Matching Items (40)

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Lipopolymer-Mediated Transgene Delivery to Human Stem Cells

Description

Genetic manipulation of human cell lines has widespread applications in biomedical research ranging from disease modeling to therapeutic development. Human cells are generally difficult to genetically engineer, but exogenous nucleic

Genetic manipulation of human cell lines has widespread applications in biomedical research ranging from disease modeling to therapeutic development. Human cells are generally difficult to genetically engineer, but exogenous nucleic acids can be expressed by viral, chemical, or nonchemical means. Chemical transfections are simpler in practice than both viral and nonchemical delivery of genetic material, but often suffer from cytotoxicity and low efficiency. Novel aminoglycoside antibiotic-derived lipopolymers have been synthesized to mediate transgene delivery to human cells. These polymers are comprised of either paromomycin or apramycin crosslinked with glycerol diglycidylether and derivatized with stearoyl chloride in varying molar ratios. In this work, three previously identified target lipopolymers were screened against a library of human embryonic and induced pluripotent stem cell lines. Cells were transfected with a plasmid encoding green fluorescent protein (GFP) and expression was quantified with flow cytometry 48 hours after transfection. Transfection efficiency was evaluated between three distinct lipopolymers and four lipopolymer:DNA mass ratios. GFP expression was compared to that of cells transfected with commercially available chemical gene delivery reagent controls\u2014JetPEI, Lipofectamine, and Fugene\u2014at their recommended reagent:DNA ratios. Improved transgene expression in stem cell lines allows for improved research methods. Human stem cell-derived neurons that have been genetically manipulated to express phenotypic characteristics of aging can be utilized to model neurodegenerative diseases, elucidating information about these diseases that would be inaccessible in unmanipulated tissue.

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Date Created
  • 2017-05

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Enhancing CXCR4 expression of hNPCs using Hyaluronic Acid - Laminin Hydrogel: A Potential Treatment for TBI

Description

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) may result in numerous pathologies that cannot currently be mitigated by clinical interventions. Stem cell therapies are widely researched to address TBI-related pathologies with limited success

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) may result in numerous pathologies that cannot currently be mitigated by clinical interventions. Stem cell therapies are widely researched to address TBI-related pathologies with limited success in pre-clinical models due to limitations in transplant survival rates. To address this issue, the use of tissue engineered scaffolds as a delivery mechanism has been explored to improve survival and engraftment rates. Previous work with hyaluronic acid \u2014 laminin (HA-Lm) gels found high viability and engraftment rates of mouse fetal derived neural progenitor/stem cells (NPSCs) cultured on the gel. Furthermore, NPSCs exposed to the HA-Lm gels exhibit increased expression of CXCR4, a critical surface receptor that promotes cell migration. We hypothesized that culturing hNPCs on the HA-Lm gel would increase CXCR4 expression, and thus enhance their ability to migrate into sites of tissue damage. In order to test this hypothesis, we designed gel scaffolds with mechanical properties that were optimized to match that of the natural extracellular matrix. A live/dead assay showed that hNPCs preferred the gel with this optimized formulation, compared to a stiffer gel that was used in the CXCR4 expression experiment. We found that there may be increased CXCR4 expression of hNPCs plated on the HA-Lm gel after 24 hours, indicating that HA-Lm gels may provide a valuable scaffold to support viability and migration of hNPCs to the injury site. Future studies aimed at verifying increased CXCR4 expression of hNPCs cultured on HA-Lm gels are necessary to determine if HA-Lm gels can provide a beneficial scaffold for stem cell engraftment therapy for treating TBI.

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Date Created
  • 2016-05

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Identification and Analysis of For-Profit Stem Cell Clinics in the Phoenix Metropolitan Area

Description

This thesis explores and analyzes the emergence of for-profit stem cell clinics in the United States, specifically in the Phoenix metropolitan area. Stem cell therapy is an emerging field that

This thesis explores and analyzes the emergence of for-profit stem cell clinics in the United States, specifically in the Phoenix metropolitan area. Stem cell therapy is an emerging field that has great potential in preventing or treating a number of diseases. Certain companies are currently researching the application of stem cells as therapeutics. At present the FDA has only approved one stem cell-based product; however, there are a number of companies currently offering stem cell therapies. In the past five years, most news articles discussing these companies offering stem cell treatments talk of clinics in other countries. Recently, there seems to be a number of stem cell clinics appearing in the United States. Using a web search engine, fourteen stem cell clinics were identified and analyzed in the Phoenix metropolitan area. Each clinic was analyzed by their four key characteristics: business operations, stem cell types, stem cell isolation methods, and their position with the FDA. Based off my analysis, most of the identified clinics are located in Scottsdale or Phoenix. Some of these clinics even share the same location as another medical practice. Each of the fourteen clinics treat more than one type of health condition. The stem clinics make use of four stem cell types and three different isolation methods to obtain the stem cells. The doctors running these clinics almost always treat health conditions outside of their expertise. Some of these clinics even claim they are not subject to FDA regulation.

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Date Created
  • 2016-05

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A Synthetic Gene for Detecting Epigenetic Changes in Live Human Cells

Description

Current research into live-cell dynamics, particularly those relating to chromatin structure and remodeling, are limited. The tools that are used to detect state changes in chromatin, such as Chromatin Immunoprecipitation

Current research into live-cell dynamics, particularly those relating to chromatin structure and remodeling, are limited. The tools that are used to detect state changes in chromatin, such as Chromatin Immunoprecipitation and qPCR, require that the cell be killed off. This limits the ability of researchers to pinpoint changes in live cells over a longer period of time. As such, there is a need for a live-cell sensor that can detect chromatin state changes. The Chromometer is a transgenic chromatin state sensor designed to better understand human cell fate and the chromatin changes that occur. HOXD11.12, a DNA sequence that attracts repressive Polycomb group (PCG) proteins, was placed upstream of a core promoter-driven fluorescent reporter (AmCyan fluorescent protein, CFP) to link chromatin repression to a CFP signal. The transgene was stably inserted at an ectopic site in U2-OS (osteosarcoma) cells. Expression of CFP should reflect the epigenetic state at the HOXD locus, where several genes are regulated by Polycomb to control cell differentiation. U2-OS cells were transfected with the transgene and grown under selective pressure. Twelve colonies were identified as having integrated parts from the transgene into their genomes. PCR testing verified 2 cell lines that contain the complete transgene. Flow cytometry indicated mono-modal and bimodal populations in all transgenic cell colonies. Further research must be done to determine the effectiveness of this device as a sensor for live cell state change detection.

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Date Created
  • 2016-05

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Stem Cell Growth Factor Supplementation: Efficacy of PRP and Prolotherapy Treatment Evidence

Description

the project led by Professor Emma Frow, researching of stem cell clinics focused on stem cell applications, adherence to FDA guidelines, and characterization of information available and physician credentials. Regenerative

the project led by Professor Emma Frow, researching of stem cell clinics focused on stem cell applications, adherence to FDA guidelines, and characterization of information available and physician credentials. Regenerative medicine clinics commonly offered stem cell therapy, but introduced platelet rich plasma (PRP) and prolotherapy as regenerative therapies.
PRP and Prolotherapy are individual treatments that were even suggested and used in combination with stem cell therapies. Prolotherapy predates PRP as a chemical irritant therapy originally used to sclerose tissues. Prolotherapy is meant to stimulate platelet derived growth factors release to improve tissue healing response. Prolotherapy shows negligible efficacy improvements over corticosteroids, but may have underlying side effects from being an irritant. PRP is a more modern therapy for improved healing. Speculations state initial use was in an open heart surgery to improve healing post-surgery. PRP is created via centrifugation of patient blood to isolate growth factors by removing serum and other biological components to increase platelet concentration. PRP is comparable to corticosteroid injections in efficacy, but as an autologous application, there are no side effects making it more advantageous. Growth factors induce healing response and reduce inflammation. Growth factors stimulate cell growth, proliferation, differentiation, and stimulate cellular response mechanism such as angiogenesis and mitogenesis. The growth factor stimulation of PRP and prolotherapy both assist stem cell proliferation. Additional research is needed to determine differential capacity to ensure multipotent stem cells regenerate the correct cell type from the increased differential capacity offered by growth factor recruitment. The application of combination therapy for stem cells is unsubstantiated and applications violate FDA ‘minimal manipulation’ guidelines.

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Date Created
  • 2017-05

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Generation of an Expandable Intermediate Mesoderm Restricted Progenitor Cell Line From Human Pluripotent Stem Cells

Description

The field of tissue engineering entered a new era with the development of human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs), which are capable of unlimited expansion whilst retaining the potential to differentiate

The field of tissue engineering entered a new era with the development of human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs), which are capable of unlimited expansion whilst retaining the potential to differentiate into all mature cell populations. However, these cells harbor significant risks, including tumor formation upon transplantation. One way to mitigate this risk is to develop expandable progenitor cell populations with restricted differentiation potential. Here, we used a cellular microarray technology to identify a defined and optimized culture condition that supports the derivation and propagation of a cell population with mesodermal properties. This cell population, referred to as intermediate mesodermal progenitor (IMP) cells, is capable of unlimited expansion, lacks tumor formation potential, and, upon appropriate stimulation, readily acquires properties of a sub-population of kidney cells. Interestingly, IMP cells fail to differentiate into other mesodermally-derived tissues, including blood and heart, suggesting that these cells are restricted to an intermediate mesodermal fate.

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Date Created
  • 2015-11-10

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Biomaterial Approaches for Stem Cell-Based Myocardial Tissue Engineering

Description

Adult and pluripotent stem cells represent a ready supply of cellular raw materials that can be used to generate the functionally mature cells needed to replace damaged or diseased heart

Adult and pluripotent stem cells represent a ready supply of cellular raw materials that can be used to generate the functionally mature cells needed to replace damaged or diseased heart tissue. However, the use of stem cells for cardiac regenerative therapies is limited by the low efficiency by which stem cells are differentiated in vitro to cardiac lineages as well as the inability to effectively deliver stem cells and their derivatives to regions of damaged myocardium. In this review, we discuss the various biomaterial-based approaches that are being implemented to direct stem cell fate both in vitro and in vivo. First, we discuss the stem cell types available for cardiac repair and the engineering of naturally and synthetically derived biomaterials to direct their in vitro differentiation to the cell types that comprise heart tissue. Next, we describe biomaterial-based approaches that are being implemented to enhance the in vivo integration and differentiation of stem cells delivered to areas of cardiac damage. Finally, we present emerging trends of using stem cell-based biomaterial approaches to deliver pro-survival factors and fully vascularized tissue to the damaged and diseased cardiac tissue.

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Date Created
  • 2015-06-01

Diagnostic Research Proposal for Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy

Description

Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy (CTE) is a neurodegenerative brain disease that results from repetitive brain trauma causing brain structure, personality, behavioral, and cognitive changes. CTE is currently undiagnosable and untreatable in

Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy (CTE) is a neurodegenerative brain disease that results from repetitive brain trauma causing brain structure, personality, behavioral, and cognitive changes. CTE is currently undiagnosable and untreatable in living patients. This thesis investigates research surrounding CTE and presents a comparative discussion of the advantages and disadvantages of current diagnostic methods used for other neurodegenerative diseases that may be useful for the diagnosis of CTE.

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Date Created
  • 2019-05

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Cell labeling techniques to assess Alzheimer's disease model

Description

Effectively modeling Alzheimer’s disease will lend to a more comprehensive
understanding of the disease pathology, more efficacious drug development and
regenerative medicine as a form of treatment. There are limitations

Effectively modeling Alzheimer’s disease will lend to a more comprehensive
understanding of the disease pathology, more efficacious drug development and
regenerative medicine as a form of treatment. There are limitations with current
transgenic mouse models of Alzheimer’s disease and the study of post mortem brain tissue of Alzheimer’s diseases patients. Stem cell models can overcome the lack of clinical relevance and impracticality associated with current models. Ideally, the use of stem cell models provides the foundation to study the biochemical and physiological aspects of Alzheimer’s disease, but at the cellular level. Moreover, the future of drug development and disease modeling can be improved by developing a reproducible and well-characterized model of AD that can be scaled up to meet requirements for basic and translational applications. Characterization and analysis of a heterogenic neuronal culture developed from induced pluripotent stem cells calls for the understanding of single cell identity and cell viability. A method to analyze RNA following intracellular sorting was developed in order to analyze single cell identity of a heterogenic population
of human induced pluripotent stem cells and neural progenitor cells. The population was intracellularly stained and sorted for Oct4. RNA was isolated and analyzed with qPCR, which demonstrated expected expression profiles for Oct4+ and Oct4- cells. In addition, a protocol to label cells with pO2 sensing nanoprobes was developed to assess cell viability. Non-destructive nanoprobe up-take by neural progenitor cells was assessed with fluorescent imaging and flow cytometry. Nanoprobe labeled neurons were cultured long-term and continued to fluoresce at day 28. The proof of concept experiments demonstrated will be further expanded upon and utilized in developing a more clinically relevant and cost-effective model of Alzheimer’s disease with downstream applications
in drug development and regenerative medicine.

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Date Created
  • 2019-05

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Plasmid Design for Making a HEK293t Reporter Cell Line to Study Gene Expression Dynamics

Description

Cell fate is a complex and dynamic process with many genetic components. It has often been likened to “multistable” mathematical systems because of the numerous possible “stable” states, or

Cell fate is a complex and dynamic process with many genetic components. It has often been likened to “multistable” mathematical systems because of the numerous possible “stable” states, or cell types, that cells may end up in. Due to its complexity, understanding the process of cell fate and differentiation has proven challenging. A better understanding of cell differentiation has applications in regenerative stem cell therapies, disease pathologies, and gene regulatory networks.
A variety of different genes have been associated with cell fate. For example, the Nanog/Oct-4/Sox2 network forms the core interaction of a gene network that maintains stem cell pluripotency, and Oct-4 and Sox2 also play a role in the tissue types that stem cells eventually differentiate into. Using the CRISPR/cas9 based homology independent targeted integration (HITI) method developed by Suzuki et al., we can integrate fluorescent tags behind genes with reasonable efficiency via the non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) DNA repair pathway. With human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293T cells, which can be transfected with high efficiencies, we aim to create a three-parameter reporter cell line with fluorescent tags for three different genes related to cell fate. This cell line would provide several advantages for the study of cell fate, including the ability to quantitatively measure cell state, observe expression heterogeneity among a population of genetically identical cells, and easily monitor fluctuations in expression patterns.
The project is partially complete at this time. This report discusses progress thus far, as well as the challenges faced and the future steps for completing the reporter line.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2019-05