall tests scores for preliminary and yogic Ujjayi Pranayama were less than those in scenario two. Students who recorded that they were more actively engaging in regular physical exercise 3-7 days a week also did worse in scenario 1, but when presented with scenario 2 they scored equal with those who did not perform regular exercise. The overall purpose for this research was to find out how to increase cognitive performance and short term memory ability in college age students 18-30 in a short amount of time. The results of this study will be impactful for the future studies that will be focused on when comparing aerobic exercise and yogic pranayama.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2017-05

Impact of an Educational Video Intervention on the Emotional Well-Being of Patients and Caregivers Undergoing Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation

Description

Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is a unique but intense procedure used to save the lives of patients with hematopoietic malignancies. However, patients and caregivers undergoing HSCT can experience prolonged

Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is a unique but intense procedure used to save the lives of patients with hematopoietic malignancies. However, patients and caregivers undergoing HSCT can experience prolonged psychological distress due to an intense and distinctive transplant process. Types of psychological distress include anxiety, depression, social isolation, and post-traumatic stress disorder. Although this a significant healthcare problem, limited research has been conducted within the HSCT patient and caregiver population to investigate ways to improve their mental health. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of an educational video intervention about post-transplant recovery in decreasing emotional distress and promoting emotional well-being in HSCT patients and caregivers. This pilot study utilized a quantitative single-group pretest-posttest design to examine the effect of educational videos on participant's emotional well-being. Four educational videos were developed using information gathered from several reliable bone marrow transplant and cancer websites. A convenience sampling method was used to recruit HSCT patient and caregiver participants. Eleven Caucasian, English-speaking individuals (6 patients, 5 caregivers; 54.5% female; M age= 43.7 years) across the United States were enrolled in the 60-90 minute online intervention. Participant responses were measured using pretest and posttest questionnaires. Results from the study found that the educational videos were effective in decreasing levels of depression and anxiety. Implications for nursing practice include the need to educate HSCT patients and caregivers about transplant recovery to decrease emotional distress. This study demonstrates the impact post-transplant education has on decreasing depression and anxiety in HSCT patients and caregivers.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2016-12

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Somali Perceptions of Mental and Physical Health

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This study confirms that there is stigma attached to how Somali-Americans perceive mental and emotional impairments compared to the perception of physical disabilities and impairments. More Somali-Americans are willing to

This study confirms that there is stigma attached to how Somali-Americans perceive mental and emotional impairments compared to the perception of physical disabilities and impairments. More Somali-Americans are willing to seek help regarding their mental and physical health which is a positive step in improving the perceptions of Somali-Americans towards mental or emotional impairments and physical disabilities. Findings can contribute to the knowledge of health care professionals (i.e. nurses) in caring for patients identifying as Somali to promote culturally competent care.

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Date Created
  • 2016-12

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Music Therapy and Its Effects on Anxiety and Depression in Older Adults Living in Independent Living Homes

Description

Research supports that music therapy can be used in multiple aspects of care for patients living within different environments. There is a gap in the literature when it comes to

Research supports that music therapy can be used in multiple aspects of care for patients living within different environments. There is a gap in the literature when it comes to the impact of music sessions for older adults who do not have a diagnosed disease, therefore this study analyzes this population specifically. This study examines music therapy and its effects on anxiety and depression in adults aged 65 or older living in independent living homes. The adults participated in a mixed-methods study over the span of one month examining music as an intervention to decrease anxiety and depression. Each subject consented into the study, completed a demographic survey, answered open-ended questions regarding their experience with anxiety/sadness and ways to cope, as well as Profile of Moods Scale (POMS) during the first session. On the last week of the study, the participants were asked to fill out the same POMS scale to evaluate whether music influenced anxiety and depression. There was limited evidence found in this study to support the use of music therapy as an intervention to decrease anxiety and depression in adults over the age of 65.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2018-05

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The Rise in Prevalence of Food Allergies

Description

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in the United States announced that there has been roughly a 50% increase in the prevalence of food allergies among people between the

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in the United States announced that there has been roughly a 50% increase in the prevalence of food allergies among people between the years of 1997 - 2011. A food allergy can be described as a medical condition where being exposed to a certain food triggers a harmful immune response in the body, known as an allergic reaction. These reactions can range from mild to fatal, and they are caused mainly by the top 8 major food allergens: dairy, eggs, peanuts, tree nuts, wheat, soy, fish, and shellfish. Food allergies mainly plague children under the age of 3, as some of them will grow out of their allergy sensitivity over time, and most people develop their allergies at a young age, and not when they are older. The rise in prevalence is becoming a frightening problem around the world, and there are emerging theories that are attempting to ascribe a cause. There are three well-known hypotheses that will be discussed: the Hygiene Hypothesis, the Dual-Allergen Exposure Hypothesis, and the Vitamin-D Deficiency Hypothesis. Beyond that, this report proposes that a new hypothesis be studied, the Food Systems Hypothesis. This hypothesis theorizes that the cause of the rise of food allergies is actually caused by changes in the food itself and particularly the pesticides that are used to cultivate it.

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Date Created
  • 2018-12

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Public Knowledge of Acne Scar Prevention

Description

Acne scarring can negatively affect individuals’ lives long after active acne has resolved. An online survey analyzed the public’s acne history and knowledge of acne scar prevention to determine acne

Acne scarring can negatively affect individuals’ lives long after active acne has resolved. An online survey analyzed the public’s acne history and knowledge of acne scar prevention to determine acne scar risk factors and public awareness of acne scar prevention and yielded 209 complete data sets. Though types of acne scars vary in how long they persist on one’s skin, all forms were found to be equal in the negative psychological impact they inflict. Acne severity, acne duration, individual age, and family history of scarring were found to have associations with atrophic scarring The findings suggest a need for implementing a structured and standardized way for communicating acne scar prevention information to the general public. Practical implications of these findings are discussed further for increasing public awareness of acne scarring and prevention knowledge.

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Date Created
  • 2020-05

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Engaging Parents to Promote Healthy Eating and Physical Activity in Hispanic Preschool Children: Parent Perception of Newsletters in the Sustainability via Active Garden Education (SAGE) Intervention

Description

Hispanic youth have the highest risk for obesity, making this population a key priority for early childhood interventions to prevent the development of adult obesity and its consequences. Involving parents

Hispanic youth have the highest risk for obesity, making this population a key priority for early childhood interventions to prevent the development of adult obesity and its consequences. Involving parents in these interventions is essential to support positive long-term physical activity and nutrition habits. Interventions in the past have engaged parents by providing information about nutrition and fruit and vegetable intake through written materials or text such as newsletters and text messages. The Sustainability via Active Garden Education (SAGE) intervention used gardening and interactive activities to teach preschool children ages 3-5 about healthy eating and physical activity. It aimed to increase physical activity and fruit and vegetable intake in preschool children as well as improve related parenting practices. The intervention utilized newsletters to engage parents by promoting opportunities to increase physical activity and fruit and vegetable intake for their children at home. The newsletters also encouraged parents to discuss what was learned during the SAGE lessons with their children. The purpose of this paper is to describe the content of the newsletters and determine the parent perception of the newsletters through parent survey responses. This can help inform future childhood obesity interventions and parent engagement.

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Date Created
  • 2021-05