Matching Items (22)

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Adaptive decentralized routing and detection of overlapping communities

Description

This dissertation studies routing in small-world networks such as grids plus long-range edges and real networks. Kleinberg showed that geography-based greedy routing in a grid-based network takes an expected number of steps polylogarithmic in the network size, thus justifying empirical

This dissertation studies routing in small-world networks such as grids plus long-range edges and real networks. Kleinberg showed that geography-based greedy routing in a grid-based network takes an expected number of steps polylogarithmic in the network size, thus justifying empirical efficiency observed beginning with Milgram. A counterpart for the grid-based model is provided; it creates all edges deterministically and shows an asymptotically matching upper bound on the route length. The main goal is to improve greedy routing through a decentralized machine learning process. Two considered methods are based on weighted majority and an algorithm of de Farias and Megiddo, both learning from feedback using ensembles of experts. Tests are run on both artificial and real networks, with decentralized spectral graph embedding supplying geometric information for real networks where it is not intrinsically available. An important measure analyzed in this work is overpayment, the difference between the cost of the method and that of the shortest path. Adaptive routing overtakes greedy after about a hundred or fewer searches per node, consistently across different network sizes and types. Learning stabilizes, typically at overpayment of a third to a half of that by greedy. The problem is made more difficult by eliminating the knowledge of neighbors' locations or by introducing uncooperative nodes. Even under these conditions, the learned routes are usually better than the greedy routes. The second part of the dissertation is related to the community structure of unannotated networks. A modularity-based algorithm of Newman is extended to work with overlapping communities (including considerably overlapping communities), where each node locally makes decisions to which potential communities it belongs. To measure quality of a cover of overlapping communities, a notion of a node contribution to modularity is introduced, and subsequently the notion of modularity is extended from partitions to covers. The final part considers a problem of network anonymization, mostly by the means of edge deletion. The point of interest is utility preservation. It is shown that a concentration on the preservation of routing abilities might damage the preservation of community structure, and vice versa.

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Date Created
2011

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Improving on 802.11: Streaming Audio and Quality of Service

Description

Ad hoc wireless networks present several interesting problems, one of which is Medium Access Control (MAC). Medium Access Control is a fundamental problem deciding who get to transmit next. MAC protocols for ad hoc wireless networks must also be distributed,

Ad hoc wireless networks present several interesting problems, one of which is Medium Access Control (MAC). Medium Access Control is a fundamental problem deciding who get to transmit next. MAC protocols for ad hoc wireless networks must also be distributed, because the network is multi-hop. The 802.11 Wi-Fi protocol is often used in ad hoc networking. An alternative protocol, REACT, uses the metaphor of an auction to compute airtime allocations for each node, then realizes those allocations by tuning the contention window parameter using a tuning protocol called SALT. 802.11 is inherently unfair due to how it returns the contention window to its minimum size after successfully transmitting, while REACT’s distributed auction nature allows nodes to negotiate an allocation where all nodes get a fair portion of the airtime. A common application in the network is audio streaming. Audio streams are dependent on having good Quality of Service (QoS) metrics, such as delay or jitter, due to their real-time nature.

Experiments were conducted to determine the performance of REACT/SALT compared to 802.11 in a streaming audio application on a physical wireless testbed, w-iLab.t. Four experiments were designed, using four different wireless node topologies, and QoS metrics were collected using Qosium. REACT performs better in these these topologies, when the mean value is calculated across each run. For the butterfly and star topology, the variance was higher for REACT even though the mean was lower. In the hidden terminal and exposed node topology, the performance of REACT was much better than 802.11 and converged more tightly, but had drops in quality occasionally.

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2019-12

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Adapting sensing and transmission times to improve secondary user throughput in cognitive radio ad hoc networks

Description

Cognitive Radios (CR) are designed to dynamically reconfigure their transmission and/or reception parameters to utilize the bandwidth efficiently. With a rapidly fluctuating radio environment, spectrum management becomes crucial for cognitive radios. In a Cognitive Radio Ad Hoc Network (CRAHN) setting,

Cognitive Radios (CR) are designed to dynamically reconfigure their transmission and/or reception parameters to utilize the bandwidth efficiently. With a rapidly fluctuating radio environment, spectrum management becomes crucial for cognitive radios. In a Cognitive Radio Ad Hoc Network (CRAHN) setting, the sensing and transmission times of the cognitive radio play a more important role because of the decentralized nature of the network. They have a direct impact on the throughput. Due to the tradeoff between throughput and the sensing time, finding optimal values for sensing time and transmission time is difficult. In this thesis, a method is proposed to improve the throughput of a CRAHN by dynamically changing the sensing and transmission times. To simulate the CRAHN setting, ns-2, the network simulator with an extension for CRAHN is used. The CRAHN extension module implements the required Primary User (PU) and Secondary User (SU) and other CR functionalities to simulate a realistic CRAHN scenario. First, this work presents a detailed analysis of various CR parameters, their interactions, their individual contributions to the throughput to understand how they affect the transmissions in the network. Based on the results of this analysis, changes to the system model in the CRAHN extension are proposed. Instantaneous throughput of the network is introduced in the new model, which helps to determine how the parameters should adapt based on the current throughput. Along with instantaneous throughput, checks are done for interference with the PUs and their transmission power, before modifying these CR parameters. Simulation results demonstrate that the throughput of the CRAHN with the adaptive sensing and transmission times is significantly higher as compared to that of non-adaptive parameters.

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2012

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Statistical monitoring and control of locally proactive routing protocols in MANETs

Description

Mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) have attracted attention for mission critical applications. This dissertation investigates techniques of statistical monitoring and control for overhead reduction in a proactive MANET routing protocol. Proactive protocols transmit overhead periodically. Instead, we propose that the

Mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) have attracted attention for mission critical applications. This dissertation investigates techniques of statistical monitoring and control for overhead reduction in a proactive MANET routing protocol. Proactive protocols transmit overhead periodically. Instead, we propose that the local conditions of a node should determine this transmission decision. While the goal is to minimize overhead, a balance in the amount of overhead transmitted and the performance achieved is required. Statistical monitoring consists of techniques to determine if a characteristic has shifted away from an in-control state. A basic tool for monitoring is a control chart, a time-oriented representation of the characteristic. When a sample deviates outside control limits, a significant change has occurred and corrective actions are required to return to the in-control state. We investigate the use of statistical monitoring of local conditions in the Optimized Link State Routing (OLSR) protocol. Three versions are developed. In A-OLSR, each node uses a Shewhart chart to monitor betweenness of its two-hop neighbourhood. Betweenness is a social network metric that measures a node's influence; betweenness is larger when a node has more influence. Changes in topology are associated with changes in betweenness. We incorporate additional local node conditions including speed, density, packet arrival rate, and number of flows it forwards in A+-OLSR. Response Surface Methodology (RSM) is used to optimize timer values. As well, the Shewhart chart is replaced by an Exponentially Weighted Moving Average (EWMA) chart, which is more sensitive to small changes in the characteristic. It is known that control charts do not work as well in the presence of correlation. Hence, in A*-OLSR the autocorrelation in the time series is removed and an Auto-Regressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA) model found; this removes the dependence on node speed. A*-OLSR also extends monitoring to two characteristics concurrently using multivariate cumulative sum (MCUSUM) charts. The protocols are evaluated in simulation, and compared to OLSR and its variants. The techniques for statistical monitoring and control are general and have great potential to be applied to the adaptive control of many network protocols.

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2012

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Cooperative multi-channel MAC protocols for wireless ad hoc networks

Description

Today, many wireless networks are single-channel systems. However, as the interest in wireless services increases, the contention by nodes to occupy the medium is more intense and interference worsens. One direction with the potential to increase system throughput is multi-channel

Today, many wireless networks are single-channel systems. However, as the interest in wireless services increases, the contention by nodes to occupy the medium is more intense and interference worsens. One direction with the potential to increase system throughput is multi-channel systems. Multi-channel systems have been shown to reduce collisions and increase concurrency thus producing better bandwidth usage. However, the well-known hidden- and exposed-terminal problems inherited from single-channel systems remain, and a new channel selection problem is introduced. In this dissertation, Multi-channel medium access control (MAC) protocols are proposed for mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) for nodes equipped with a single half-duplex transceiver, using more sophisticated physical layer technologies. These include code division multiple access (CDMA), orthogonal frequency division multiple access (OFDMA), and diversity. CDMA increases channel reuse, while OFDMA enables communication by multiple users in parallel. There is a challenge to using each technology in MANETs, where there is no fixed infrastructure or centralized control. CDMA suffers from the near-far problem, while OFDMA requires channel synchronization to decode the signal. As a result CDMA and OFDMA are not yet widely used. Cooperative (diversity) mechanisms provide vital information to facilitate communication set-up between source-destination node pairs and help overcome limitations of physical layer technologies in MANETs. In this dissertation, the Cooperative CDMA-based Multi-channel MAC (CCM-MAC) protocol uses CDMA to enable concurrent transmissions on each channel. The Power-controlled CDMA-based Multi-channel MAC (PCC-MAC) protocol uses transmission power control at each node and mitigates collisions of control packets on the control channel by using different sizes of the spreading factor to have different processing gains for the control signals. The Cooperative Dual-access Multi-channel MAC (CDM-MAC) protocol combines the use of OFDMA and CDMA and minimizes channel interference by a resolvable balanced incomplete block design (BIBD). In each protocol, cooperating nodes help reduce the incidence of the multi-channel hidden- and exposed-terminal and help address the near-far problem of CDMA by supplying information. Simulation results show that each of the proposed protocols achieve significantly better system performance when compared to IEEE 802.11, other multi-channel protocols, and another protocol CDMA-based.

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Date Created
2010

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Correlation based tools for analysis of dynamic networks

Description

Time series analysis of dynamic networks is an important area of study that helps in predicting changes in networks. Changes in networks are used to analyze deviations in the network characteristics. This analysis helps in characterizing any network that has

Time series analysis of dynamic networks is an important area of study that helps in predicting changes in networks. Changes in networks are used to analyze deviations in the network characteristics. This analysis helps in characterizing any network that has dynamic behavior. This area of study has applications in many domains such as communication networks, climate networks, social networks, transportation networks, and biological networks. The aim of this research is to analyze the structural characteristics of such dynamic networks. This thesis examines tools that help to analyze the structure of the networks and explores a technique for computation and analysis of a large climate dataset. The computations for analyzing the structural characteristics are done in a computing cluster and there is a linear speed up in computation time compared to a single-core computer. As an application, a large sea ice concentration anomaly dataset is analyzed. The large dataset is used to construct a correlation based graph. The results suggest that the climate data has the characteristics of a small-world graph.

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Date Created
2011

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A new backoff strategy using topological persistence in wireless networks

Description

Contention based IEEE 802.11MAC uses the binary exponential backoff algorithm (BEB) for the contention resolution. The protocol suffers poor performance in the heavily loaded networks and MANETs, high collision rate and packet drops, probabilistic delay guarantees, and unfairness. Many backoff

Contention based IEEE 802.11MAC uses the binary exponential backoff algorithm (BEB) for the contention resolution. The protocol suffers poor performance in the heavily loaded networks and MANETs, high collision rate and packet drops, probabilistic delay guarantees, and unfairness. Many backoff strategies were proposed to improve the performance of IEEE 802.11 but all ignore the network topology and demand. Persistence is defined as the fraction of time a node is allowed to transmit, when this allowance should take into account topology and load, it is topology and load aware persistence (TLA). We develop a relation between contention window size and the TLA-persistence. We implement a new backoff strategy where the TLA-persistence is defined as the lexicographic max-min channel allocation. We use a centralized algorithm to calculate each node's TLApersistence and then convert it into a contention window size. The new backoff strategy is evaluated in simulation, comparing with that of the IEEE 802.11 using BEB. In most of the static scenarios like exposed terminal, flow in the middle, star topology, and heavy loaded multi-hop networks and in MANETs, through the simulation study, we show that the new backoff strategy achieves higher overall average throughput as compared to that of the IEEE 802.11 using BEB.

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Date Created
2013

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Scheduled medium access control in mobile ad hoc networks

Description

The primary function of the medium access control (MAC) protocol is managing access to a shared communication channel. From the viewpoint of transmitters, the MAC protocol determines each transmitter's persistence, the fraction of time it is permitted to spend transmitting.

The primary function of the medium access control (MAC) protocol is managing access to a shared communication channel. From the viewpoint of transmitters, the MAC protocol determines each transmitter's persistence, the fraction of time it is permitted to spend transmitting. Schedule-based schemes implement stable persistences, achieving low variation in delay and throughput, and sometimes bounding maximum delay. However, they adapt slowly, if at all, to changes in the network. Contention-based schemes are agile, adapting quickly to changes in perceived contention, but suffer from short-term unfairness, large variations in packet delay, and poor performance at high load. The perfect MAC protocol, it seems, embodies the strengths of both contention- and schedule-based approaches while avoiding their weaknesses. This thesis culminates in the design of a Variable-Weight and Adaptive Topology Transparent (VWATT) MAC protocol. The design of VWATT first required answers for two questions: (1) If a node is equipped with schedules of different weights, which weight should it employ? (2) How is the node to compute the desired weight in a network lacking centralized control? The first question is answered by the Topology- and Load-Aware (TLA) allocation which defines target persistences that conform to both network topology and traffic load. Simulations show the TLA allocation to outperform IEEE 802.11, improving on the expectation and variation of delay, throughput, and drop rate. The second question is answered in the design of an Adaptive Topology- and Load-Aware Scheduled (ATLAS) MAC that computes the TLA allocation in a decentralized and adaptive manner. Simulation results show that ATLAS converges quickly on the TLA allocation, supporting highly dynamic networks. With these questions answered, a construction based on transversal designs is given for a variable-weight topology transparent schedule that allows nodes to dynamically and independently select weights to accommodate local topology and traffic load. The schedule maintains a guarantee on maximum delay when the maximum neighbourhood size is not too large. The schedule is integrated with the distributed computation of ATLAS to create VWATT. Simulations indicate that VWATT offers the stable performance characteristics of a scheduled MAC while adapting quickly to changes in topology and traffic load.

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Date Created
2013

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Firewall rule set analysis and visualization

Description

A firewall is a necessary component for network security and just like any regular equipment it requires maintenance. To keep up with changing cyber security trends and threats, firewall rules are modified frequently. Over time such modifications increase the complexity,

A firewall is a necessary component for network security and just like any regular equipment it requires maintenance. To keep up with changing cyber security trends and threats, firewall rules are modified frequently. Over time such modifications increase the complexity, size and verbosity of firewall rules. As the rule set grows in size, adding and modifying rule becomes a tedious task. This discourages network administrators to review the work done by previous administrators before and after applying any changes. As a result the quality and efficiency of the firewall goes down.

Modification and addition of rules without knowledge of previous rules creates anomalies like shadowing and rule redundancy. Anomalous rule sets not only limit the efficiency of the firewall but in some cases create a hole in the perimeter security. Detection of anomalies has been studied for a long time and some well established procedures have been implemented and tested. But they all have a common problem of visualizing the results. When it comes to visualization of firewall anomalies, the results do not fit in traditional matrix, tree or sunburst representations.

This research targets the anomaly detection and visualization problem. It analyzes and represents firewall rule anomalies in innovative ways such as hive plots and dynamic slices. Such graphical representations of rule anomalies are useful in understanding the state of a firewall. It also helps network administrators in finding and fixing the anomalous rules.

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Date Created
2014

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Infinite cacheflow: a rule-caching solution for software defined networks

Description

New OpenFlow switches support a wide range of network applications, such as firewalls, load balancers, routers, and traffic monitoring. While ternary content addressable memory (TCAM) allows switches to process packets at high speed based on multiple header fields, today's commodity

New OpenFlow switches support a wide range of network applications, such as firewalls, load balancers, routers, and traffic monitoring. While ternary content addressable memory (TCAM) allows switches to process packets at high speed based on multiple header fields, today's commodity switches support just thousands to tens of thousands of forwarding rules. To allow for finer-grained policies on this hardware, efficient ways to support the abstraction of a switch are needed with arbitrarily large rule tables. To do so, a hardware-software hybrid switch is designed that relies on rule caching to provide large rule tables at low cost. Unlike traditional caching solutions, neither individual rules are cached (to respect rule dependencies) nor compressed (to preserve the per-rule traffic counts). Instead long dependency chains are ``spliced'' to cache smaller groups of rules while preserving the semantics of the network policy. The proposed hybrid switch design satisfies three criteria: (1) responsiveness, to allow rapid changes to the cache with minimal effect on traffic throughput; (2) transparency, to faithfully support native OpenFlow semantics; (3) correctness, to cache rules while preserving the semantics of the original policy. The evaluation of the hybrid switch on large rule tables suggest that it can effectively expose the benefits of both hardware and software switches to the controller and to applications running on top of it.

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Date Created
2014