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The Adult Communication, Cognitive, and Reading Profile of 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome

Description

22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome (22q11.2DS) is one of the most frequent chromosomal microdeletion syndromes in humans. This case study focuses on the language and reading profile of a female adult with 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome who was undiagnosed until the age of

22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome (22q11.2DS) is one of the most frequent chromosomal microdeletion syndromes in humans. This case study focuses on the language and reading profile of a female adult with 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome who was undiagnosed until the age of 27 years old. To comprehensively describe the participant's profile, a series of assessment measures was administered in the speech, language, cognition, reading, and motor domains. Understanding how 22q11.2DS has impacted the life of a recently diagnosed adult will provide insight into how to best facilitate long-term language and educational support for this population and inform future research.

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2018-05

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Cognitive and Auditory Factors for Speech and Music Perception in Elderly Adult Cochlear Implant Users

Description

Working memory and cognitive functions contribute to speech recognition in normal hearing and hearing impaired listeners. In this study, auditory and cognitive functions are measured in young adult normal hearing, elderly normal hearing, and elderly cochlear implant subjects. The effects

Working memory and cognitive functions contribute to speech recognition in normal hearing and hearing impaired listeners. In this study, auditory and cognitive functions are measured in young adult normal hearing, elderly normal hearing, and elderly cochlear implant subjects. The effects of age and hearing on the different measures are investigated. The correlations between auditory/cognitive functions and speech/music recognition are examined. The results may demonstrate which factors can better explain the variable performance across elderly cochlear implant users.

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2018-05

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Word Learning Development in Elementary Aged Children

Description

The purpose of this study was to investigate differences in word learning ability when assessing phonological and semantic representations in elementary-age children with typical development. Methods: The study included 116 2nd graders and 25 6th graders who were tested using

The purpose of this study was to investigate differences in word learning ability when assessing phonological and semantic representations in elementary-age children with typical development. Methods: The study included 116 2nd graders and 25 6th graders who were tested using the Assessment Battery for Children - Word Learning. Children played virtual pirate games that tested their ability to store, retrieve, and recall phonological and semantic representations of nonwords. Results: Based on effect sizes, the largest differences in word learning ability occurred for tasks requiring phonological working memory. Overall, 6th graders had higher performance means in all aspects of word learning. Both groups performed better on tasks that required less phonological or semantic detail. Discussion: Findings align with previous research reporting that as children develop, their capacity to store, retrieve, and recall phonological information increases as a result of increased phonological loop capacity and rehearsal speed. Similarly, as children age they perform better on tasks requiring visuospatial working memory such as storing and recreating the semantic representations of new words. These findings have implications for the word learning process in children with typical development.

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2018-12

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Language-based Interventions Incorporated into Third Grade General Education

Description

Research in the last decade has indicated that collaboration between speech-language pathologists (SLP) and general education teachers is a necessary component for effective instruction. Students that have language difficulties should have the necessary support to help them succeed in the

Research in the last decade has indicated that collaboration between speech-language pathologists (SLP) and general education teachers is a necessary component for effective instruction. Students that have language difficulties should have the necessary support to help them succeed in the general education classroom. Despite the overwhelming evidence that supports that collaboration is the best practice, it does not take place due to lack of training, time, and funding. My creative project includes a template and website that allows SLPs and teachers to collaborate to enrich instruction targeted towards third grade students diagnosed with a language disorder. This template is designed for the SLP to contribute specific language-based strategies that they implement during their therapy sessions. In turn, the general educator can access the template and easily integrate those strategies into her lessons to support the language skills of her students so that the student has more opportunities to generalize their skills. The template is formatted around the IEP goals of the students and aligned to the Common Core standards. The purpose of the template is to provide SLPs and general education teachers a means to collaborate without having to take additional time from each other's limited schedules and eliminates the need for in-person training to implement these strategies to effectively support students with language disabilities struggling in the general education classroom.

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2018-12

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Do amnestic MCI subjects have different neuropsychological profiles if they are amyloid PET positive or negative?

Description

Objective
The objective of this study is to compare amyloid β (Aβ) PET positive and negative patients to their neuropsychological profiles. There is a definitive link between Aβ deposits and cognitive disorders such as MCI or Alzheimer’s disease (AD),

Objective
The objective of this study is to compare amyloid β (Aβ) PET positive and negative patients to their neuropsychological profiles. There is a definitive link between Aβ deposits and cognitive disorders such as MCI or Alzheimer’s disease (AD), but does its presence justify the costly imaging tests based on its clinical context?
Background
Amnestic MCI is largely considered prodromal to AD/dementia in a high majority of cases. [1] Many studies have shown a positive correlation between Aβ PET positive individuals and their likelihood to progress to AD. Aβ deposits in the brain are not always a sign of AD or even MCI, and many elderly people live normal lives with elevated levels. The presence of Aβ in the brain should be carefully considered alongside other tests before making a clinical diagnosis of MCI or AD.
Methods
130 subjects from Barrow Neurological Institute (Phoenix, AZ) were included in this study. Amyloid PET report data was pulled from Dignity Health St. Joseph’s Hospital and Medical Center Outpatient Imaging. Amyloid PET scans obtained by using F-18 florbetapir compound and reviewed by an expert radiologist providing a qualitative status of amyloid-beta positive (+) or negative (-). All data was anonymized and categorized into positive amyloid PET, negative amyloid PET, and clinical diagnosis based on neuropsychological profiles.
Results
The demographic data indicated that 38.5% of the 91 patients diagnosed as amnestic MCI were amyloid PET negative while 61.5% were amyloid PET positive. Of the 39 patients diagnosed as Dementia or AD 15.4% were amyloid PET negative and 84.6% were amyloid PET positive. Correlational analysis between diagnosis and neuropsychological variables suggests that some variables correlate well while others do not. There is a significant correlation between diagnosis and dementia rating scale (DRS) r(24) = -.762, between diagnosis and TrailsB Test r(39) = .397, between diagnosis and phonetic fluency r(30) = -.383, between diagnosis and semantic fluency r(29) = -.369, and between diagnosis and the Boston Naming Test (BNT) r(36) = -.312. Comparing the PET positive and PET negative groups there is a marginal significance in the Boston Naming Test (T=1.945, P=.060) suggesting PET positive individuals test lower than PET negative.
Conclusion
Based on all the results of this study, amyloid PET is still a clinical indicator that an individual might be MCI or dementia/AD, but it has its exceptions. A small number of patients diagnosed as dementia/AD had a negative amyloid PET suggesting that beta amyloid plaques are not the only cause of the disease. There is a strong suggestion that amyloid plaques are a major factor in the progression of dementia or AD, however the results from an amyloid PET cannot be directly related to a diagnosis.

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2018-05

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Mindfulness Based Stress Reduction Intervention for Adults with Autism

Description

Adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) commonly have co-morbid psychiatric symptoms which can decrease quality of life. Although many adults with ASD are achieving greater independence, including attending college, psychiatric symptoms are generally not well controlled in this group. Mindfulness

Adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) commonly have co-morbid psychiatric symptoms which can decrease quality of life. Although many adults with ASD are achieving greater independence, including attending college, psychiatric symptoms are generally not well controlled in this group. Mindfulness Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) is a program that has successfully been used to reduce the stress, depression, and anxiety symptoms in many clinical and non-clinical groups and may also be effective for college-aged students with ASD. The present investigation assessed the demand, practicality, implementation, adaptation, and acceptability of an MBSR course for college students with ASD. A total of 22 participants completed the questionnaire containing 53 questions and were between the ages of 18 to 64. We found that the MBSR therapy is in high demand for individuals with ASD, and that the participants would be willingly complete the intervention techniques. Participants generally stated that a therapy course like MBSR may help reduce their symptoms, and that they were eager to enroll. Participants were willing to attend all 8 classes during the summer, with a preference for afternoons. Also, modifications including yoga and background music would be accepted by each participant as well as any additional modifications made to the course to meet the needs of the individuals with ASD. Next steps include enrolling and randomizing students into the MBSR course or control group, as well as collect pre- and post-intervention data. We hypothesize MBSR will reduce the psychiatric symptoms and stress levels of individuals in college with ASD, demonstrating its effectiveness in this vulnerable population.

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2018-05

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Examining the Equivalence of Traditional vs. Automated Speech Perception Testing in Adult Listeners with Normal Hearing

Description

The purpose of the present study was to determine if an automated speech perception task yields results that are equivalent to a word recognition test used in audiometric evaluations. This was done by testing 51 normally hearing adults using a

The purpose of the present study was to determine if an automated speech perception task yields results that are equivalent to a word recognition test used in audiometric evaluations. This was done by testing 51 normally hearing adults using a traditional word recognition task (NU-6) and an automated Non-Word Detection task. Stimuli for each task were presented in quiet as well as in six signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) increasing in 3 dB increments (+0 dB, +3 dB, +6 dB, +9 dB, + 12 dB, +15 dB). A two one-sided test procedure (TOST) was used to determine equivalency of the two tests. This approach required the performance for both tasks to be arcsine transformed and converted to z-scores in order to calculate the difference in scores across listening conditions. These values were then compared to a predetermined criterion to establish if equivalency exists. It was expected that the TOST procedure would reveal equivalency between the traditional word recognition task and the automated Non-Word Detection Task. The results confirmed that the two tasks differed by no more than 2 test items in any of the listening conditions. Overall, the results indicate that the automated Non-Word Detection task could be used in addition to, or in place of, traditional word recognition tests. In addition, the features of an automated test such as the Non-Word Detection task offer additional benefits including rapid administration, accurate scoring, and supplemental performance data (e.g., error analyses) beyond those obtained in traditional speech perception measures.

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2017-05

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Accurate Articulation of /r/: Relationships between Signal Processing Analysis of Speech and Ultrasound Images of the Tongue

Description

Research on /r/ production previously used formant analysis as the primary acoustic analysis, with particular focus on the low third formant in the speech signal. Prior imaging of speech used X-Ray, MRI, and electromagnetic midsagittal articulometer systems. More recently, the

Research on /r/ production previously used formant analysis as the primary acoustic analysis, with particular focus on the low third formant in the speech signal. Prior imaging of speech used X-Ray, MRI, and electromagnetic midsagittal articulometer systems. More recently, the signal processing technique of Mel-log spectral plots has been used to study /r/ production in children and female adults. Ultrasound imaging of the tongue also has been used to image the tongue during speech production in both clinical and research settings. The current study attempts to describe /r/ production in three different allophonic contexts; vocalic, prevocalic, and postvocalic positions. Ultrasound analysis, formant analysis, Mel-log spectral plots, and /r/ duration were measured for /r/ production in 29 adult speakers (10 male, 19 female). A possible relationship between these variables was also explored. Results showed that the amount of superior constriction in the postvocalic /r/ allophone was significantly lower than the other /r/ allophones. Formant two was significantly lower and the distance between formant two and three was significantly higher for the prevocalic /r/ allophone. Vocalic /r/ had the longest average duration, while prevocalic /r/ had the shortest duration. Signal processing results revealed candidate Mel-bin values for accurate /r/ production for each allophone of /r/. The results indicate that allophones of /r/ can be distinguished based the different analyses. However, relationships between these analyses are still unclear. Future research is needed in order to gather more data on /r/ acoustics and articulation in order to find possible relationships between the analyses for /r/ production.

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2017-05

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Student-To-Student Anatomy Volume 1: Heart, Lungs, ENT

Description

Student to Student: A Guide to Anatomy is an anatomy guide written by students, for students. Its focus is on teaching the anatomy of the heart, lungs, nose, ears and throat in a manner that isn't overpowering or stress inducing.

Student to Student: A Guide to Anatomy is an anatomy guide written by students, for students. Its focus is on teaching the anatomy of the heart, lungs, nose, ears and throat in a manner that isn't overpowering or stress inducing. Daniel and I have taken numerous anatomy courses, and fully comprehend what it takes to have success in these classes. We found that the anatomy books recommended for these courses are often completely overwhelming, offering way more information than what is needed. This renders them near useless for a college student who just wants to learn the essentials. Why would a student even pick it up if they can't find what they need to learn? With that in mind, our goal was to create a comprehensive, easy to understand, and easy to follow guide to the heart, lungs and ENT (ear nose throat). We know what information is vital for test day, and wanted to highlight these key concepts and ideas in our guide. Spending just 60 to 90 minutes studying our guide should help any student with their studying needs. Whether the student has medical school aspirations, or if they simply just want to pass the class, our guide is there for them. We aren't experts, but we know what strategies and methods can help even the most confused students learn. Our guide can also be used as an introductory resource to our respective majors (Daniel-Biology, Charles-Speech and Hearing) for students who are undecided on what they want to do. In the future Daniel and I would like to see more students creating similar guides, and adding onto the "Student to Student' title with their own works... After all, who better to teach students than the students who know what it takes?

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2017-05

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Service-Related Conditions and Decision-Making in Military Veterans

Description

An increasing number of veterans are transitioning from military service to college. Critical to academic success is the process of decision-making, which previous research has found to be influenced by a variety of factors including anxiety and working memory (WM).

An increasing number of veterans are transitioning from military service to college. Critical to academic success is the process of decision-making, which previous research has found to be influenced by a variety of factors including anxiety and working memory (WM). Many service-related conditions often influence anxiety and WM, and given the high prevalence of these conditions among veterans, the present study aimed to analyze the effects of working memory and anxiety on decision-making behavior in U.S. Military Veterans. Participants completed a large test battery including tasks assessing WM skills (Symmetry Span Task), anxiety (Beck Anxiety Inventory), and decision-making (Iowa Gambling Task). The study results indicated that WM and anxiety both play roles in decision-making performance in young military veterans. High anxiety is related to increased avoidance of adverse outcomes in decision-making for U.S. Military Veterans, while lower working memory span is associated with greater risk-taking behavior. This study provides both functional and clinical implications into areas of possible intervention that need to be assessed in military veterans, as well as modifications to these assessments that need to be made in order to appropriately measure decision-making behavior. Future work will be done in order to more effectively analyze the adverse impacts of service-related conditions and the ways in which intervention can be implemented in order to minimize these effects.

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2018-05