Matching Items (44)

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Memory Characterization Testing System

Description

This thesis outlines the hand-held memory characterization testing system that is to be created into a PCB (printed circuit board). The circuit is designed to apply voltages diagonally through a

This thesis outlines the hand-held memory characterization testing system that is to be created into a PCB (printed circuit board). The circuit is designed to apply voltages diagonally through a RRAM cell (32x32 memory array). The purpose of this sweep across the RRAM is to measure and calculate the high and low resistance state value over a specified amount of testing cycles. With each cell having a unique output of high and low resistance states a unique characterization of each RRAM cell is able to be developed. Once the memory is characterized, the specific RRAM cell that was tested is then able to be used in a varying amount of applications for different things based on its uniqueness. Due to an inability to procure a packaged RRAM cell, a Mock-RRAM was instead designed in order to emulate the same behavior found in a RRAM cell.
The final testing circuit and Mock-RRAM are varied and complex but come together to be able to produce a measured value of the high resistance and low resistance state. This is done by the Arduino autonomously digitizing the anode voltage, cathode voltage, and output voltage. A ramp voltage that sweeps from 1V to -1V is applied to the Mock-RRAM acting as an input. This ramp voltage is then later defined as the anode voltage which is just one of the two nodes connected to the Mock-RRAM. The cathode voltage is defined as the other node at which the voltage drops across the Mock-RRAM. Using these three voltages as input to the Arduino, the Mock-RRAM path resistance is able to be calculated at any given point in time. Conducting many test cycles and calculating the high and low resistance values allows for a graph to be developed of the chaotic variation of resistance state values over time. This chaotic variation can then be analyzed further in the future in order to better predict trends and characterize the RRAM cell that was tested.
Furthermore, the interchangeability of many devices on the PCB allows for the testing system to do more in the future. Ports have been added to the final PCB in order to connect a packaged RRAM cell. This will allow for the characterization of a real RRAM memory cell later down the line rather than a Mock-RRAM as emulation. Due to the autonomous testing, very few human intervention is needed which makes this board a great baseline for others in the future looking to add to it and collect larger pools of data.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2019-05

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Analog-to-Digital Converter Reliability Testing in Hostile Environments

Description

Analog to Digital Converters (ADCs) are a critical component in modern circuit applications. ADCs are used in virtually every application in which a digital circuit is interacting with data from

Analog to Digital Converters (ADCs) are a critical component in modern circuit applications. ADCs are used in virtually every application in which a digital circuit is interacting with data from the real world, ranging from commercial applications to crucial military and aerospace applications, and are especially important when interacting with sensors that observe environmental factors. Due to the critical nature of these converters, as well as the vast range of environments in which they are used, it is important that they accurately sample data regardless of environmental factors. These environmental factors range from input noise and power supply variations to temperature and radiation, and it is important to know how each may affect the accuracy of the resulting data when designing circuits that depend upon the data from these ADCs. These environmental factors are considered hostile environments, as they each generally have a negative effect on the operation of an ADC. This thesis seeks to investigate the effects of several of these hostile environmental variables on the performance of analog to digital converters. Three different analog to digital converters with similar specifications were selected and analyzed under common hostile environments. Data was collected on multiple copies of an ADC and averaged together to analyze the results using multiple characteristics of converter performance. Performance metrics were obtained across a range of frequencies, input noise, input signal offsets, power supply voltages, and temperatures. The obtained results showed a clear decrease in performance farther from a room temperature environment, but the results for several other environmental variables showed either no significant correlation or resulted in inconclusive data.

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Date Created
  • 2019-05

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Lateral Programmable Metallization Cells: Materials, Devices and Mechanisms

Description

Lateral programmable metallization cells (PMC) utilize the properties of electrodeposits grown over a solid electrolyte channel. Such devices have an active anode and an inert cathode separated by a long

Lateral programmable metallization cells (PMC) utilize the properties of electrodeposits grown over a solid electrolyte channel. Such devices have an active anode and an inert cathode separated by a long electrodeposit channel in a coplanar arrangement. The ability to transport large amount of metallic mass across the channel makes these devices attractive for various More-Than-Moore applications. Existing literature lacks a comprehensive study of electrodeposit growth kinetics in lateral PMCs. Moreover, the morphology of electrodeposit growth in larger, planar devices is also not understood. Despite the variety of applications, lateral PMCs are not embraced by the semiconductor industry due to incompatible materials and high operating voltages needed for such devices. In this work, a numerical model based on the basic processes in PMCs – cation drift and redox reactions – is proposed, and the effect of various materials parameters on the electrodeposit growth kinetics is reported. The morphology of the electrodeposit growth and kinetics of the electrodeposition process are also studied in devices based on Ag-Ge30Se70 materials system. It was observed that the electrodeposition process mainly consists of two regimes of growth – cation drift limited regime and mixed regime. The electrodeposition starts in cation drift limited regime at low electric fields and transitions into mixed regime as the field increases. The onset of mixed regime can be controlled by applied voltage which also affects the morphology of electrodeposit growth. The numerical model was then used to successfully predict the device kinetics and onset of mixed regime. The problem of materials incompatibility with semiconductor manufacturing was solved by proposing a novel device structure. A bilayer structure using semiconductor foundry friendly materials was suggested as a candidate for solid electrolyte. The bilayer structure consists of a low resistivity oxide shunt layer on top of a high resistivity ion carrying oxide layer. Devices using Cu2O as the low resistivity shunt on top of Cu doped WO3 oxide were fabricated. The bilayer devices provided orders of magnitude improvement in device performance in the context of operating voltage and switching time. Electrical and materials characterization revealed the structure of bilayers and the mechanism of electrodeposition in these devices.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2020

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Development of Radiation Hardened High Voltage Super-Junction Power MOSFET

Description

In recent years, the Silicon Super-Junction (SJ) power metal-oxide semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET), has garnered significant interest from spacecraft designers. This is due to their high breakdown voltage and low

In recent years, the Silicon Super-Junction (SJ) power metal-oxide semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET), has garnered significant interest from spacecraft designers. This is due to their high breakdown voltage and low specific on-state resistance characteristics. Most of the previous research work on power MOSFETS for space applications concentrated on improving the radiation tolerance of low to medium voltage (~ 300V) power MOSFETs. Therefore, understanding and improving the reliability of high voltage SJMOS for the harsh space radiation environment is an important endeavor.In this work, a 600V commercially available silicon planar gate SJMOS is used to study the SJ technology’s tolerance against total ionizing dose (TID) and destructive single event effects (SEE), such as, single event burnout (SEB) and single event gate rupture (SEGR). A technology computer aided design (TCAD) software tool is used to design the SJMOS and simulate its electrical characteristics.
Electrical characterization of SJMOS devices showed substantial decrease in threshold voltage and increase in leakage current due to TID. Therefore, as a solution to improve the TID tolerance, metal-nitride-oxide-semiconductor (MNOS) capacitors with different oxide
itride thickness combinations were fabricated and irradiated using a Co-60 gamma-source. Electrical characterization showed all samples with oxide
itride stack gate insulators exhibited significantly higher tolerance to irradiation when compared to metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitors.
Heavy ion testing of the SJMOS showed the device failed due to SEB and SEGR at 10% of maximum rated bias values. In this work, a 600V SJMOS structure is designed that is tolerant to both SEB and SEGR. In a SJMOS with planar gate, reducing the neck width improves the tolerance to SEGR but significantly changes the device electrical characteristics. The trench gate SJ device design is shown to overcome this problem. A buffer layer and larger P+-plug are added to the trench gate SJ power transistor to improve SEB tolerance. Using TCAD simulations, the proposed trench gate structure and the tested planar gate SJMOS are compared. The simulation results showed that the SEB and SEGR hardness in the proposed structure has improved by a factor of 10 and passes at the device’s maximum rated bias value with improved electrical performance.

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Date Created
  • 2020

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Flash sharing in a time-interleaved pipeline ADC

Description

With the advent of parallel processing, primarily the time-interleaved pipeline ADCs, high speed and high resolution ADCs became a possibility. When these speeds touch giga samples per second and resolutions

With the advent of parallel processing, primarily the time-interleaved pipeline ADCs, high speed and high resolution ADCs became a possibility. When these speeds touch giga samples per second and resolutions go beyond 12-bits, the parallelization becomes more extensive leading to repeated presence of several identical blocks in the architecture. This thesis discusses one such block, the sub-ADC (Flash ADC), of the pipeline and sharing it with more than two of the parallel processing channels thereby reducing area and power and input load capacitance to each stage. This work presents a design of 'sub-ADC shared in a time-interleaved pipeline ADC' in the IBM 8HP process. It has been implemented with an offset-compensated, kickback-compensated, fast decision making (large input bandwidth) and low power comparator that forms the core part of the design.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2013

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Static behavior of chalcogenide based programmable metallization cells

Description

Nonvolatile memory (NVM) technologies have been an integral part of electronic systems for the past 30 years. The ideal non-volatile memory have minimal physical size, energy usage, and cost while

Nonvolatile memory (NVM) technologies have been an integral part of electronic systems for the past 30 years. The ideal non-volatile memory have minimal physical size, energy usage, and cost while having maximal speed, capacity, retention time, and radiation hardness. A promising candidate for next-generation memory is ion-conducting bridging RAM which is referred to as programmable metallization cell (PMC), conductive bridge RAM (CBRAM), or electrochemical metallization memory (ECM), which is likely to surpass flash memory in all the ideal memory characteristics. A comprehensive physics-based model is needed to completely understand PMC operation and assist in design optimization.

To advance the PMC modeling effort, this thesis presents a precise physical model parameterizing materials associated with both ion-rich and ion-poor layers of the PMC's solid electrolyte, so that captures the static electrical behavior of the PMC in both its low-resistance on-state (LRS) and high resistance off-state (HRS). The experimental data is measured from a chalcogenide glass PMC designed and manufactured at ASU. The static on- and off-state resistance of a PMC device composed of a layered (Ag-rich/Ag-poor) Ge30Se70 ChG film is characterized and modeled using three dimensional simulation code written in Silvaco Atlas finite element analysis software. Calibrating the model to experimental data enables the extraction of device parameters such as material bandgaps, workfunctions, density of states, carrier mobilities, dielectric constants, and affinities.

The sensitivity of our modeled PMC to the variation of its prominent achieved material parameters is examined on the HRS and LRS impedance behavior.

The obtained accurate set of material parameters for both Ag-rich and Ag-poor ChG systems and process variation verification on electrical characteristics enables greater fidelity in PMC device simulation, which significantly enhances our ability to understand the underlying physics of ChG-based resistive switching memory.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2014

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Testing of threshold logic latch based hybrid circuits

Description

The advent of threshold logic simplifies the traditional Boolean logic to the single level multi-input function. Threshold logic latch (TLL), among implementations of threshold logic, is functionally equivalent to a

The advent of threshold logic simplifies the traditional Boolean logic to the single level multi-input function. Threshold logic latch (TLL), among implementations of threshold logic, is functionally equivalent to a multi-input function with an edge triggered flip-flop, which stands out to improve area and both dynamic and leakage power consumption, providing an appropriate design alternative. Accordingly, the TLL standard cell library is designed. Through technology mapping, hybrid circuit is generated by absorbing the logic cone backward from each flip-flip to get the smallest remaining feeder. With the scan test methodology adopted, design for testability (DFT) is proposed, including scan element design and scan chain insertion. Test synthesis flow is then introduced, according to the Cadence tool, RTL compiler. Test application is the process of applying vectors and the response analysis, which is mainly about the testbench design. A parameterized generic self-checking Verilog testbench is designed for static fault detection. Test development refers to the fault modeling, and test generation. Firstly, functional truth table test generation on TLL cells is proposed. Before the truth table test of the threshold function, the dependence of sequence of vectors applied, i.e., the dependence of current state on the previous state, should be eliminated. Transition test (dynamic pattern) on all weak inputs is proved to be able to test the reset function, which is supposed to erase the history in the reset phase before every evaluation phase. Remaining vectors in the truth table except the weak inputs are then applied statically (static pattern). Secondly, dynamic patterns for all weak inputs are proposed to detect structural transistor level faults analyzed in the TLL cell, with single fault assumption and stuck-at faults, stuck-on faults, and stuck-open faults under consideration. Containing those patterns, the functional test covers all testable structural faults inside the TLL. Thirdly, with the scope of the whole hybrid netlist, the procedure of test generation is proposed with three steps: scan chain test; test of feeders and other scan elements except TLLs; functional pattern test of TLL cells. Implementation of this procedure is discussed in the automatic test pattern generation (ATPG) chapter.

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Date Created
  • 2013

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Radiation effects measurement test structure using GF 32-nm SOI process

Description

This thesis describes the design of a Single Event Transient (SET) duration measurement test-structure on the Global Foundries (previously IBM) 32-nm silicon-on insulator (SOI) process. The test structure is designed

This thesis describes the design of a Single Event Transient (SET) duration measurement test-structure on the Global Foundries (previously IBM) 32-nm silicon-on insulator (SOI) process. The test structure is designed for portability and allows quick design and implementation on a new process node. Such a test structure is critical in analyzing the effects of radiation on complementary metal oxide semi-conductor (CMOS) circuits. The focus of this thesis is the change in pulse width during propagation of SET pulse and build a test structure to measure the duration of a SET pulse generated in real time. This test structure can estimate the SET pulse duration with 10ps resolution. It receives the input SET propagated through a SET capture structure made using a chain of combinational gates. The impact of propagation of the SET in a >200 deep collection structure is studied. A novel methodology of deploying Thick Gate TID structure is proposed and analyzed to build multi-stage chain of combinational gates. Upon using long chain of combinational gates, the most critical issue of pulse width broadening and shortening is analyzed across critical process corners. The impact of using regular standard cells on pulse width modification is compared with NMOS and/or PMOS skewed gates for the chain of combinational gates. A possible resolution to pulse width change is demonstrated using circuit and layout design of chain of inverters, two and three inputs NOR gates. The SET capture circuit is also tested in simulation by introducing a glitch signal that mimics an individual ion strike that could lead to perturbation in SET propagation. Design techniques and skewed gates are deployed to dampen the glitch that occurs under the effect of radiation. Simulation results, layout structures of SET capture circuit and chain of combinational gates are presented.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2017

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Front End Electronics for Neutron- Gamma Spectrometer Device

Description

With the natural resources of earth depleting very fast, the natural resources of other celestial bodies are considered a potential replacement. Thus, there has been rise of space missions constantly

With the natural resources of earth depleting very fast, the natural resources of other celestial bodies are considered a potential replacement. Thus, there has been rise of space missions constantly and with it the need of more sophisticated spectrometer devices has increased. The most important requirement in such an application is low area and power consumption.

To save area, some scintillators have been developed that can resolve both neutrons and gamma events rather than traditional scintillators which can do only one of these and thus, the spacecraft needs two such devices. But with this development, the requirements out of the readout electronics has also increased which now need to discriminate between neutron and gamma events.

This work presents a novel architecture for discriminating such events and compares the results with another approach developed by a partner company. The results show excellent potential in this approach for the neutron-gamma discrimination and the team at ASU is going to expand on this design and build up a working prototype for the complete spectrometer device.

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Date Created
  • 2017

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Accelerated Aging in Devices and Circuits

Description

The aging mechanism in devices is prone to uncertainties due to dynamic stress conditions. In AMS circuits these can lead to momentary fluctuations in circuit voltage that may be missed

The aging mechanism in devices is prone to uncertainties due to dynamic stress conditions. In AMS circuits these can lead to momentary fluctuations in circuit voltage that may be missed by a compact model and hence cause unpredictable failure. Firstly, multiple aging effects in the devices may have underlying correlations. The generation of new traps during TDDB may significantly accelerate BTI, since these traps are close to the dielectric-Si interface in scaled technology. Secondly, the prevalent reliability analysis lacks a direct validation of the lifetime of devices and circuits. The aging mechanism of BTI causes gradual degradation of the device leading to threshold voltage shift and increasing the failure rate. In the 28nm HKMG technology, contribution of BTI to NMOS degradation has become significant at high temperature as compared to Channel Hot Carrier (CHC). This requires revising the End of Lifetime (EOL) calculation based on contribution from induvial aging effects especially in feedback loops. Conventionally, aging in devices is extrapolated from a short-term measurement, but this practice results in unreliable prediction of EOL caused by variability in initial parameters and stress conditions. To mitigate the extrapolation issues and improve predictability, this work aims at providing a new approach to test the device to EOL in a fast and controllable manner. The contributions of this thesis include: (1) based on stochastic trapping/de-trapping mechanism, new compact BTI models are developed and verified with 14nm FinFET and 28nm HKMG data. Moreover, these models are implemented into circuit simulation, illustrating a significant increase in failure rate due to accelerated BTI, (2) developing a model to predict accelerated aging under special conditions like feedback loops and stacked inverters, (3) introducing a feedback loop based test methodology called Adaptive Accelerated Aging (AAA) that can generate accurate aging data till EOL, (4) presenting simulation and experimental data for the models and providing test setup for multiple stress conditions, including those for achieving EOL in 1 hour device as well as ring oscillator (RO) circuit for validation of the proposed methodology, and (5) scaling these models for finding a guard band for VLSI design circuits that can provide realistic aging impact.

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Date Created
  • 2017