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The Persecuting Society: Church, Crown, and Jewish Moneylending

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The following text is a re-evaluation of Robert Moore's persecuting society thesis in light of recent criticism. The Persecuting Society asserts that the fundamental condition of Jewish persecution in the

The following text is a re-evaluation of Robert Moore's persecuting society thesis in light of recent criticism. The Persecuting Society asserts that the fundamental condition of Jewish persecution in the 13th century was law and order. In other words, persecution had become an institutionalized phenomenon through which medieval Christians--particularly, the English and French monarchies--segregated, both geographically and ideologically, Jews in England and France. The character of such persecution was primarily economic, but based in religious roots. The paper thus also discusses the role of the Church in establishing and justifying social and economic controls against Jews within the English and French persecutional state apparatuses. The text affirms Moore's persecuting society thesis on two accounts: First, that the English and French crowns developed institutions which marginalized and persecuted Jews; secondly, that functionaries of the Church, particularly ecclesiastic functionaries and later popes of the 13th century, did so as well.

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  • 2014-05

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Microfinance: A Better Design

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My interest in this topic began last summer when I was fortunate enough to travel to Tomatin, Honduras on a microfinance mission with the organization Global Brigades. Microfinance previously an

My interest in this topic began last summer when I was fortunate enough to travel to Tomatin, Honduras on a microfinance mission with the organization Global Brigades. Microfinance previously an unknown concept to me, but once I saw the effect it had on the lives of those in need, I was immediately sold on its effectiveness. Microfinance stems from the field of developmental aid. While generally understood as one of the most powerful weapons in the fight against poverty, question as to which methods and techniques are the most effective are still unanswered. It is the goal of my thesis to examine the research in the area of microfinance, reveal the most effective methods, and apply these findings to improve the structure of the Global Brigade microfinance institution in Tomatin.

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  • 2014-05

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Utilization of Passive Samplers for Water Quality Monitoring of Hexavalent Chromium in Water Treatment Plants

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The current EPA regulation for total chromium in drinking water is the MCL standard of 0.1 milligrams per liter or 100 parts per billion (ppb) to avoid dermatological effects. With

The current EPA regulation for total chromium in drinking water is the MCL standard of 0.1 milligrams per liter or 100 parts per billion (ppb) to avoid dermatological effects. With a toxicology study released in 2008 by the Department of Health and Human Services noting that hexavalent chromium is carcinogenic, the EPA is currently reviewing this MCL standard. During this review, the EPA provides monitoring guidance that requires quarterly sampling of surface water for hexavalent chromium. However, these samples monitor the instant in time that they were taken, and do not account for varying concentrations that are time-dependent. This research seeks to develop a method for monitoring hexavalent chromium in water. Using ion exchange technology, passive samplers were developed and installed at the Chandler Water Treatment Plant for a week-long monitoring event. Results show that passive samplers using ion exchange technology provide an accurate assessment of the average concentration of total chromium within the water treatment plant's effluent with 90.3% recovery of Cr(VI) in SIR-100 resin and 62.6% recovery in SIR-700.

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  • 2014-05

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Ambivalent Sexism in College Women: Key Beliefs and Outcomes

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Gender discrimination and inequality in this day and age points to the existence of ambivalent sexist beliefs. That is, men and women hold outwardly negative or superficially positive sexist beliefs

Gender discrimination and inequality in this day and age points to the existence of ambivalent sexist beliefs. That is, men and women hold outwardly negative or superficially positive sexist beliefs about the innate inferiority of women (Glick & Fiske, 1996; Glick & Fiske, 1997). In the past twenty years, outcomes and effects of women due to these beliefs have been researched extensively. Less common are suggestions or conclusions regarding the underlying existence of these beliefs, though many researchers have related their results to aspects within the Social Identity Theory (1979) and other alike theories involving the self and threats to self. The present study looks at smaller constructs, reporting a relationship between a model of women's identity, including predictors: 1) closeness to women, 2) public regard 3) gender identity centrality, to hostile, benevolent and ambivalent sexist beliefs. A group of N=115 women with ages ranging from 18 to 22 at Arizona State University were administered a survey asking questions about their sexist beliefs and their personal gender values. Results show a significant relationship between predictor variables to hostile sexist beliefs, but not benevolent sexist beliefs. These findings suggest that women's association with their gender-derived identity may parallel with endorsement of sexist beliefs when conceptions of the traditional woman is more salient.

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  • 2014-05

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Synthesis and Electrochemical Characterization of Silicon Clathrates for Use in Lithium-Ion Battery Anodes

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Lithium-ion batteries are one of the most widely used energy storage solutions today. As renewable energy sources proliferate to meet growth in worldwide energy consumption, it is important that lithium-ion

Lithium-ion batteries are one of the most widely used energy storage solutions today. As renewable energy sources proliferate to meet growth in worldwide energy consumption, it is important that lithium-ion batteries be improved to help capture this energy for use when the demand arises. One way to boost the performance of lithium-ion batteries is to replace the electrode active materials with materials of higher specific capacity. Silicon is one material that has been widely touted as a potential replacement for the graphite used in commercial anodes with a theoretical capacity of 3500 mAh/g as opposed to graphite's 372 mAh/g. However, bulk silicon is known to pulverize after experiencing large strains during lithiation. Here, silicon clathrates are investigated as a potential structure for accommodation of these strains. Silicon clathrates consist of covalently bonded silicon host cages surrounding a guest alkali or alkaline earth metal ion. Previous work has looked at silicon clathrates for their superconducting and thermoelectric properties. In this study, electrochemical properties of type I and II silicon clathrates with sodium guest ions (NaxSi46 and NaxSi136) and type I silicon clathrates with copper framework substitution and barium guest ions (Ba8CuxSi46-x) are examined. Sodium clathrates showed very high capacities during initial lithiation (>2500 mAh/g), but rapidly lost capacity thereafter. X-ray diffraction after lithiation showed conversion of the clathrate phase to lithium silicide and then to amorphous silicon after delithiation, indicating destruction of the clathrate structure as a possible explanation for the rapid capacity fade. Ba8CuxSi46-x clathrates were found to have their structures completely intact after 50 cycles. However, they had very low reversible capacities (<100 mAh/g) and potentially might not be electrochemically active. Further work is needed to better understand exactly how lithium is inserted into clathrates and if copper impurities detected during wavelength-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy could be inhibiting lithium transport into the clathrates.

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  • 2014-05

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Objective Measurement of Physical Activity in Preschool Children: A Review of Validation Studies and Establishment of Cut-Points

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Abstract
Objective: The purpose of this literature review is to examine the most psychometrically sound (e.g., valid and reliable) instruments measuring physical activity (PA) so that reflection of preschool children’s

Abstract
Objective: The purpose of this literature review is to examine the most psychometrically sound (e.g., valid and reliable) instruments measuring physical activity (PA) so that reflection of preschool children’s activity and documentation of intervention effects on preschool child PA is accurate.
Methods: Rigorous validation and calibration studies and those studies designed to test the psychometric properties of PA measurement instruments were specifically sought out to include in this review. Articles were excluded if they did not include specific information about the validity and reliability of the PA measures used with preschool children.
Discussion: Of the six articles reviewed, the systematic review used the most rigorous protocols to conduct its review, yielding the highest level of evidence appraising several validation studies. Because Pfeiffer et al. (2006) utilized the most valid and reliable criterion measure (Cosmed® portable metabolic system), the validation study this research team conducted is deemed to have identified the most valid and reliable cut points to utilize when reducing accelerometry data.
Conclusion: Current cut-points vary widely and greatly affect the reported results of a study. Therefore, it is critical that authors reference validation studies used to support the cut-points that were employed in the data-reduction phase. Currently, validation methods have been identified using high quality criterion measures in rigorous validation studies and thus it is strongly recommended that those cut points be used in data reduction processes.

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  • 2014-05

Bio-Inspired Cementation of Soil Using Plant Enzyme

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This dissertation investigates the potential for enzyme induced carbonate cementation as an alternative to Portland cement for creating building material from sand aggregate. We create a solution of urease enzyme,

This dissertation investigates the potential for enzyme induced carbonate cementation as an alternative to Portland cement for creating building material from sand aggregate. We create a solution of urease enzyme, calcium chloride (CaCl2), and urea in water and added sand. The urease catalyzes the synthesis of carbonate from urea, and the carbonate then bonds with a dissociated calcium ion and precipitates from the solution as calcium carbonate (CaCO3). This precipitate can form small crystal bridges at contacts between sand grains that lock the sand grains in place. Using enzyme induced carbonate precipitation we created a cemented sand sample with a maximum compressive strength of 319 kPa and an elastic modulus of approximately 10 MPa. Images from the SEM showed that a major failure mechanism in the cemented samples was the delamination of the CaCO3 from the sand grains. We observed that CaCO3 cementation did not when solutions with high concentrations of CaCl2 and urea were used.

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  • 2014-05

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Codoping Zinc Oxide Nanowires

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The zinc oxide nanowires being grown are not developing properly and need to be fixed. In order to do this, the furnace equipment and experimental procedure must be tested until

The zinc oxide nanowires being grown are not developing properly and need to be fixed. In order to do this, the furnace equipment and experimental procedure must be tested until the results produced yield acceptable quality zinc oxide nanowires. After experimentation the nanowires were produced to an acceptable quality. With quality nanowires to experiment with, testing began to examine the effects of different thicknesses of aluminum dopants. Once doped and annealed, the wires were transferred to a substrate with a grid so contact points could be applied. However; the experiment was phased out once this step was half way complete due to the lab shifting to examine co-doping zinc oxide nanowires as explored in part two of this paper. The goal of co-doping zinc oxide film is to create an ideal p
type relationship for power generation, so this project focuses on altering the electrical properties of zinc oxide through doping that will allow more energy to be generated from the solar panels than current zinc oxide solar panels. The zinc oxide film doped with manganese was sputtered onto a silicon substrate. The experiment failed to create a co-doped sample because an x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy reading of the sample proved no nitrogen existed in the zinc oxide doped with manganese film. This experiment leads into this research teams work with co-doping, so instead of viewing this project as a failure it is seen as a learning experience. The research team is examining the results and creating new experiments to run to fix the problem. I currently work with my mentor Dr. Hongbin Yu and Seung Ho Ahn while doing research.

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  • 2014-05

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How the Nuremberg Trials Set Precedence for Future War Crimes Tribunals to be Conducted: Comparing Reichsmarschall Hermann Goering and Former President of Serbia Slobodan Milosevic

Description

The purpose of this thesis is to establish how the Nuremberg trials set precedence for future war crime tribunals like the ICTY (the first tribunal since Nuremberg). An analyses of

The purpose of this thesis is to establish how the Nuremberg trials set precedence for future war crime tribunals like the ICTY (the first tribunal since Nuremberg). An analyses of Hermann Goering is given in order to illustrate how his case, from its arguments and indictments to the structure of the court, is similar to Slobodan Milosevic's. These two are the most likely candidates to compare to due to their high ranking position in the political structure of their regime as well as having remarkable similarities to the conditions of their trail by the two tribunals

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  • 2014-05

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An evaluation of the ecological and human health factors in protein source decisions

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Protein is an essential macronutrient in the human diet, but the source of this protein has both human health and environmental impacts. Health complications can result from protein deficiency, but

Protein is an essential macronutrient in the human diet, but the source of this protein has both human health and environmental impacts. Health complications can result from protein deficiency, but the practices by which protein sources are raised, grown, or harvested have environmental consequences, potentially reducing biodiversity, essential habitat, and crucial stocks of natural resources. Terrestrial cultivation encroaches on natural habitats and consumes resources inefficiently, while overfishing has greatly depleted wild fishery stocks. These environmental factors, along with concerns about nutrients, contaminants and the ethics of animal protein has led to confusion about weighing the risks and benefits associated with alternative sources of protein. Providing consumers \u2014 and policy makers \u2014 with a comprehensive account of major protein sources and their impacts in an understandable form is crucial to reducing environmental degradation and improving human health. Here I provide a general framework to compare the health and environmental impacts of livestock, seafood, and plant protein, and illustrate the application of this framework with case studies for each of these categories.

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  • 2014-05