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Computing Platform for Context Aware Smart Objects for Stroke Rehabilitation

Description

In order to regain functional use of affected limbs, stroke patients must undergo intense, repetitive, and sustained exercises. For this reason, it is a common occurrence for the recovery of stroke patients to suffer as a result of mental fatigue

In order to regain functional use of affected limbs, stroke patients must undergo intense, repetitive, and sustained exercises. For this reason, it is a common occurrence for the recovery of stroke patients to suffer as a result of mental fatigue and boredom. For this reason, serious games aimed at reproducing the movements patients practice during rehabilitation sessions, present a promising solution to mitigating patient psychological exhaustion. This paper presents a system developed at the Center for Cognitive Ubiquitous Computing (CubiC) at Arizona State University which provides a platform for the development of serious games for stroke rehabilitation. The system consists of a network of nodes called Smart Cubes based on the Raspberry Pi (model B) computer which have an array of sensors and actuators as well as communication modules that are used in-game. The Smart Cubes are modular, taking advantage of the Raspberry Pi's General Purpose Input/Output header, and can be augmented with additional sensors or actuators in response to the desires of game developers and stroke rehabilitation therapists. Smart Cubes present advantages over traditional exercises such as having the capacity to provide many different forms of feedback and allowing for dynamically adapting games. Smart Cubes also present advantages over modern serious gaming platforms in the form of their modularity, flexibility resulting from their wireless network topology, and their independence of a monitor. Our contribution is a prototype of a Smart Cube network, a programmable computing platform, and a software framework specifically designed for the creation of serious games for stroke rehabilitation.

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2014-05

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Exploring the Design of Vibrotactile Cues for Visio-Haptic Sensory Substitution

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This paper presents the design and evaluation of a haptic interface for augmenting human-human interpersonal interactions by delivering facial expressions of an interaction partner to an individual who is blind using a visual-to-tactile mapping of facial action units and emotions.

This paper presents the design and evaluation of a haptic interface for augmenting human-human interpersonal interactions by delivering facial expressions of an interaction partner to an individual who is blind using a visual-to-tactile mapping of facial action units and emotions. Pancake shaftless vibration motors are mounted on the back of a chair to provide vibrotactile stimulation in the context of a dyadic (one-on-one) interaction across a table. This work explores the design of spatiotemporal vibration patterns that can be used to convey the basic building blocks of facial movements according to the Facial Action Unit Coding System. A behavioral study was conducted to explore the factors that influence the naturalness of conveying affect using vibrotactile cues.

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2014-05

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Convolutional Neural Networks for Facial Expression Recognition

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This paper presents work that was done to create a system capable of facial expression recognition (FER) using deep convolutional neural networks (CNNs) and test multiple configurations and methods. CNNs are able to extract powerful information about an image using

This paper presents work that was done to create a system capable of facial expression recognition (FER) using deep convolutional neural networks (CNNs) and test multiple configurations and methods. CNNs are able to extract powerful information about an image using multiple layers of generic feature detectors. The extracted information can be used to understand the image better through recognizing different features present within the image. Deep CNNs, however, require training sets that can be larger than a million pictures in order to fine tune their feature detectors. For the case of facial expression datasets, none of these large datasets are available. Due to this limited availability of data required to train a new CNN, the idea of using naïve domain adaptation is explored. Instead of creating and using a new CNN trained specifically to extract features related to FER, a previously trained CNN originally trained for another computer vision task is used. Work for this research involved creating a system that can run a CNN, can extract feature vectors from the CNN, and can classify these extracted features. Once this system was built, different aspects of the system were tested and tuned. These aspects include the pre-trained CNN that was used, the layer from which features were extracted, normalization used on input images, and training data for the classifier. Once properly tuned, the created system returned results more accurate than previous attempts on facial expression recognition. Based on these positive results, naïve domain adaptation is shown to successfully leverage advantages of deep CNNs for facial expression recognition.

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2016-05

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Utilizing Neural Networks to Predict Freezing of Gait in Parkinson's Patients

Description

The artificial neural network is a form of machine learning that is highly effective at recognizing patterns in large, noise-filled datasets. Possessing these attributes uniquely qualifies the neural network as a mathematical basis for adaptability in personal biomedical devices. The

The artificial neural network is a form of machine learning that is highly effective at recognizing patterns in large, noise-filled datasets. Possessing these attributes uniquely qualifies the neural network as a mathematical basis for adaptability in personal biomedical devices. The purpose of this study was to determine the viability of neural networks in predicting Freezing of Gait (FoG), a symptom of Parkinson's disease in which the patient's legs are suddenly rendered unable to move. More specifically, a class of neural networks known as layered recurrent networks (LRNs) was applied to an open- source FoG experimental dataset donated to the Machine Learning Repository of the University of California at Irvine. The independent variables in this experiment \u2014 the subject being tested, neural network architecture, and sampling of the majority classes \u2014 were each varied and compared against the performance of the neural network in predicting future FoG events. It was determined that single-layered recurrent networks are a viable method of predicting FoG events given the volume of the training data available, though results varied significantly between different patients. For the three patients tested, shank acceleration data was used to train networks with peak precision/recall values of 41.88%/47.12%, 89.05%/29.60%, and 57.19%/27.39% respectively. These values were obtained for networks optimized using detection theory rather than optimized for desired values of precision and recall. Furthermore, due to the nature of the experiments performed in this study, these values are representative of the lower-bound performance of layered recurrent networks trained to detect gait freezing. As such, these values may be improved through a variety of measures.

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2016-05

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Batch mode active learning for multimedia pattern recognition

Description

The rapid escalation of technology and the widespread emergence of modern technological equipments have resulted in the generation of humongous amounts of digital data (in the form of images, videos and text). This has expanded the possibility of solving real

The rapid escalation of technology and the widespread emergence of modern technological equipments have resulted in the generation of humongous amounts of digital data (in the form of images, videos and text). This has expanded the possibility of solving real world problems using computational learning frameworks. However, while gathering a large amount of data is cheap and easy, annotating them with class labels is an expensive process in terms of time, labor and human expertise. This has paved the way for research in the field of active learning. Such algorithms automatically select the salient and exemplar instances from large quantities of unlabeled data and are effective in reducing human labeling effort in inducing classification models. To utilize the possible presence of multiple labeling agents, there have been attempts towards a batch mode form of active learning, where a batch of data instances is selected simultaneously for manual annotation. This dissertation is aimed at the development of novel batch mode active learning algorithms to reduce manual effort in training classification models in real world multimedia pattern recognition applications. Four major contributions are proposed in this work: $(i)$ a framework for dynamic batch mode active learning, where the batch size and the specific data instances to be queried are selected adaptively through a single formulation, based on the complexity of the data stream in question, $(ii)$ a batch mode active learning strategy for fuzzy label classification problems, where there is an inherent imprecision and vagueness in the class label definitions, $(iii)$ batch mode active learning algorithms based on convex relaxations of an NP-hard integer quadratic programming (IQP) problem, with guaranteed bounds on the solution quality and $(iv)$ an active matrix completion algorithm and its application to solve several variants of the active learning problem (transductive active learning, multi-label active learning, active feature acquisition and active learning for regression). These contributions are validated on the face recognition and facial expression recognition problems (which are commonly encountered in real world applications like robotics, security and assistive technology for the blind and the visually impaired) and also on collaborative filtering applications like movie recommendation.

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2013

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Building adaptive computational systems for physiological and biomedical data

Description

In recent years, machine learning and data mining technologies have received growing attention in several areas such as recommendation systems, natural language processing, speech and handwriting recognition, image processing and biomedical domain. Many of these applications which deal with physiological

In recent years, machine learning and data mining technologies have received growing attention in several areas such as recommendation systems, natural language processing, speech and handwriting recognition, image processing and biomedical domain. Many of these applications which deal with physiological and biomedical data require person specific or person adaptive systems. The greatest challenge in developing such systems is the subject-dependent data variations or subject-based variability in physiological and biomedical data, which leads to difference in data distributions making the task of modeling these data, using traditional machine learning algorithms, complex and challenging. As a result, despite the wide application of machine learning, efficient deployment of its principles to model real-world data is still a challenge. This dissertation addresses the problem of subject based variability in physiological and biomedical data and proposes person adaptive prediction models based on novel transfer and active learning algorithms, an emerging field in machine learning. One of the significant contributions of this dissertation is a person adaptive method, for early detection of muscle fatigue using Surface Electromyogram signals, based on a new multi-source transfer learning algorithm. This dissertation also proposes a subject-independent algorithm for grading the progression of muscle fatigue from 0 to 1 level in a test subject, during isometric or dynamic contractions, at real-time. Besides subject based variability, biomedical image data also varies due to variations in their imaging techniques, leading to distribution differences between the image databases. Hence a classifier learned on one database may perform poorly on the other database. Another significant contribution of this dissertation has been the design and development of an efficient biomedical image data annotation framework, based on a novel combination of transfer learning and a new batch-mode active learning method, capable of addressing the distribution differences across databases. The methodologies developed in this dissertation are relevant and applicable to a large set of computing problems where there is a high variation of data between subjects or sources, such as face detection, pose detection and speech recognition. From a broader perspective, these frameworks can be viewed as a first step towards design of automated adaptive systems for real world data.

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2013

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Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) Modelling of Diagnostics for Pandemic Planning Using JAGS Package in R

Description

Markov Chain Monte-Carlo methods are a Bayesian approach to predictive statistics, which takes advantage of prior beliefs and conditions as well as the existing data to produce posterior distributions of relevant parameters. This approach, implementable through the JAGS packaging in

Markov Chain Monte-Carlo methods are a Bayesian approach to predictive statistics, which takes advantage of prior beliefs and conditions as well as the existing data to produce posterior distributions of relevant parameters. This approach, implementable through the JAGS packaging in R, is promising for its impact on the diagnostics space, which is a critical bottleneck for pandemic planning and rapid response. Specifically, these methods provide the means to optimize diagnostic testing, for example, by determining whether it is best to test individuals in a certain locale once or multiple times. This study compares the expected accuracy of single and double testing under two specific conditions, a general and Icelandic test case, in order to ascertain the validity of MCMC methods in this space and inform decisionmakers and future research in the space. Models based on this platform may eventually be tailored to the priors of specific locales. Additionally, the ability to test multiple regimes of real or simulated data while maintaining uncertainty widens the pool of researchers that can impact the space. In future studies, ensemble methods investigating the full range of parameters and their combinations can be studied.

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2020-05

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Computational methods for perceptual training in radiology

Description

Medical images constitute a special class of images that are captured to allow diagnosis of disease, and their "correct" interpretation is vitally important. Because they are not "natural" images, radiologists must be trained to visually interpret them. This training process

Medical images constitute a special class of images that are captured to allow diagnosis of disease, and their "correct" interpretation is vitally important. Because they are not "natural" images, radiologists must be trained to visually interpret them. This training process includes implicit perceptual learning that is gradually acquired over an extended period of exposure to medical images. This dissertation proposes novel computational methods for evaluating and facilitating perceptual training in radiologists. Part 1 of this dissertation proposes an eye-tracking-based metric for measuring the training progress of individual radiologists. Six metrics were identified as potentially useful: time to complete task, fixation count, fixation duration, consciously viewed regions, subconsciously viewed regions, and saccadic length. Part 2 of this dissertation proposes an eye-tracking-based entropy metric for tracking the rise and fall in the interest level of radiologists, as they scan chest radiographs. The results showed that entropy was significantly lower when radiologists were fixating on abnormal regions. Part 3 of this dissertation develops a method that allows extraction of Gabor-based feature vectors from corresponding anatomical regions of "normal" chest radiographs, despite anatomical variations across populations. These feature vectors are then used to develop and compare transductive and inductive computational methods for generating overlay maps that show atypical regions within test radiographs. The results show that the transductive methods produced much better maps than the inductive methods for 20 ground-truthed test radiographs. Part 4 of this dissertation uses an Extended Fuzzy C-Means (EFCM) based instance selection method to reduce the computational cost of transductive methods. The results showed that EFCM substantially reduced the computational cost without a substantial drop in performance. The dissertation then proposes a novel Variance Based Instance Selection (VBIS) method that also reduces the computational cost, but allows for incremental incorporation of new informative radiographs, as they are encountered. Part 5 of this dissertation develops and demonstrates a novel semi-transductive framework that combines the superior performance of transductive methods with the reduced computational cost of inductive methods. The results showed that the semi-transductive approach provided both an effective and efficient framework for detection of atypical regions in chest radiographs.

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2012

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Enhancing movie comprehension for individuals who are visually impaired or blind

Description

Typically, the complete loss or severe impairment of a sense such as vision and/or hearing is compensated through sensory substitution, i.e., the use of an alternative sense for receiving the same information. For individuals who are blind or visually impaired,

Typically, the complete loss or severe impairment of a sense such as vision and/or hearing is compensated through sensory substitution, i.e., the use of an alternative sense for receiving the same information. For individuals who are blind or visually impaired, the alternative senses have predominantly been hearing and touch. For movies, visual content has been made accessible to visually impaired viewers through audio descriptions -- an additional narration that describes scenes, the characters involved and other pertinent details. However, as audio descriptions should not overlap with dialogue, sound effects and musical scores, there is limited time to convey information, often resulting in stunted and abridged descriptions that leave out many important visual cues and concepts. This work proposes a promising multimodal approach to sensory substitution for movies by providing complementary information through haptics, pertaining to the positions and movements of actors, in addition to a film's audio description and audio content. In a ten-minute presentation of five movie clips to ten individuals who were visually impaired or blind, the novel methodology was found to provide an almost two time increase in the perception of actors' movements in scenes. Moreover, participants appreciated and found useful the overall concept of providing a visual perspective to film through haptics.

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2011

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Somatic ABC's: a theoretical framework for designing, developing and evaluating the building blocks of touch-based information delivery

Description

Situations of sensory overload are steadily becoming more frequent as the ubiquity of technology approaches reality--particularly with the advent of socio-communicative smartphone applications, and pervasive, high speed wireless networks. Although the ease of accessing information has improved our communication effectiveness

Situations of sensory overload are steadily becoming more frequent as the ubiquity of technology approaches reality--particularly with the advent of socio-communicative smartphone applications, and pervasive, high speed wireless networks. Although the ease of accessing information has improved our communication effectiveness and efficiency, our visual and auditory modalities--those modalities that today's computerized devices and displays largely engage--have become overloaded, creating possibilities for distractions, delays and high cognitive load; which in turn can lead to a loss of situational awareness, increasing chances for life threatening situations such as texting while driving. Surprisingly, alternative modalities for information delivery have seen little exploration. Touch, in particular, is a promising candidate given that it is our largest sensory organ with impressive spatial and temporal acuity. Although some approaches have been proposed for touch-based information delivery, they are not without limitations including high learning curves, limited applicability and/or limited expression. This is largely due to the lack of a versatile, comprehensive design theory--specifically, a theory that addresses the design of touch-based building blocks for expandable, efficient, rich and robust touch languages that are easy to learn and use. Moreover, beyond design, there is a lack of implementation and evaluation theories for such languages. To overcome these limitations, a unified, theoretical framework, inspired by natural, spoken language, is proposed called Somatic ABC's for Articulating (designing), Building (developing) and Confirming (evaluating) touch-based languages. To evaluate the usefulness of Somatic ABC's, its design, implementation and evaluation theories were applied to create communication languages for two very unique application areas: audio described movies and motor learning. These applications were chosen as they presented opportunities for complementing communication by offloading information, typically conveyed visually and/or aurally, to the skin. For both studies, it was found that Somatic ABC's aided the design, development and evaluation of rich somatic languages with distinct and natural communication units.

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2012