Matching Items (42)

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Examining New Vocabulary Knowledge in Adults with Hearing Loss using a Generationally Neutral Vocabulary Test

Description

The purpose of the present study was to determine if vocabulary knowledge is related to degree of hearing loss. A 50-question multiple-choice vocabulary test comprised of old and new words

The purpose of the present study was to determine if vocabulary knowledge is related to degree of hearing loss. A 50-question multiple-choice vocabulary test comprised of old and new words was administered to 43 adults with hearing loss (19 to 92 years old) and 51 adults with normal hearing (20 to 40 years old). Degree of hearing loss ranged from mild to moderately-severe as determined by bilateral pure-tone thresholds. Education levels ranged from some high school to graduate degrees. It was predicted that knowledge of new words would decrease with increasing hearing loss, whereas knowledge of old words would be unaffected. The Test of Contemporary Vocabulary (TCV) was developed for this study and contained words with old and new definitions. The vocabulary scores were subjected to repeated-measures ANOVA with definition type (old and new) as the within-subjects factor. Hearing level and education were between-subjects factors, while age was entered as a covariate. The results revealed no main effect of age or education level, while a significant main effect of hearing level was observed. Specifically, performance for new words decreased significantly as degree of hearing loss increased. A similar effect was not observed for old words. These results indicate that knowledge of new definitions is inversely related to degree of hearing loss.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2018-05

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Service-Related Conditions and Decision-Making in Military Veterans

Description

An increasing number of veterans are transitioning from military service to college. Critical to academic success is the process of decision-making, which previous research has found to be influenced by

An increasing number of veterans are transitioning from military service to college. Critical to academic success is the process of decision-making, which previous research has found to be influenced by a variety of factors including anxiety and working memory (WM). Many service-related conditions often influence anxiety and WM, and given the high prevalence of these conditions among veterans, the present study aimed to analyze the effects of working memory and anxiety on decision-making behavior in U.S. Military Veterans. Participants completed a large test battery including tasks assessing WM skills (Symmetry Span Task), anxiety (Beck Anxiety Inventory), and decision-making (Iowa Gambling Task). The study results indicated that WM and anxiety both play roles in decision-making performance in young military veterans. High anxiety is related to increased avoidance of adverse outcomes in decision-making for U.S. Military Veterans, while lower working memory span is associated with greater risk-taking behavior. This study provides both functional and clinical implications into areas of possible intervention that need to be assessed in military veterans, as well as modifications to these assessments that need to be made in order to appropriately measure decision-making behavior. Future work will be done in order to more effectively analyze the adverse impacts of service-related conditions and the ways in which intervention can be implemented in order to minimize these effects.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2018-05

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Cognitive and Auditory Factors for Speech and Music Perception in Elderly Adult Cochlear Implant Users

Description

Working memory and cognitive functions contribute to speech recognition in normal hearing and hearing impaired listeners. In this study, auditory and cognitive functions are measured in young adult normal hearing,

Working memory and cognitive functions contribute to speech recognition in normal hearing and hearing impaired listeners. In this study, auditory and cognitive functions are measured in young adult normal hearing, elderly normal hearing, and elderly cochlear implant subjects. The effects of age and hearing on the different measures are investigated. The correlations between auditory/cognitive functions and speech/music recognition are examined. The results may demonstrate which factors can better explain the variable performance across elderly cochlear implant users.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2018-05

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Self-Reported Cognitive Symptoms in Military Veteran College Students

Description

An increasing number of military veterans are enrolling in college, primarily due to the Post-9/11 GI Bill, which provides educational benefits to veterans who served on active duty since September

An increasing number of military veterans are enrolling in college, primarily due to the Post-9/11 GI Bill, which provides educational benefits to veterans who served on active duty since September 11, 2001. With rigorous training, active combat situations, and exposure to unexpected situations, the veteran population is at a higher risk for traumatic brain injury (TBI), Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), and depression. All of these conditions are associated with cognitive consequences, including attention deficits, working memory problems, and episodic memory impairments. Some conditions, particularly mild TBI, are not diagnosed or treated until long after the injury when the person realizes they have cognitive difficulties. Even mild cognitive problems can hinder learning in an academic setting, but there is little data on the frequency and severity of cognitive deficits in veteran college students. The current study examines self-reported cognitive symptoms in veteran students compared to civilian students and how those symptoms relate to service-related conditions. A better understanding of the pattern of self-reported symptoms will help researchers and clinicians determine the veterans who are at higher risk for cognitive and academic difficulties.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2016-05

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The neurobiology of sentence comprehension: an fMRI study of late American Sign Language acquisition

Description

Language acquisition is a phenomenon we all experience, and though it is well studied many questions remain regarding the neural bases of language. Whether a hearing speaker or Deaf signer,

Language acquisition is a phenomenon we all experience, and though it is well studied many questions remain regarding the neural bases of language. Whether a hearing speaker or Deaf signer, spoken and signed language acquisition (with eventual proficiency) develop similarly and share common neural networks. While signed language and spoken language engage completely different sensory modalities (visual-manual versus the more common auditory-oromotor) both languages share grammatical structures and contain syntactic intricacies innate to all languages. Thus, studies of multi-modal bilingualism (e.g. a native English speaker learning American Sign Language) can lead to a better understanding of the neurobiology of second language acquisition, and of language more broadly. For example, can the well-developed visual-spatial processing networks in English speakers support grammatical processing in sign language, as it relies heavily on location and movement? The present study furthers the understanding of the neural correlates of second language acquisition by studying late L2 normal hearing learners of American Sign Language (ASL). Twenty English speaking ASU students enrolled in advanced American Sign Language coursework participated in our functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) study. The aim was to identify the brain networks engaged in syntactic processing of ASL sentences in late L2 ASL learners. While many studies have addressed the neurobiology of acquiring a second spoken language, no previous study to our knowledge has examined the brain networks supporting syntactic processing in bimodal bilinguals. We examined the brain networks engaged while perceiving ASL sentences compared to ASL word lists, as well as written English sentences and word lists. We hypothesized that our findings in late bimodal bilinguals would largely coincide with the unimodal bilingual literature, but with a few notable differences including additional attention networks being engaged by ASL processing. Our results suggest that there is a high degree of overlap in sentence processing networks for ASL and English. There also are important differences in regards to the recruitment of speech comprehension, visual-spatial and domain-general brain networks. Our findings suggest that well-known sentence comprehension and syntactic processing regions for spoken languages are flexible and modality-independent.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2016-05

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The effect of corpus callosum agenesis on the communication between cerebral hemispheres

Description

Agenesis of the corpus callosum is the lack of the development of the corpus callosum. This condition can lead to impairments in language processing, epilepsy, and emotion and social functioning,

Agenesis of the corpus callosum is the lack of the development of the corpus callosum. This condition can lead to impairments in language processing, epilepsy, and emotion and social functioning, but many individuals with this condition do not show any of these impairments. The present study investigated the connectivity of language and sensorimotor networks within an individual with agenesis of the corpus callosum using resting-state fMRI. The individual’s results were compared to those of neurotypical control subjects. It was hypothesized that the overall interhemispheric functional connectivity would be less than that of a control group in bilateral language networks, but the intrahemispheric connectivity, particularly within the sensorimotor network, would show greater functional connectivity. The results revealed significantly weaker functional connectivity in the individual with agenesis of the corpus callosum within the right ventral stream compared to the control group. There were no other significant inter or intrahemispheric differences in the functional connectivity of the language and sensorimotor networks. These findings lead us to conclude that the right hemisphere’s ventral stream perhaps relies upon connections with the left hemisphere’s language networks to maintain its typical functionality. The results of this study support the idea that, in the case of corpus callosum agenesis, the right language network may contribute differently to language processes than in neurotypical controls.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2021-05

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Do amnestic MCI subjects have different neuropsychological profiles if they are amyloid PET positive or negative?

Description

Objective
The objective of this study is to compare amyloid β (Aβ) PET positive and negative patients to their neuropsychological profiles. There is a definitive link between Aβ deposits

Objective
The objective of this study is to compare amyloid β (Aβ) PET positive and negative patients to their neuropsychological profiles. There is a definitive link between Aβ deposits and cognitive disorders such as MCI or Alzheimer’s disease (AD), but does its presence justify the costly imaging tests based on its clinical context?
Background
Amnestic MCI is largely considered prodromal to AD/dementia in a high majority of cases. [1] Many studies have shown a positive correlation between Aβ PET positive individuals and their likelihood to progress to AD. Aβ deposits in the brain are not always a sign of AD or even MCI, and many elderly people live normal lives with elevated levels. The presence of Aβ in the brain should be carefully considered alongside other tests before making a clinical diagnosis of MCI or AD.
Methods
130 subjects from Barrow Neurological Institute (Phoenix, AZ) were included in this study. Amyloid PET report data was pulled from Dignity Health St. Joseph’s Hospital and Medical Center Outpatient Imaging. Amyloid PET scans obtained by using F-18 florbetapir compound and reviewed by an expert radiologist providing a qualitative status of amyloid-beta positive (+) or negative (-). All data was anonymized and categorized into positive amyloid PET, negative amyloid PET, and clinical diagnosis based on neuropsychological profiles.
Results
The demographic data indicated that 38.5% of the 91 patients diagnosed as amnestic MCI were amyloid PET negative while 61.5% were amyloid PET positive. Of the 39 patients diagnosed as Dementia or AD 15.4% were amyloid PET negative and 84.6% were amyloid PET positive. Correlational analysis between diagnosis and neuropsychological variables suggests that some variables correlate well while others do not. There is a significant correlation between diagnosis and dementia rating scale (DRS) r(24) = -.762, between diagnosis and TrailsB Test r(39) = .397, between diagnosis and phonetic fluency r(30) = -.383, between diagnosis and semantic fluency r(29) = -.369, and between diagnosis and the Boston Naming Test (BNT) r(36) = -.312. Comparing the PET positive and PET negative groups there is a marginal significance in the Boston Naming Test (T=1.945, P=.060) suggesting PET positive individuals test lower than PET negative.
Conclusion
Based on all the results of this study, amyloid PET is still a clinical indicator that an individual might be MCI or dementia/AD, but it has its exceptions. A small number of patients diagnosed as dementia/AD had a negative amyloid PET suggesting that beta amyloid plaques are not the only cause of the disease. There is a strong suggestion that amyloid plaques are a major factor in the progression of dementia or AD, however the results from an amyloid PET cannot be directly related to a diagnosis.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2018-05

Track eye movement of human listeners in a spatial localization task

Description

To localize different sound sources in an environment, the auditory system analyzes acoustic properties of sounds reaching the ears to determine the exact location of a sound source. Successful sound

To localize different sound sources in an environment, the auditory system analyzes acoustic properties of sounds reaching the ears to determine the exact location of a sound source. Successful sound localization is important for improving signal detection and speech intelligibility in a noisy environment. Sound localization is not a uni-sensory experience, and can be influenced by visual information (e.g., the ventriloquist effect). Vision provides contexts and organizes the auditory space for the auditory system. This investigation tracks eye movement of human subjects using a non-invasive eye-tracking system and evaluates the impact of visual stimulation on localization of a phantom sound source generated through timing-based stereophony. It was hypothesized that gaze movement could reveal the way in which visual stimulation (LED lights) shifts the perception of a sound source. However, the results show that subjects do not always move their gaze towards the light direction even when they experience strong visual capture. On average, the gaze direction indicates the perceived sound location with and without light stimulation.

Contributors

Created

Date Created
  • 2016-05

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Corrective Responses to Auditory Feedback Perturbations During Speaking

Description

The brain continuously monitors speech output to detect potential errors between its sensory prediction and its sensory production (Daliri et al., 2020). When the brain encounters an error, it generates

The brain continuously monitors speech output to detect potential errors between its sensory prediction and its sensory production (Daliri et al., 2020). When the brain encounters an error, it generates a corrective motor response, usually in the opposite direction, to reduce the effect of the error. Previous studies have shown that the type of auditory error received may impact a participant’s corrective response. In this study, we examined whether participants respond differently to categorical or non-categorical errors. We applied two types of perturbation in real-time by shifting the first formant (F1) and second formant (F2) at three different magnitudes. The vowel /ɛ/ was shifted toward the vowel /æ/ in the categorical perturbation condition. In the non-categorical perturbation condition, the vowel /ɛ/ was shifted to a sound outside of the vowel quadrilateral (increasing both F1 and F2). Our results showed that participants responded to the categorical perturbation while they did not respond to the non-categorical perturbation. Additionally, we found that in the categorical perturbation condition, as the magnitude of the perturbation increased, the magnitude of the response increased. Overall, our results suggest that the brain may respond differently to categorical and non-categorical errors, and the brain is highly attuned to errors in speech.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2021-05

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Neurolinguistic Revelations of Logographic Scripts

Description

Language, as an abstract, is one of the most sophisticated inventions even devised by human beings. Reading alone is a multi-faceted problem, and understanding how the brain solves it can

Language, as an abstract, is one of the most sophisticated inventions even devised by human beings. Reading alone is a multi-faceted problem, and understanding how the brain solves it can offer enormous benefits for scientists and language-enthusiasts alike. In order to gain a more complete picture of how language and the brain relate, Chinese, an East Asian logographic language, and English, an alphabetic language, were compared and contrasted using all available scientific literature in both psychology and neuroimaging. Taken together, these findings are used to generalize the processing of written language. It was found that the hypothesis of a neuroplastically adaptable network that recruits brain areas based on the demands of a specific language has stronger support in current research than does the model of a fixed language network that is merely tuned for different languages. These findings reiterate the need for meticulous control of variables in order to reasonably compare language tasks and also demands more precise localization and labeling of brain regions for the purpose of determining function of individual areas.

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Date Created
  • 2014-05