Matching Items (130)

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Active Ripple Cancellation in Hysteretic Controlled Buck Converters

Description

Buck converters are a class of switched-mode power converters often used to step down DC input voltages to a lower DC output voltage. These converters naturally produce a current and

Buck converters are a class of switched-mode power converters often used to step down DC input voltages to a lower DC output voltage. These converters naturally produce a current and voltage ripple at their output due to their switching action. Traditional methods of reducing this ripple have involved adding large discrete inductors and capacitors to filter the ripple, but large discrete components cannot be integrated onto chips. As an alternative to using passive filtering components, this project investigates the use of active ripple cancellation to reduce the peak output ripple. Hysteretic controlled buck converters were chosen for their simplicity of design and fast transient response. The proposed cancellation circuits sense the output ripple of the buck converter and inject an equal ripple exactly out of phase with the sensed ripple. Both current-mode and voltage-mode feedback loops are simulated, and the effectiveness of each cancellation circuit is examined. Results show that integrated active ripple cancellation circuits offer a promising substitute for large discrete filters.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2017-12

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Design of a RF Transmitting Belt as Part of a Wireless SCS System

Description

The belt component of a unique and novel wireless spinal cord stimulator (SCS) system was conceived, designed, made, and verified. This thesis details and documents all work from inception through

The belt component of a unique and novel wireless spinal cord stimulator (SCS) system was conceived, designed, made, and verified. This thesis details and documents all work from inception through preliminary verification and includes recommendations for future work. The purpose, scope, and objectives of the design and the thesis are introduced. Background literature is presented to provide context for the wireless SCS system as well as the belt component of the system. The product development process used to design the product is outlined. Requirements and constraints are determined from customer needs. Design options are considered and the best concept is selected. The design is made, optimized, and verified to meet the requirements. Future work for this design, outside the scope of this thesis, is discussed. Recommendations and conclusions following completion of the design are included as well.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2014-05

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NGExtract 2: MOSFET Parameter Extraction Tool

Description

NGExtract 2 is a complete transistor (MOSFET) parameter extraction solution based upon the original computer program NGExtract by Rahul Shringarpure written in February 2007. NGExtract 2 is written in

NGExtract 2 is a complete transistor (MOSFET) parameter extraction solution based upon the original computer program NGExtract by Rahul Shringarpure written in February 2007. NGExtract 2 is written in Java and based around the circuit simulator NGSpice. The goal of the program is to be used to produce accurate transistor models based around real-world transistor data. The program contains numerous improvements to the original program:
• Completely rewritten with performance and usability in mind
• Cross-Platform vs. Linux Only
• Simple installation procedure vs. compilation and manual library configuration
• Self-contained, single file runtime
• Particle Swarm Optimization routine
NGExtract 2 works by plotting the Ids vs. Vds and Ids vs. Vgs curves of a simulation model and the measured, real-world data. The user can adjust model parameters and re-simulate to attempt to match the curves. The included Particle Swarm Optimization routine attempts to automate this process by iteratively attempting to improve a solution by measuring its sum-squared error against the real-world data that the user has provided.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2013-05

Development of Electrical Instrumentation for Multiplexed Diabetes Management

Description

This report outlines the current methods and instrumentation used for diabetes monitoring and detection, and evaluates the problems that these methods face. Additionally, it will present an approach to remedy

This report outlines the current methods and instrumentation used for diabetes monitoring and detection, and evaluates the problems that these methods face. Additionally, it will present an approach to remedy these problems. The purpose of this project is to create a potentiostat that is capable of controlling a diabetes meter that monitors multiple biological markers simultaneously. Glucose is the most commonly measured biomarker for diabetes. However, it provides only a limited amount of information. In order to give the user of the meter more information about the progression of his or her disease, the concentrations of several different biological markers for diabetes may be measured using a system that operates in a similar fashion to blood glucose meters. The potentiostat provides an input voltage into the electrode sensor and receives the current from the sensor as the output. From this information, the impedance may be calculated. The concentrations of each of the biomarkers in the blood sample can then be determined. In an effort to increase sensitivity, the diabetes meter forgoes the use of amperometric i-t in favor of the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy technique. A three-electrode electrochemical sensor is used with the meter. In order to perform simultaneous and rapid testing of biomarker concentration, a single multisine input wave is generated using a hardware implementation of a summing amplifier and waveform generators.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2013-05

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Wireless Wearable Sensor to Characterize Respiratory Behaviors

Description

Respiratory behavior provides effective information to characterize lung functionality, including respiratory rate, respiratory profile, and respiratory volume. Current methods have limited capabilities of continuous characterization of respiratory behavior and are

Respiratory behavior provides effective information to characterize lung functionality, including respiratory rate, respiratory profile, and respiratory volume. Current methods have limited capabilities of continuous characterization of respiratory behavior and are primarily targeting the measurement of respiratory rate, which has relatively less value in clinical application. In this dissertation, a wireless wearable sensor on a paper substrate is developed to continuously characterize respiratory behavior and deliver clinically relevant parameters, contributing to asthma control. Based on the anatomical analysis and experimental results, the optimum site for the wireless wearable sensor is on the midway of the xiphoid process and the costal margin, corresponding to the abdomen-apposed rib cage. At the wearing site, the linear strain change during respiration is measured and converted to lung volume by the wireless wearable sensor utilizing a distance-elapsed ultrasound. An on-board low-power Bluetooth module transmits the temporal lung volume change to a smartphone, where a custom-programmed app computes to show the clinically relevant parameters, such as forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume delivered in the first second (FEV1) and the FEV1/FVC ratio. Enhanced by a simple, yet effective machine-learning algorithm, a system consisting of two wireless wearable sensors accurately extracts respiratory features and classifies the respiratory behavior within four postures among different subjects, demonstrating that the respiratory behaviors are individual- and posture-dependent contributing to monitoring the posture-related respiratory diseases. The continuous and accurate monitoring of respiratory behaviors can track the respiratory disorders and diseases' progression for timely and objective approaches for control and management.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2020

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Design of a digitally controlled pulse width modulator for DC-DC converter applications

Description

Synchronous buck converters have become the obvious choice of design for high efficiency voltage down-conversion applications and find wide scale usage in today's IC industry. The use of digital control

Synchronous buck converters have become the obvious choice of design for high efficiency voltage down-conversion applications and find wide scale usage in today's IC industry. The use of digital control in synchronous buck converters is becoming increasingly popular because of its associated advantages over traditional analog counterparts in terms of design flexibility, reduced use of off-chip components, and better programmability to enable advanced controls. They also demonstrate better immunity to noise, enhances tolerance to the process, voltage and temperature (PVT) variations, low chip area and as a result low cost. It enables processing in digital domain requiring a need of analog-digital interfacing circuit viz. Analog to Digital Converter (ADC) and Digital to Analog Converter (DAC). A Digital to Pulse Width Modulator (DPWM) acts as time domain DAC required in the control loop to modulate the ON time of the Power-MOSFETs. The accuracy and efficiency of the DPWM creates the upper limit to the steady state voltage ripple of the DC - DC converter and efficiency in low load conditions. This thesis discusses the prevalent architectures for DPWM in switched mode DC - DC converters. The design of a Hybrid DPWM is presented. The DPWM is 9-bit accurate and is targeted for a Synchronous Buck Converter with a switching frequency of 1.0 MHz. The design supports low power mode(s) for the buck converter in the Pulse Frequency Modulation (PFM) mode as well as other fail-safe features. The design implementation is digital centric making it robust across PVT variations and portable to lower technology nodes. Key target of the design is to reduce design time. The design is tested across large Process (+/- 3σ), Voltage (1.8V +/- 10%) and Temperature (-55.0 °C to 125 °C) and is in the process of tape-out.

Contributors

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Created

Date Created
  • 2013

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A fast settling oversampled digital sliding-mode controller for DC-DC buck converters

Description

Sliding-Mode Control (SMC) has several benefits over traditional Proportional-Integral-Differential (PID) control in terms of fast transient response, robustness to parameter and component variations, and low sensitivity to loop disturbances. An

Sliding-Mode Control (SMC) has several benefits over traditional Proportional-Integral-Differential (PID) control in terms of fast transient response, robustness to parameter and component variations, and low sensitivity to loop disturbances. An All-Digital Sliding-Mode (ADSM) controlled DC-DC converter, utilizing single-bit oversampled frequency domain digitizers is proposed. In the proposed approach, feedback and reference digitizing Analog-to-Digital Converters (ADC) are based on a single-bit, first order Sigma-Delta frequency to digital converter, running at 32MHz over-sampling rate. The ADSM regulator achieves 1% settling time in less than 5uSec for a load variation of 600mA. The sliding-mode controller utilizes a high-bandwidth hysteretic differentiator and an integrator to perform the sliding control law in digital domain. The proposed approach overcomes the steady state error (or DC offset), and limits the switching frequency range, which are the two common problems associated with sliding-mode controllers. The IC is designed and fabricated on a 0.35um CMOS process occupying an active area of 2.72mm-squared. Measured peak efficiency is 83%.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2013

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Analysis, design, simulation, and measurements of flexible high impedance surfaces

Description

High Impedance Surfaces (HISs), which have been investigated extensively, have proven to be very efficient ground planes for low profile antenna applications due to their unique reflection phase characteristics. Another

High Impedance Surfaces (HISs), which have been investigated extensively, have proven to be very efficient ground planes for low profile antenna applications due to their unique reflection phase characteristics. Another emerging research field among the microwave and antenna technologies is the design of flexible antennas and microwave circuits to be utilized in conformal applications. The combination of those two research topics gives birth to a third one, namely the design of Conformal or Flexible HISs (FHISs), which is the main subject of this dissertation. The problems associated with the FHISs are twofold: characterization and physical realization. The characterization involves the analysis of scattering properties of FHISs in the presence of plane wave and localized sources. For this purpose, an approximate analytical method is developed to characterize the reflection properties of a cylindrically curved FHIS. The effects of curvature on the reflection phase of the curved FHISs are examined. Furthermore, the effects of different types of currents, specifically the ones inherent to finite sized periodic structures, on the reflection phase characteristics are observed. After the reflection phase characterization of curved HISs, the performance of dipole antennas located in close proximity to a curved HIS are investigated, and the results are compared with the flat case. Different types of resonances that may occur for such a low-profile antenna application are discussed. The effects of curvature on the radiation performance of antennas are examined. Commercially available flexible materials are relatively thin which degrades the bandwidth of HISs. Another practical aspect, which is related to the substrate thickness, is the compactness of the surface. Because of the design limitations of conventional HISs, it is not possible to miniaturize the HIS and increase the bandwidth, simultaneously. To overcome this drawback, a novel HIS is proposed with a periodically perforated ground plane. Copper plated through holes are extremely vulnerable to bending and should be avoided at the bending parts of flexible circuits. Fortunately, if designed properly, the perforations on the ground plane may result in suppression of surface waves. Hence, metallic posts can be eliminated without hindering the surface wave suppression properties of HISs.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2013

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Single-inductor, dual-input CCM boost converter for multi-junction PV energy harvesting

Description

This thesis presents a power harvesting system combining energy from sub-cells of

multi-junction photovoltaic (MJ-PV) cells. A dual-input, inductor time-sharing boost

converter in continuous conduction mode (CCM) is proposed. A hysteresis inductor

This thesis presents a power harvesting system combining energy from sub-cells of

multi-junction photovoltaic (MJ-PV) cells. A dual-input, inductor time-sharing boost

converter in continuous conduction mode (CCM) is proposed. A hysteresis inductor current

regulation in designed to reduce cross regulation caused by inductor-sharing in CCM. A

modified hill-climbing algorithm is implemented to achieve maximum power point

tracking (MPPT). A dual-path architecture is implemented to provide a regulated 1.8V

output. A proposed lossless current sensor monitors transient inductor current and a time-based power monitor is proposed to monitor PV power. The PV input provides power of

65mW. Measured results show that the peak efficiency achieved is around 85%. The

power switches and control circuits are implemented in standard 0.18um CMOS process.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2017

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A mixed signal adaptive ripple cancellation technique for integrated buck converters

Description

Switching regulator has several advantages over linear regulator, but the drawback of switching regulator is ripple voltage on output. Previously people use LDO following a buck converter and multi-phase buck

Switching regulator has several advantages over linear regulator, but the drawback of switching regulator is ripple voltage on output. Previously people use LDO following a buck converter and multi-phase buck converter to reduce the output voltage ripple. However, these two solutions also have obvious drawbacks and limitations.

In this thesis, a novel mixed signal adaptive ripple cancellation technique is presented. The idea is to generate an artificial ripple current with the same amplitude as inductor current ripple but opposite phase that has high linearity tracking behavior. To generate the artificial triangular current, duty cycle information and inductor current ripple amplitude information are needed. By sensing switching node SW, the duty cycle information can be obtained; by using feedback the amplitude of the artificial ripple current can be regulated. The artificial ripple current cancels out the inductor current, and results in a very low ripple output current flowing to load. In top level simulation, 19.3dB ripple rejection can be achieved.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2016