Matching Items (17)

135721-Thumbnail Image.png

Predicting Fatigue in Military Personnel Using Wearable Technology

Description

Military personnel are affected by muscle fatigue during the various missions and training regimens for their work. Muscle fatigue is caused by the overuse and lack of nutrients to muscles.

Military personnel are affected by muscle fatigue during the various missions and training regimens for their work. Muscle fatigue is caused by the overuse and lack of nutrients to muscles. When a soldier is fatigued, they are unable to perform at their maximum potential and are also more susceptible to injury. For military personnel to save time and money as well as become more efficient within the missions they deploy soldiers, muscle fatigue should be predicted. Predicting fatigue will allow for a reduced rate of negative exercise-related impacts. This means that soldiers will be able to avoid potential life threatening situations they encounter due to the muscle fatigue. The newest technology in wearable devices includes clothing that incorporates heart rate monitors, breathing rate and breathing depth sensors, and a database that converts this information into the amount of calories burned during a workout. Fatigue can be tracked and predicted in the military using wearable clothing with activity sensors, preventing further injury to the soldiers and optimizing performance output at all times. For military personnel, the ability to predict fatigue using this technology would be beneficial to the soldiers and the military as a whole.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2016-05

128613-Thumbnail Image.png

Dual-Task Does Not Increase Slip and Fall Risk in Healthy Young and Older Adults During Walking

Description

Dual-task tests can identify gait characteristics peculiar to fallers and nonfallers. Understanding the relationship between gait performance and dual-task related cognitive-motor interference is important for fall prevention. Dual-task adapted changes

Dual-task tests can identify gait characteristics peculiar to fallers and nonfallers. Understanding the relationship between gait performance and dual-task related cognitive-motor interference is important for fall prevention. Dual-task adapted changes in gait instability/variability can adversely affect fall risks. Although implicated, it is unclear if healthy participants’ fall risks are modified by dual-task walking conditions. Seven healthy young and seven healthy older adults were randomly assigned to normal walking and dual-task walking sessions with a slip perturbation. In the dual-task session, the participants walked and simultaneously counted backwards from a randomly provided number. The results indicate that the gait changes in dual-task walking have no destabilizing effect on gait and slip responses in healthy individuals. We also found that, during dual-tasking, healthy individuals adopted cautious gait mode (CGM) strategy that is characterized by reduced walking speed, shorter step length, increased step width, and reduced heel contact velocity and is likely to be an adaptation to minimize attentional demand and decrease slip and fall risk during limited available attentional resources. Exploring interactions between gait variability and cognitive functions while walking may lead to designing appropriate fall interventions among healthy and patient population with fall risk.

Contributors

Created

Date Created
  • 2017-01-31

128650-Thumbnail Image.png

Towards Real-Time Detection of Freezing of Gait Using Wavelet Transform on Wireless Accelerometer Data

Description

Injuries associated with fall incidences continue to pose a significant burden to persons with Parkinson’s disease (PD) both in terms of human suffering and economic loss. Freezing of gait (FOG),

Injuries associated with fall incidences continue to pose a significant burden to persons with Parkinson’s disease (PD) both in terms of human suffering and economic loss. Freezing of gait (FOG), which is one of the symptoms of PD, is a common cause of falls in this population. Although a significant amount of work has been performed to characterize/detect FOG using both qualitative and quantitative methods, there remains paucity of data regarding real-time detection of FOG, such as the requirements for minimum sensor nodes, sensor placement locations, and appropriate sampling period and update time. Here, the continuous wavelet transform (CWT) is employed to define an index for correctly identifying FOG. Since the CWT method uses both time and frequency components of a waveform in comparison to other methods utilizing only the frequency component, we hypothesized that using this method could lead to a significant improvement in the accuracy of FOG detection. We tested the proposed index on the data of 10 PD patients who experience FOG. Two hundred and thirty seven (237) FOG events were identified by the physiotherapists. The results show that the index could discriminate FOG in the anterior–posterior axis better than other two axes, and is robust to the update time variability. These results suggest that real time detection of FOG may be realized by using CWT of a single shank sensor with window size of 2 s and update time of 1 s (82.1% and 77.1% for the sensitivity and specificity, respectively). Although implicated, future studies should examine the utility of this method in real-time detection of FOG.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2016-04-02

128723-Thumbnail Image.png

Classifying Step and Spin Turns Using Wireless Gyroscopes and Implications for Fall Risk Assessments

Description

Recent studies have reported a greater prevalence of spin turns, which are more unstable than step turns, in older adults compared to young adults in laboratory settings. Currently, turning strategies

Recent studies have reported a greater prevalence of spin turns, which are more unstable than step turns, in older adults compared to young adults in laboratory settings. Currently, turning strategies can only be identified through visual observation, either in-person or through video. This paper presents two unique methods and their combination to remotely monitor turning behavior using three uniaxial gyroscopes. Five young adults performed 90° turns at slow, normal, and fast walking speeds around a variety of obstacles while instrumented with three IMUs (attached on the trunk, left and right shank). Raw data from 360 trials were analyzed. Compared to visual classification, the two IMU methods’ sensitivity/specificity to detecting spin turns were 76.1%/76.7% and 76.1%/84.4%, respectively. When the two methods were combined, the IMU had an overall 86.8% sensitivity and 92.2% specificity, with 89.4%/100% sensitivity/specificity at slow speeds. This combined method can be implemented into wireless fall prevention systems and used to identify increased use of spin turns. This method allows for longitudinal monitoring of turning strategies and allows researchers to test for potential associations between the frequency of spin turns and clinically relevant outcomes (e.g., falls) in non-laboratory settings.

Contributors

Created

Date Created
  • 2015-05-06

133607-Thumbnail Image.png

The Effects of Perturbation on Dynamic Stability for Fall Risk Analysis

Description

As life expectancy continually rises, many age-related conditions such as deteriorated gait and decreased stability begin to play a larger role in affecting the quality of life for all individuals.

As life expectancy continually rises, many age-related conditions such as deteriorated gait and decreased stability begin to play a larger role in affecting the quality of life for all individuals. Medical expenses associated with falls in the elderly population surpassed $50 Billion in 2015 alone. Understanding fall risk and developing robust metrics and methods of assessment has become more important than ever. While traditional fall risk has looked at classical gait parameters, dynamic stability has gained traction as a more accurate representation of stability during active movement and daily activities. This project seeks to determine the effects on the internal perturbation of gait velocity on dynamic stability represented by the Maximal Lyapunov Exponent (MLE) of multiple acceleration vectors, as well as the efficacy of varying methodology used to assess dynamic stability. Data from 15 healthy, college aged individuals was collected. Significant differences were shown between certain gait velocity trials for one analysis of the three methods explored, while overall trends suggested potential differences between gait velocities with other methodologies warranting further investigation.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2018-05

132176-Thumbnail Image.png

Development of an OpenSim Simulation to Identify Time and Force Magnitude Needed at Toe-Off Stage for an Assistive Force Ankle Device

Description

Human walking is a complex and rhythmical activity that comprises of the brain, nerves and muscles. Neuromuscular disorder (NMD) is a broad term that refers to conditions that affect the

Human walking is a complex and rhythmical activity that comprises of the brain, nerves and muscles. Neuromuscular disorder (NMD) is a broad term that refers to conditions that affect the proper use of muscles and nervous system, thus also impairing the walking or gait cycle of an individual. The improper gait cycle might be attributed to the lack of force produced at the toe-off stage. This project addresses if it is possible to create an OpenSim model to find the ideal time and force magnitude needed of an assistive force ankle device to improve gait patterns in individuals with NMD.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2019-05

134228-Thumbnail Image.png

Dose-Response Relationship of Medial-Lateral Perturbation Training on Dynamic Stability of Gait

Description

Gait training therapies are methods for improving the walking stability of individuals who have difficulty walking, whether it is due to injury or neuromuscular conditions. Perturbation training that causes individuals

Gait training therapies are methods for improving the walking stability of individuals who have difficulty walking, whether it is due to injury or neuromuscular conditions. Perturbation training that causes individuals to correct their balance and actively improve their stability could potentially lead to longer term benefits for those with unstable gait. Subjects had the medial lateral movement of their center of mass measured through motion-tracking software (D-Flow 3 and Vicon Nexus 2.2). Perturbation training completed with the GRAIL treadmill randomly triggered medial-lateral sway perturbations of 3 cm a total of fifteen times throughout a five minute training period. Data collected to compare baseline, post-training, and one week follow-up dynamic stabilities were recorded over three minutes without any perturbations. There were no statistically significant differences when comparing the results of all subjects at each instance of data collection with each other. Thus, the perturbation training had no significant impact on the dynamic stability of gait. Major limitations that lend to the inconclusive nature of this study include a small sample size, no repetitions, and only one round of training. Further work can be done to better assess the potential impacts of perturbation training on walking stability for therapeutic use.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2017-05

131377-Thumbnail Image.png

Using Graphene as a Flex Resistor to Detect Biodynamics

Description

Over the past 30 years the use of graphene has been increasing at a rapid rate. The reason why graphene has become more popular is because it is starting to

Over the past 30 years the use of graphene has been increasing at a rapid rate. The reason why graphene has become more popular is because it is starting to be understood better, and researchers are starting to recognize graphene’s unique properties. Graphene is a single atomic layer of graphite, and graphite is a three-dimensional cube base structure of carbon. Graphite has a high conductivity rate, and graphene has an even higher conductivity, meaning that graphene makes for an excellent resistor in any hardware system. Graphene is flexible, has high durability, and can vary in resistance based on its shape (Sharon 2015). With graphene being able to change its resistivity, it can act as different types of sensors. These sensors include measuring pressure, resistance, force, strain, and angle. One problem across the globe is that patients have arthritis, decaying bone density, and injuries which can easily go mistreated or not treated at all. It can be hard to determine the severity of injuries in joints by observation of the patient. There are tools and equipment that will allow a doctor to track the force and degrees of motion of certain joints, but they are mostly limited to hospitals. With graphene acting as a sensor it can be embedded into casts, braces, and even clothing. With a mobile sensor that relays accurate and continuous data to a doctor they can more precisely determine a therapy or recovery time that will better suit the patients’ needs. In this project the graphene was used to measure the angle of a patient’s wrist while they were wearing a wrist brace. From the data collected, the graphene was able to track the user’s movement of their wrist as they moved it in a single direction. The data showed the angle of the wrist ranging from zero degrees to 90 degrees. This proves that graphene can shape the way biosensing is accomplished. Biodynamics is a growing field, and with more injuries everyday it is important to study graphene and how it can be used to diagnose and prevent injuries related to joints. Graphene can be used as a biosensor which can then be implemented into a brace to allow for accurate biodynamic tracking.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2020-05

129314-Thumbnail Image.png

EMG and Kinematic Responses to Unexpected Slips After Slip Training in Virtual Reality

Description

The objective of the study was to design a virtual reality (VR) training to induce perturbation in older adults similar to a slip and examine the effect of the training

The objective of the study was to design a virtual reality (VR) training to induce perturbation in older adults similar to a slip and examine the effect of the training on kinematic and muscular responses in older adults. Twenty-four older adults were involved in a laboratory study and randomly assigned to two groups (VR training and control). Both groups went through three sessions including baseline slip, training, and transfer of training on slippery surface. The training group experienced 12 simulated slips using a visual perturbation induced by tilting a VR scene while walking on the treadmill and the control group completed normal walking during the training session. Kinematic, kinetic, and electromyography data were collected during all the sessions. Results demonstrated the proactive adjustments such as increased trunk flexion at heel contact after training. Reactive adjustments included reduced time to peak activations of knee flexors, reduced knee coactivation, reduced time to trunk flexion, and reduced trunk angular velocity after training. In conclusion, the study findings indicate that the VR training was able to generate a perturbation in older adults that evoked recovery reactions and such motor skill can be transferred to the actual slip trials.

Contributors

Created

Date Created
  • 2015-02-01

129318-Thumbnail Image.png

Corner Height Influences Center of Mass Kinematics and Path Trajectory During Turning

Description

Despite the prevalence of directional changes during every-day gait, relatively little is known about turning compared to straight gait. While the center of mass (COM) movement during straight gait is

Despite the prevalence of directional changes during every-day gait, relatively little is known about turning compared to straight gait. While the center of mass (COM) movement during straight gait is well characterized, the COM trajectory and the factors that influence it are less established for turning. This study investigated the influence of a corner׳s height on the COM trajectory as participants walked around the corner. Ten participants (25.3±3.74 years) performed both 90° step and spin turns to the left at self-selected slow, normal, and fast speeds while walking inside a marked path. A pylon was placed on the inside corner of the path. Four different pylon heights were used to correspond to heights of everyday objects: 0 cm (no object), 63 cm (box, crate), 104 cm (desk, table, counter), 167 cm (shelf, cabinet). Obstacle height was found to significantly affect the COM trajectory. Taller obstacles resulted in more distance between the corner and the COM, and between the corner and the COP. Taller obstacles also were associated with greater curvature in the COM trajectory, indicating a smaller turning radius despite the constant 90° corner. Taller obstacles correlated to an increased required coefficient of friction (RCOF) due to the smaller turning radii. Taller obstacles also tended towards greater mediolateral (ML) COM-COP angles, contrary to the initial hypothesis. Additionally, the COM was found to remain outside the base of support (BOS) for the entire first half of stance phase for all conditions indicating a high risk of falls resulting from slips.

Contributors

Created

Date Created
  • 2015-01-02