Matching Items (8)

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Transitional Care of Adults with Chronic Diseases Post-Discharge from Acute Settings

Description

Ineffective transitional care programs for ensuring the continuation of care from acute settings to the home settings post discharge can result in rehospitalization of elderly patients with chronic diseases. Usually,

Ineffective transitional care programs for ensuring the continuation of care from acute settings to the home settings post discharge can result in rehospitalization of elderly patients with chronic diseases. Usually, transitional care should be time-sensitive, patient-centered services intended to ensure continuity of care and an efficient transition between health care settings or home. A patient centered transitional care program was implemented at an outpatient primary care facility to reduce readmission rates. Institutional Review Board approval was obtained.

Twenty adult patients with chronic diseases discharged from an acute setting were identified. A follow up phone call and/or a home visit within 24-72 hours post discharge was employed. The Care Transitions Measure (CTM®) and Medication Discrepancy Tool (MDT®) were utilized to identify quality of care of transition and medication discrepancies. A chart audit collected data on the age of participant, diagnosis for initial hospitalization, CTM score, home visit, and ED visits or re-hospitalizations after 30 days of discharge. The outcome indicated that transitional care within primary care utilizing evidence-based practices is beneficial in reducing readmission rates. A logistic regression showed model significance, p = .002, suggesting that the CTM score was effective for both telephone support (TS) and home visit (HV).

A correlation analysis showed that as age of participants increased, the CTM score decreased, indicating that older adults required more support. A significance p <.001, of a proportional test indicated that readmission rates after the intervention was lower. It is evident that providing a timely and effective transitional care intervention in a primary care setting can reduce hospital readmissions, improve symptom management and quality of life of adult patients with chronic diseases.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2020-05-05

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Advance Directive Advocacy: Empowering Homeless Clients to Express Their End-of-Life Wishes

Description

As Baby Boomers age, the number of older homeless patients facing end of life is increasing. Homeless individuals die of the same diseases as their domiciled counterparts, but they have

As Baby Boomers age, the number of older homeless patients facing end of life is increasing. Homeless individuals die of the same diseases as their domiciled counterparts, but they have distinct barriers to equitable end-of-life care, such as lack of regular medical care, a higher likelihood of comorbid serious mental illness and substance abuse, alienation from potential healthcare proxies, and specific fears related to dying. Completion of an advance directive (AD) would address many of these barriers, as well as national goals of reducing medical costs associated with end of life care. A review of the literature indicates that homeless individuals, once educated on the purpose and significance of ADs, complete them at a higher rate than non-homeless people. Further, racial and ethnic disparities in document completion are minimized with educational interventions about an AD’s purpose.

King’s Theory of Goal Attainment provides the theoretical basis for the application of such an intervention in the setting of a medical respite center and a day resource center that both serve the homeless. Thirty-seven clients of the two sites and 14 staff members were administered a pre-and post-test measuring attitudes and knowledge relating to ADs on a Likert scale, resulting in an increase in knowledge about one of the two documents that traditionally comprise an AD, while not significantly affecting attitudes. Implications for practice include an inexpensive intervention that does not require a medically trained individual to deliver, enabling a broad application to a variety of settings with the goal of empowering a traditionally disenfranchised population to make health decisions related to the most vulnerable of life passages.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2016-05-07

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Controlling Chemotherapy-Induced Nausea and Vomiting Through Guideline Adherence

Description

Background:
Thirty to fifty percent of cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy will experience
chemotherapy induced nausea and or vomiting (CINV) despite the use of antiemetic prophylaxis Uncontrollable CINV can lead to

Background:
Thirty to fifty percent of cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy will experience
chemotherapy induced nausea and or vomiting (CINV) despite the use of antiemetic prophylaxis Uncontrollable CINV can lead to complications that add extra stress to patients, increase in healthcare costs, and utilization of resources. CINV can lead to chemotherapy dose reductions, treatment delays, chemotherapy changes, or discontinuation of treatment. Guidelines exist to better prevent and treat CINV. Evidence supports the use of guidelines to prevent CINV, however patients still suffer from CINV often due to a lack of guideline adherence.

Objectives:
The purpose of this project was to increase CINV guideline adherence by increasing knowledge of antiemetic guidelines utilizing an educational intervention for providers and nurses at an outpatient oncology office.

Methods:
A brief educational intervention on CINV and recommended NCCN guidelines was
conducted with providers and nurse (n=6) at an oncology practice in Southwestern United States. An evaluation to assess change in knowledge was performed using a pre and post test format. Statistical analysis was performed using descriptive statistics, McNemar tests and Wicoxan Signed Rank Test.

Findings:
There was a significant effect on knowledge of NCCN antiemetic guidelines (Z=-1.89, p=0.059, mean 2.5) post intervention. There also was a significant impact on likelihood to use guidelines in practice (Z=-1.89, p=0.059, mean 2.5). Increasing awareness and likelihood to CHEMOTHERAPY INDUCED NAUSEA AND VOMITING 3 follow recommended guidelines may improve CINV symptoms in patients undergoing chemotherapy and improve the treatment outcomes for these patients.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2018-04-29

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Education and Self-efficacy of Probiotic Use in Patients with Chronic Gastrointestinal Symptoms

Description

Functional GI disorders are categorized as a group of chronic symptoms that are considered to have no abnormalities that can account for patient’s illnesses. Included in this category are those

Functional GI disorders are categorized as a group of chronic symptoms that are considered to have no abnormalities that can account for patient’s illnesses. Included in this category are those patients with irritable bowel syndrome. Functional GI issues are an important public health concern as they are becoming increasingly more common; they can be disabling and can cause significant socioeconomic burden in regard to health care costs, productivity and disability. There is strong evidence that probiotics have the potential to reduce IBS symptoms. Unfortunately, probiotics are underutilized in the clinical setting.

The purpose of this project is to increase knowledge and self-efficacy in patients with functional GI symptoms regarding the use of probiotics for symptom management. Patients in an outpatient GI practice in Southwestern United States with chronic functional GI symptoms were shown an educational video regarding the origins and benefits of using probiotics to manage chronic symptoms. Knowledge of probiotics, self-efficacy and willingness to utilize probiotics was measured by asking participants to complete a modified Health Belief Model survey before and after viewing the video. Patient demographics were collected. There were 75 participants (n=75) who participated in the project with a mean age of 40.3 years (SD=15.41), 85% female and 15% male. Wilcoxon signed rank test were used to analyze changes in paired data with significant improvements in self-efficacy (Z=3.93, p< .01), benefits of probiotic use (Z=4.33, p<.01) and decreased barriers to probiotics use (Z=-4.31, p<.01). After participants viewed the educational video, 95% of patients indicated they would try probiotics (CI 95%, p<.01) versus 65% of patients who would try probiotics before viewing video. In conclusion, education regarding using probiotics to manage functional GI symptoms improved patient’s self-efficacy and their willingness to use probiotics to manage their symptoms. Keywords: probiotics, GI disorders, diarrhea, IBS, constipation, abdominal pain, self-efficacy.

INCREASED EDUCATION AND SELF-EFFICACY IN PROBIOTIC USE:
Education and Self-efficacy of Probiotic Use in Patients with Chronic Gastrointestinal Symptoms
Functional gastrointestinal (GI) disorders are categorized as a group of chronic symptoms that are considered to have no structural or biochemical abnormalities that can account for patient’s illness. Included in this category are those patients diagnosed with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). IBS is chronic GI disorder characterized by abdominal pain accompanied by altered bowel function, gas and bloating without the presence of organic disease (Mapel, 2013). Functional gastrointestinal symptoms typically include complaints of long-standing issues (greater than 3 months) of diarrhea, abdominal pain, constipation, gas and bloating.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2017-05-04

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Skin and Soft Tissue Infections: Improving Treatments for the Incarcerated Population

Description

Skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs) occur at higher rates within correctional facilities due to the increased risks that are inherent in this population. These infections present at various stages,

Skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs) occur at higher rates within correctional facilities due to the increased risks that are inherent in this population. These infections present at various stages, requiring different treatment modalities and sometimes require complex treatment. Prompt and accurate recognition of SSTIs is crucial in selecting appropriate treatment to decrease the possibility of treatment failure. Literature shows a correlation between diagnosis delay and increased time and overall cost of care related to delayed diagnosis of SSTIs. These findings support the implementation of an evidence-based project which aims to determine whether the utilization of an algorithm for SSTIs can be amplified through increased accessibility.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2019-04-29

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Skin and Soft Tissue Infections: Using a Severity Stratification Tool to Improve Knowledge

Description

Skin and soft tissue infections (SSTI’s) are a significant health concern with serious potential implications. Evidence suggests the importance of implementing a severity stratification tool to improve early identification of

Skin and soft tissue infections (SSTI’s) are a significant health concern with serious potential implications. Evidence suggests the importance of implementing a severity stratification tool to improve early identification of SSTI’s. The aim of this evidence based project is to examine if educating healthcare staff on the use of a severity stratification tool would increase staff knowledge of SSTI's. The sample consisted of 18 participants, 12 healthcare providers and 6 healthcare staff at a correctional facility in the Southwestern United States. A pre-and posttest design, including an educational session was implemented.

A 14-item multiple choice self-developed questionnaire was used to evaluate participants’ knowledge of identifying and ranking SSTI’s using the CREST tool. A one tail paired t-test was performed to compare the pre-and post-test case study scores for the healthcare provider group. A significant increase from pre-test to post-test case study scores was found (t(13)= -6.19, p < 0.00). Of the healthcare providers, 57% found the tool “moderately helpful.” Of the non-provider sample, 50% found the tool “extremely helpful” and plan to use the tool “all of the time.” The findings of this study suggest that implementing an educational session on a wound severity stratification tool improves staff knowledge and increases the likelihood of the tool being used in practice. Recommendations for future research include larger sample sizes across a variety of regional correctional facilities to further explore the use and knowledge of the tool in practice.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2018-04-30

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Preoperative Education for Patients Undergoing Spine Surgery

Description

Low back pain is a worldwide health problem. Preoperative education is essential to provide patients with information across the continuum of care. Gaps exist among healthcare organizations regarding deficiencies in

Low back pain is a worldwide health problem. Preoperative education is essential to provide patients with information across the continuum of care. Gaps exist among healthcare organizations regarding deficiencies in properly educating patients about their surgical experience. The lack of proper preoperative education can negatively impact reimbursement for healthcare systems, providers, and patient outcomes. In a large metropolitan tertiary care center providing spine surgery, an evidence-based project was implemented. A self-developed pre and post intervention surveys was given assessing patients’ knowledge and surgical expectations after surgery. A tri-fold education pamphlet was given to the participants with information that included detailed information regarding expectations before and after surgery.

Descriptive statistics were used to describe the sample and outcome variable. An increase in knowledge in expectations after surgery was noted from pre-intervention (mean 1.83, SD .408) to post-intervention (mean 1.67, SD .816) with a Cohen’s D of 0.248 although this was not statistically significant. However, the change in average length of stay (LOS) was significant. The average LOS for the project participants dropped from 4.54 days to 2.833 days which is within the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) guidelines of 2.92 days for this surgical population. In conclusion, an increased in patients’ knowledge regarding expectations following surgery and decreased LOS was seen for the project participants.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2019-05-03

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Use of Virtual Reality Videos to Reduce Anxiety for Radiation Oncology Patients

Description

Purpose: To implement a non-pharmacologic approach to reduce anxiety in patients receiving radiation treatment.

Background and Significance: Anxiety is a prevalent health problem affecting up to 30% of the general population.

Purpose: To implement a non-pharmacologic approach to reduce anxiety in patients receiving radiation treatment.

Background and Significance: Anxiety is a prevalent health problem affecting up to 30% of the general population. Over 95% of radiation oncology patients report anxiety often related to not knowing what to expect during treatments. The current guideline for management of anxiety is the use of benzodiazepines; which can impose a risk to patients. Evidence demonstrates virtual reality videos can be an effective non-pharmacologic approach to reduce anxiety..

Design: Observational cohort evidence based project.

Setting: Outpatient radiation oncology facility in the Southwest United States.

Sample: 40 patients who have not previously undergone radiation therapy, but have been prescribed radiation treatments for malignant or non malignant conditions.

Methods: Patients who had not previously undergone radiation treatments were identified based on chart review and consented for participation in the project. The patient's were assessed for both their general (trait) anxiety and situational (state) anxiety using The State Trait Anxiety inventory (STAI). They were then shown a virtual reality video that walked them through what they would experience during their radiation treatment. The patient's were re-administered the STAI questionnaire following the video to assess any change in anxiety levels.

Variables: Trait and State anxiety scores before and after the virtual reality video intervention.

Findings/Outcomes: A paired t-test was conducted to assess the data. There was a significant difference in the state anxiety scores pre intervention (m = 32.65, SD = 11.47) and post intervention (M = 25.50, SD 8.95), p =< 0.001.

Conclusions: The use of virtual reality videos was an effective non-pharmacological approach to reduce anxiety in patients receiving radiation treatment.

Implications for nursing: The results provide support for the use of a virtual reality intervention as a non-pharmacologic option to reduce anxiety for patients.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2017-05-02