Matching Items (5)

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Real-Time Contingency Analysis with Trans-mission Switching on Real Power System Data

Description

Transmission switching (TS) has shown to be an ef-fective power flow control tool. TS can reduce the system cost, improve system reliability, and enhance the management of in-termittent renewable resources.

Transmission switching (TS) has shown to be an ef-fective power flow control tool. TS can reduce the system cost, improve system reliability, and enhance the management of in-termittent renewable resources. This paper addresses the state of the art problem of TS by developing an AC-based real-time con-tingency analysis (RTCA) package with TS. The package is tested on real power system data, taken from energy management sys-tems of PJM, TVA, and ERCOT. The results show that post-contingency corrective switching is a ready to be implemented transformational technology that provides substantial reliability gains. The computational time and the performance of the devel-oped RTCA package, reported in the paper, are promising.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2015-08

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Day-Ahead Corrective Adjustment of FACTS Reactance: A Linear Programming Approach

Description

Reserve requirements serve as a proxy for N-1 reli-ability in the security-constrained unit commitment (SCUC) problem. However, there is no guarantee that the reserve is deliv-erable for all scenarios (post-contingency

Reserve requirements serve as a proxy for N-1 reli-ability in the security-constrained unit commitment (SCUC) problem. However, there is no guarantee that the reserve is deliv-erable for all scenarios (post-contingency states). One cheap way to improve reserve deliverability is to harness the flexibility of the transmission network. Flexible AC transmission system (FACTS) devices are able to significantly improve the transfer capability. However, FACTS utilization is limited today due to the complexi-ties these devices introduce to the DC optimal power flow prob-lem (DCOPF). With a linear objective, the traditional DCOPF is a linear program (LP); when variable impedance based FACTS devices are taken into consideration, the problem becomes a non-linear program (NLP). A reformulation of the NLP to a mixed integer linear program, for day-ahead corrective operation of FACTS devices, is presented in this paper. Engineering insight is then introduced to further reduce the complexity to an LP. Alt-hough optimality is not guaranteed, the simulation studies on the IEEE 118-bus system show that the method finds the globally optimal solution in 98.8% of the cases. Even when the method did not find the optimal solution, it was able to converge to a near-optimal solution, which substantially improved the reliability, very quickly.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2015-09

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A Fast LP Approach for Enhanced Utilization of Variable Impedance Based FACTS Devices

Description

Transmission systems are under stress and need to be upgraded. Better utilization of the existing grid provides a fast and cheap alternative to building new transmission. One way to improve

Transmission systems are under stress and need to be upgraded. Better utilization of the existing grid provides a fast and cheap alternative to building new transmission. One way to improve the utilization of the transmission network is power flow control via flexible AC transmission system (FACTS) devices. While FACTS devices are used today, the utilization of these devices is limited; traditional dispatch models (e.g., security con-strained economic dispatch) assume a fixed, static transmission grid even though it is rather flexible. The primary barrier is the complexity that is added to the power flow problem. The mathe-matical representation of the DC optimal power flow, with the added modeling of FACTS devices, is a nonlinear program (NLP). This paper presents a method to convert this NLP into a mixed-integer linear program (MILP). The MILP is reformulat-ed as a two-stage linear program, which enforces the same sign for the voltage angle differences for the lines equipped with FACTS. While this approximation does not guarantee optimality, more than 98% of the presented empirical results, based on the IEEE 118 bus and Polish system, achieved global optimality. In the case of suboptimal solutions, the savings were still significant and the solution time was dramatically reduced.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2015-07

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Estimating Zonal Electricity Supply Curves in Transmission-Constrained Electricity Markets

Description

Many important electricity policy initiatives would directly affect the operation of electric power networks. This paper develops a method for estimating short-run zonal supply curves in transmission-constrained electricity markets that

Many important electricity policy initiatives would directly affect the operation of electric power networks. This paper develops a method for estimating short-run zonal supply curves in transmission-constrained electricity markets that can be implemented quickly by policy analysts with training in statistical methods and with publicly available data. Our model enables analysis of distributional impacts of policies affecting operation of electric power grid. The method uses fuel prices and zonal electric loads to determine piecewise supply curves, identifying zonal electricity price and marginal fuel. We illustrate our methodology by estimating zonal impacts of Pennsylvania's Act 129, an energy efficiency and conservation policy. For most utilities in Pennsylvania, Act 129 would reduce the influence of natural gas on electricity price formation and increase the influence of coal. The total resulted savings would be around 267 million dollars, 82 percent of which would be enjoyed by the customers in Pennsylvania. We also analyze the impacts of imposing a $35/ton tax on carbon dioxide emissions. Our results show that the policy would increase the average prices in PJM by 47–89 percent under different fuel price scenarios in the short run, and would lead to short-run interfuel substitution between natural gas and coal.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2015-02-01

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Harnessing flexibility of the transmission grid to enhance reliability of the power system

Description

The standard optimal power flow (OPF) problem is an economic dispatch (ED) problem combined with transmission constraints, which are based on a static topology. However, topology control (TC) has been

The standard optimal power flow (OPF) problem is an economic dispatch (ED) problem combined with transmission constraints, which are based on a static topology. However, topology control (TC) has been proposed in the past as a corrective mechanism to relieve overloads and voltage violations. Even though the benefits of TC are presented by several research works in the past, the computational complexity associated with TC has been a major deterrent to its implementation. The proposed work develops heuristics for TC and investigates its potential to improve the computational time for TC for various applications. The objective is to develop computationally light methods to harness the flexibility of the grid to derive maximum benefits to the system in terms of reliability. One of the goals of this research is to develop a tool that will be capable of providing TC actions in a minimal time-frame, which can be readily adopted by the industry for real-time corrective applications.

A DC based heuristic, i.e., a greedy algorithm, is developed and applied to improve the computational time for the TC problem while still maintaining the ability to find quality solutions. In the greedy algorithm, an expression is derived, which indicates the impact on the objective for a marginal change in the state of a transmission line. This expression is used to generate a priority list with potential candidate lines for switching, which may provide huge improvements to the system. The advantage of this method is that it is a fast heuristic as compared to using mixed integer programming (MIP) approach.

Alternatively, AC based heuristics are developed for TC problem and tested on actual data from PJM, ERCOT and TVA. AC based N-1 contingency analysis is performed to identify the contingencies that cause network violations. Simple proximity based heuristics are developed and the fast decoupled power flow is solved iteratively to identify the top five TC actions, which provide reduction in violations. Time domain simulations are performed to ensure that the TC actions do not cause system instability. Simulation results show significant reductions in violations in the system by the application of the TC heuristics.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2016